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VICTORIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 
TORONTO, ONTARIO 




SOURCE: 



THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

t E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. t W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, M.A. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.b.hist.soc. 



PHILO 

SUPPLEMENT I 



PHILO 

SUPPLEMENT 
I 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 
ON GENESIS 



TRANSLATED FROM THE ANCIENT ARMENIAN 
VERSION OF THE ORIGINAL GREEK BY 

RALPH MARCUS, Ph.D. 

PROFESSOR OF HELLENISTIC CULTURE, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAfJO 




CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

MCMLIII 



B5 

1255 

Pa 
Cop. I 



NOV 4 1953 



Printed in Great Bri' 



PREFACE 

Philo's Quaestiones et Solutiones in Genesin et Exodum 
presents a special problem of translation because all but a 
small portion of the Greek original — less than ten per cent 
if we disregard the paraphrastic citations in late writers — 
has been lost and because for the bulk of the work we must 
depend upon the ancient Armenian version published by 
Aucher in 1826.* This edition is based chiefly upon three 
Mss., all of them from the thirteenth century, and in part 
upon two others of about the same date. The Armenian 
version itself seems to have been made in the fifth century.* 
For various reasons we can be reasonably sure that the 
Armenian version has faithfully preserved Philo's meaning 
except in a few cases where the Greek text used by the 
translator was corrupt or ambiguous or unusually obscure. 
In the first place, the Armenian language is singularly well 
designed to reproduce the word-order, word-compounds 
and many of the idioms of Greek. In the second place, the 
literalness and consistency of the Armenian version are 
shown by the correspondences between it and the original 
Greek in several treatises of Philo which are extant in both 
languages. The same is true of the correspondences be- 
tween the Armenian Quaestiones and the Greek fragments 
which are not paraphrastic. A third check on the accuracy 
of the Armenian version is to be found in the Armenian- 
Greek equivalents given by Avedikean, Siurmelean and 

" J. B. Aucher, Philonis Judaei Paralipomena Armena : 
libri videlicet quatuor in Genesin, libri duo in Exodum, sermo 
unus de Sampsone, alter de Jona, tertius de tribus angelis, etc., 
Venetiis, MDCCCXXVI. ^ Id. pp. i-ii. 



PREFACE 

Aucher in their Armenian dictionary published in Venice 
in 1836 in two large volumes. 

With the help of this material I have ventured to recon- 
struct many of the philosophical and religious terms used 
by Philo in passages which are no longer extant in Greek. 
These reconstructions are not all to be regarded as certain 
but most of them, I think, are probably correct. At the 
same time I have tried to improve upon Aucher's Latin 
translation of the Armenian version. A good many of the 
inaccuracies in his pioneer rendering are really the fault 
of the ancient Armenian translator. Others result from 
Aucher's failure to divine the Greek idiom underlying a 
literal Armenian rendering. In calling attention to 
Aucher's deficiencies I am in a sense repaying the great 
debt I owe him for helping me to see the meaning of many 
a difficult passage. It would be ungrateful of me to let it 
appear that my knowledge of Armenian remotely ap- 
proaches his. 

To one of my students, Mr. Edward Hobbs, I am in- 
debted for help in reading proof. To my friend Professor 
H. A. Wolfson, whose book on Philo is a fine contribution 
to knowledge, I owe several good suggestions about the 
solution of problems of Greek philosophy. 

The firm of R. and R. Clark has,* as always, been 
remarkably accurate in printing. 

R. M. 

University of Chicago 
16 November 1951 



VI 



CONTENTS OF SUPPLEMENT I 

PAGE 

Preface . ....... v 

rXTRODUCTION ....... ix 

Abbreviations and Symbols .... xvii 

List of Philo's Works ..... xix 

Questions and Answers on Genesis — 

Book I 2 

Book II 69 

Book III 175 

Book IV 265 



vu 



INTRODUCTION 



Philo's Questions and Answers on Genesis and Exodus is, 
as its name indicates, a brief commentary in the form of 
questions and answers on the first two books of the Penta- 
teuch, and in its form resembles Hellenistic (pagan) com- 
mentaries on the Homeric poems. 

To each question concerning the meaning of a Biblical 
expression or verse Philo gives a twofold answer ; one refers 
to the literal meaning (to prjrov), and the other to the alle- 
gorical meaning (to vpos Btdvoiav,'* to aviJi^oXiKov) . The 
allegorical interpretation may be subdivided into three 
kinds : the physical {i.e. cosmological or theological), the 
ethical or psychological, and the mystical. Sometimes 
Philo's comment contains only one kind of allegorical 
interpretation, sometimes two, and occasionally all three. 

Thus Philo's twofold method of interpretation is a fore- 
runner of the fourfold method used by Rabbinic and 
Patristic commentators. His " literal " interpretation 
corresponds to the " literal " or " historical " interpreta- 
tion of the Church Fathers and to the pesat of the Rabbis. 
His " physical " interpretation corresponds to the " alle- 
gorical " interpretation of the Church Fathers and to the 
remez of the Rabbis. His " ethical " interpretation corre- 
sponds to the " moral " interpretation of the Church 
Fathers and to the deras of the Rabbis. His mystical 
interpretation corresponds to the " anagogical " inter- 

" This is the literal equivalent of Armenian ar i mitsn^ but 
Philo elsewhere uses to iv virovoiais and other expressions, 

i^ 



INTRODUCTION 

pretation of the Church Fathers and to the sod of the 
Rabbis. 

In his earlier work," the Allegoriae or allegorical com- 
mentary on Genesis, which now consists of eighteen 
treatises in twenty-one books (about ten treatises have been 
lost, and some of the extant ones are incomplete), Philo 
allowed himself the luxury of long digressions and com- 
parisons of the verses discussed with other passages in 
Scripture. The Quaestiones sticks more closely to the text 
and stays within a more limited area of ideas. On the 
other hand, there appears to be relatively more Pytha- 
gorean number-symbolism in the Quaestiones than in the 
Allegoriae. Possibly this indicates that Philo became more 
interested in this rather mechanical form of mysticism as 
he grew older. 

II 

Something must now be said about the original extent 
of the Quaestiones et Solutiones and the division into books 
of the treatises on Genesis and Exodus. 

Massebieau and Schiirer ^ have called attention to a 
passage (QG iv. 123) in which Philo says, " the principle of 
these things will be explained when we inquire into the 
blessings." This may be a reference either to Genesis 
ch. xlix or to Deuteronomy ch. xxxiii or to both. It is likely, 
however, that Philo refers only to the passage on blessings 
in Genesis, since Eusebius knew only of Questions and 
Answers on Genesis and Exodus (Hist. Eccl. ii. 18. 1, 5) and 
also because the Greek fragments preserved by Byzantine 

<» That the Quaestiones is later than the Allegoriae is in- 
dicated by the fact that in the former Philo occasionally 
refers to the larger commentary, e.g. in QG ii. 4, QE ii. 34, 
113. Schiirer {GJVm, 3rd ed. 501) believes that the Quaes- 
tiones is partly earlier, partly later than the Allegoriae. That 
is possible. 

* M. L. Massebjeau, " Le Classement des oeuvres de 
Philon," Bibl. de VEcole des Hautes Etudes . . . sciences rel. 
1 (1889), 1-91 ; Emil Schiirer, Geschichte d. judischen Volkes, 
etc., 3rd ed. (Leipzig, 1898), iii. 497, n. 33. 



INTRODUCTION 

writers are, with two doubtful exceptions, all ascribed either 
to Genesis or Exodus." We shall probably be safe in 
assuming either that Philo never wrote similar commen- 
taries on the last three books of the Pentateuch or that, 
if he did, they were lost before the time of Eusebius. 

As for the original book-divisions of Quaestiones et Solu- 
tiones in Genesin, it is clear that there were originally six 
books instead of the four indicated in the Armenian 
version. This is shown by the fact that some of the Greek 
fragments are ascribed to books e' and S'' of QG and that 
six books are listed for QG in a Vienna codex of the De 
Opificio Mundi.^ 

But it is also clear that the Armenian version has pre- 
served all six books of the original treatise. As Wendland " 
and other scholars have pointed out, Book IV of the 
Armenian QG is about as long as Books I, II and III to- 
gether. It therefore probably contains Books IV, V and VI 
of the original QG. Since the end of Book IV reaches 
only Gen. xxviii. 9, it seems that Philo did not intend to 
treat the whole of Genesis.'' 

We can also tell with a fair degree of certainty just where 
in the present Book IV the beginnings of the original 
Books V and VI are to be placed. Since the Old Latin 
version begins with QG iv. 154 and since it extends through 
approximately a third of the book, it is probable that 

°' J. Rendel Harris, Fragments of Philo Judaeus (Cam- 
bridge, 1886), p. 75, labels two fragments as " from the lost 
book of Questions on Leviticus," but only one of the two is 
said in the ms. (Cod. Vat. 1553, cited from Mai) to be e'/c tcSv 
ev AeuiTi/coi ^T/TTy/xarajv. See also Schiirer, op. cit. p. 497, n. 34. 

* See L. Cohn in Cohn-Wendland, Philonis Opera, vol. i 
(Berlin, 1896), p. xxxvi. 

" Paul Wendland, Neu entdeckte Fragmente Philos (Berlin, 
1891), p. 92 ; see also Schiirer, op. cit. p. 498, n. 35. 

■* In the Armenian version Book I covers Gen. ii. 4-vi. 13; 
Book II covers Gen. vi. 14-x. 9 ; Book III covers Gen. xv. 7- 
xvii. 27 ; Book IV covers Gen. xviii. 1-xx. 18 and xxiii. 1- 
xxviii. 9. Thus, beside the omission of single verses in all 
four books, the following entire chapters are omitted : i, xi- 
xiv, xxi-xxii, xxix-1. 



INTRODUCTION 

Book VI of the original treatise corresponded to QG iv. 
154-245 (end). 

As for the beginning of Book V, Wendland " would lo- 
cate it between QG iv. 76 and QG iv. 99 because this would 
give a book about one-third the size of the Armenian 
Book IV and also because QG iv. 99 and 104 are ascribed 
to Book e' in the Greek fragments. I think, however, that 
we should place the beginning of Book V at QG iv. 71 (on 
Gen. xxiii. 1), since this section begins with a new episode 
and also corresponds to the beginning of a new Pentateuch- 
lection in both the Palestinian triennial cycle (where it 
is Seder 19b ^) and the Babylonian annual cycle (where 
it is Seder 5). 

Thus we may suppose that the original book-divisions 
of the Quaestiones et Solutiones in Genesin were as follows : 



Original Greek 


Armenian Version 


Book I 


Book I 


Book II = 


Book II 


Book III = 


Book III 


Book IV = 


Book IV. 1-70 


Book V 


Book IV. 71-153 


Book VI = 


Book IV. 154-245 



Somewhat similar but more complicated is the problem 
of the original extent and the book-divisions of the com- 
mentary on Exodus. The Armenian version has two books 
of unequal size. Book I covers Ex. xii. 2-23 in 25 pages of 
Aucher's edition, while Book II (aside from the first sec- 
tion on Ex. XX. 25) covers Ex. xxii. 21-xxviii. 84 (with the 
omission of several verses) in 80 pages. If we suppose that 
QE was divided into books of about the same length as 
those of Q(t, we must conclude that the present Book I is 
less than half of an original Book I or Book II, and that 
the present Book II is either a complete book or else con- 
tains parts of several of the original books. 

« L.c. 

^ See Jacob Mann, The Bible as Read and Preached in the 
Old Synagogue^ vol. i (Cincinnati, 1940), p. 183. 

xii 



INTRODUCTION 

When we turn to the external evidence, we find further 
complications. According to Eusebius {Hist. Eccl. ii. 18. 
5), Philo's commentary on Exodus contained five books, 
but since he proceeds to mention a work rrepl rrjs oK-qvijs^ 
which seems to be a reference to QE Book II, we ought 
perhaps not to rely too heavily upon his authority. The 
Vienna codex of De Opificio Mundi, mentioned above, lists 
the books of the QE as Books A' (with a line drawn through 
it), B' and E', leaving it in doubt whether the scribe knew 
of two books or three. The Greek fragments of QE pre- 
served by Byzantine writers are usually ascribed to Books 
a or j8' or rov TeAeuraiou." If, then, Eusebius was right in 
counting five books, some of these must have been lost 
soon after his death. Wendland ^ believes that part of the 
original Book I has been preserved in the Armenian Book I 
but doubts that as many as three of the original five books 
have been lost, while Schiirer '^ thinks that our Book I is 
the original Book II, and our Book II is the original 
Book V. 

Ill 

It may be that a clue to the original extent and book- 
divisions of QE will be furnished by the correspondences 
between the books of QG and the Pentateuch-lessons of the 
ancient synagogue. We must bear in mind that in Philo's 
time neither the Hebrew nor the Greek Bible was divided 
into chapters like those in our printed Bibles, and that 
these chapter-divisions date from the Middle Ages.** 

It was natural for Philo to think of his Greek Pentateuch 
as divided into weekly lessons for reading in the synagogue, 
just as Origen did two centuries after Philo when he com- 
posed homilies on the Church-lessons. Now the Jews of 
Palestine in Philo's time, or soon after,* read the whole 

" One Greek fragment is said to come from Book 8', but 
this is a corruption of a'. 

^ Op. cit. p. 103. « Op. cit. p. 498, n. 36. 

•^ See Henry B. Swete, An Introduction to the Old Testa- 
ment in Greek (Cambridge, 1914), pp. 343-344. 

* See Mann, op. cit. p. 3. 

xiii 



INTRODUCTION 

Pentateuch in the course of three years, dividing it into 
154 weekly lessons, called in Hebrew sedarim (sing, seder). 
Each lesson was, on the average, as long as one of our 
modern chapters. The Jews of Babylonia, however, read 
the whole Pentateuch in the course of a single year, divid- 
ing it into 54 weekly lessons. Each of these was, on the 
average, as long as three and a half of our modern chapters. 

Unfortunately we do not know whether the Alexandrian 
Jews followed the Palestinian triennial system or the Baby- 
lonian annual system. One might assume the former on 
the ground of the close relations between Egypt and 
Palestine, but we must remember that lateral areas are 
more conservative than the central area of a culture. More- 
over, it has been found that in certain points Philo's legal 
exegesis agrees with the Palestinian exegesis of the p re- 
Roman period rather than that of his Palestinian con- 
temporaries. It is quite possible, therefore, that the 
Alexandrian Jews, like the Babylonian Jews, followed an 
annual system that may have been in use in Palestine also 
before the Hellenistic or Roman period. 

At any rate, we find a remarkable agreement between 
the coverage of some of the books of Philo's commentary 
on Genesis (assuming our reconstructions, as given above, 
to be correct) and of the weekly lessons of the Babylonian 
annual system. 

Books of QG (as reconstructed) Babylonian sedarim 

Book III on Gen. xv. 7- '~ 3. (lek-leka) on Gen. 

xvii. 27 xii. 1-xvii. 27. 

Book IV on Gen. xviii. 1- '■>-' 4. (wayyiqra) on Gen. 

XX. 18 xviii. l-xxii. 24. 

Book V on Gen. xxiii. 1- ^^ 5, Qiayye Sarah) on 

XXV. 8 Gen. xxiii. 1-xxv. 

18. 

Book VI on Gen. xxv. 20- ^^ 6. (toledot) on Gen. 

xxviii. 9 xxv. 19-xxviii. 9. 

Books I and II together on Gen. ii. 4-x. 9 correspond to 
a single sedeVf Nr. 2 (Noah) on Gen. ii. 9-xi. 32. 
xiv 



INTRODUCTION 

These correspondences, while not complete, are close 
enough, it seems to me, to warrant our supposing that 
Philo designed each book of his commentary on Genesis 
to cover a Pentateuchal portion of about the same length 
as a weekly lesson in the Babylonian annual cycle of 54 
sedarim, and that each portion in his synagogal Bible began 
at just about the same place as did a Babylonian seder. 

If we apply the same comparison to the two books of 
the commentary on Exodus, we see that Book I, covering 
Ex. xii. 2-23, corresponds to only part of the Babylonian 
seder, Nr. 15 (bo'), on Ex. xi-xiii. 16. Book II (if we ignore 
the isolated first section) covers Ex. xxii. 21-xxviii. 33. 
It therefore seems to contain parts of three successive 
sedarim : 

18. {mispa(im) on Ex. xxi. 1-xxiv. 18. 

19. (terumah) on Ex. xxv. 1-xxvii. 19. 

20. (tesawweh) on Ex. xxvii. 20-xxx. 10. 

It therefore seems justified to conclude that the present 
Book II of QE contains parts of the lost Books III, IV 
and V. Book I may preserve part of the lost Book I or the 
lost Book II. In any case, it is clear that the original 
treatise did not discuss more than a quarter of the Biblical 
book. 

If the preceding hypothesis is sound (and there is room 
for doubt), it will serve to determine the original extent 
and book-divisions of the Quaestiones et Solutiones in 
Eocodum, and at the same time will furnish at least some 
evidence that the Alexandrian Jews in Philo 's time 
followed a system of weekly synagogue-readings of the 
Pentateuch very much like that used in ancient Babylonia 
and still in use to-day. 



XV 



ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS 



Arm. 
Aucher 

A.V. 

Colson 

frag. 

Friichtel 



Harris 
Heb. 

lit. 

LXX 

OL 

QE 
QG 
Staehle 

v.l. 



Wendland 
Wolfson 



( ) 



— Armenian version of Quaestiones. 

= 3. B. Aucher, Philonis Judaei Paralipomena, 

etc. (see Preface), Venice, 1826. 
=: Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible. 
= F. H. Colson in Loeb Philo, vols. i-ix. 
= Greek fragment of Quaestiones (see Appendix A). 
= Ludwig Friichtel, " Griechische Fragmente zu 

Philons Quaestiones, etc.," Zeit.f. Alttest. Wiss.^ 

N.F. 14(1937), 108-115. 
= J. Rendel Harris, Fragments of Philo Judaevs, 

Cambridge, 1896. 
= Hebrew Old Testament. 
= Hans Lewy, Neue Philontexte in der Ueber- 

arbeitung des Ambrosius, etc., Berlin, 1932. 
= literally. 

=:Septuagint or Greek Old Testament. 
= 01d Latin version of Qiiaestiones in Genesin iv. 

154-245 (see Appendix B). 
= Quaestiones et Solutiones in Exodum. 
= Quaestiones et Solutiones in Genesin. 
= Karl Staehle, Die Zahlenmystik bei Philon von 

Alexandreia^ Leipzig-Berlin, 1931. 
= varia lectio. 
= vel simile (used of some reconstructions of 

Philo's Greek given in footnotes to translation). 

Paul Wendland, JVeu entdeckte Fragmente 

Philos, Berlin, 1891. 
= H. A. Wolfson, Philo, 2 vols., Cambridge, Mass., 

1947. 
placed before section number indicates that part of 

the section is extant in Greek (see Appendix A), 
indicate words supplied by translator. 



LIST OF PHILO^S WORKS 

SHOWING THEIR DIVISION INTO \ OLUMES 
IN THIS EDITION 

OLUME 

I. On the Creation (De Opificio Mundi) 

Allegorical Interpretation (Legum AUegoriae) 

II. On the Cherubim (De Cherubim) 

On the Sacrifices of Abel and Cain (De Sacrificiis 

Abelis et Caini) 
The Worse attacks the Better (Quod Deterius Potiori 

insidiari solet) 
On the Posterity and Exile of Cain (De Posteritate 

Caini) 

III. On the Unchangeableness of God (Quod Deus im- 

mutabilis sit) 
On Husbandry (De Agricultura) 
On Noah's Work as a Planter (De Plantatione) 
On Drunkenness (De Ebrietate) 
On Sobriety (De Sobrietate) 

IV. On the Confusion of Tongues (De Confusione Lin- 

guarum) 
On the Migration of Abraham (De Migratione 

Abraham!) 
Who is the Heir (Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres) 
On the Preliminary Studies (De Congressu quaerendae 

Eruditionis gratia) 

V. On Flight and Finding (De Fuga et Inventione) 
On the Change of Names (De Mutatione Nominum) 
On Dreams (De Somniis) 

VI. On Abraham (De Abrahamo) 
On Joseph (De losepho) 
Moses (De Vita Mosis) 

xix 



LIST OF PHILO'S WORKS 

VOLUME 

VII. On the Decalogue (De Decalogo) 

On the Special Laws Books I-III (De Specialibiis 
Legibus) 

VIII. On the Special Laws Book IV (De Specialibus hegi- 

bus) 
On the Virtues (De Virtutibus) 
On Rewards and Punishments (De Praeniiis et 

Poenis) 

IX. Every Good Man is Free (Quod Omnis Probus Liber 
sit) 
On the Contemplative Life (De Vita Contemplativa) 
On the Eternity of the World (De Aeternitate Mundi) 
Flaccus (In Flaccum) 
Hypothetica ^ (Apologia pro ludaeis) 
On Providence ^ (De Providentia) 

X. On the Embassy to Gains (De Legatione ad Gaium) 
General Index to Volumes 1-X 

SUPPLEMENT 

I. Questions and Answers on Genesis ^ (Quaestiones 
et Solutiones in Genesin) 

II. Questions and Answers on Exodus ^ (Quaestiones et 
Solutiones in Exodum) 
General Index to Supplements I-II 

^ Only two fragments extant, 
* Extant only in an Armenian version. 



XX 



GENESIS 



SUPPL. 



GENESIS 
BOOK I 

*1. (Gen. ii. 4) Why, when he (Moses) considers and 
reflects on the creation of the world, does he say, " This is 
the book of the coming into being of heaven and earth 
when they came into being " ? 

The expression " when they came into being," which is 
undetermined and uncircumscribed," apparently indicates 
time. And this evidence confutes those who consider it 
to be a certain number of years summed under one head, 
during which the cosmos was to come into being. But 
the expression, ** this is the book of coming into being " 
is meant to indicate a supposed book "* which contains the 
creation of the world and an intimation of the truth about 
the creation of the world." 



2. (Gen. ii. 5) What is the meaning of the words, " And 
God made every green thing of the field before it came 
into being on the earth, and every grass before it grew " ? 

In these words he alludes to the incorporeal ideas. For 
the expression, " before it came into being " points to the 
perfection ^ of every green thing and grass, of plants and 
trees. And as Scripture says that before they grew on 
the earth He made plants and grass and the other things, 

<* The Greek frag, has only dpiarov (l. dopicrrov). 
^ The Greek frag, has rod v7tok€l(x€vov revxovs. 
" The Greek frag, reads differently dva<f)opa xtDv elprjfMevcov 
irepl Trjs KoapLOTTOuas rrpos to. eV dXrjdeias yeyovora. 
^ TO reXos. 

2 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

it is evident that He made incorporeal and intelligible 
ideas in accordance with the intelligible nature which 
these sense-perceptible things on earth were meant to 
imitate. 

3. (Gen. ii. 6) What is the meaning of the words, " a 
spring went up from the earth and watered all the face of 
the earth " ? 

How is it possible to water all the earth from one spring ? 
Not only because of its size but also because of the uneven- 
ness of mountains and plains. Unless indeed as all the 
cavalry force of the king is called " the horse," so also 
" spring " means all the veins of the earth producing 
potable water, which comes like that from a spring. But 
well does Scripture also say, not " all (the earth)," but 
" its face " was watered. Just as in a living being the 
head is the ruling part," so the good and fertile and principal 
part of the earth is that which can become fruitbearing, 
and this is in need of the help given by springs. 

4. (Gen. ii. 7) Who is the " moulded " * man ? And 
how does he diiFer from him who is (made) " in accordance 
with the image (of God) " ? 

The moulded man is the sense-perceptible ". man and a 
likeness of the intelligible type.** But the man made in 
accordance with (God's) form * is intelligible and incor- 
poreal and a likeness of the archetype, so far as this is 
visible. And he is a copy of the original seal.^ And this 
is the Logos of God, the first principle, the archetypal 
idea," the pre-measurer ^ of all things. For this reason the 
man who was moulded as by a potter was formed out of 
dust and earth, in respect of the body. And he obtained 
a spirit when God breathed life into his face. And the 
mixture of his nature was a mixture of the corruptible and 
incorruptible. For that which is in accordance with form * 



" TO rjyefioviKOV. 


^ TrXaaros. 


" aladrjTOS- 


^ vo-qrov rpoTTOv. 


* efSos.^ 


^ a<j>payihos. 


dpxcTVTTCs ISea. 


^* ■npofJLcrfyqT'qs. 


• ethos or iSe'av. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

is incorruptible, coming from an invisible nature, from that 
which is simple and pure. 



5. (Gen. ii. 7) Why is He said to have breathed life into 
his face ^ 

First of all, because the face is the principal part of the 
body. For the rest (of the body) was made like a pedestal, 
while the face, like a bust, is firmly placed above it. And 
sense-perception is the principal part of the animal species, 
and sense-perception is in the face. In the second place, 
man is admitted to be part not only of the animal order 
but also of that of rational animals, and the head is the 
temple of the mind, as some have said. 



6. (Gen. ii. 8) Why is God said to have " planted Para- 
dise " and for whom ? And what is Paradise ? 

Of Paradise, so far as the literal meaning is concerned, 
there is no need to give an explicit interpretation. For 
it is a dense place full of all kinds of trees. Symbolically, 
however, it is wisdom <* or knowledge '' of the divine and 
human and of their causes. For it was fitting, after the 
coming into being of the world, to establish the contempla- 
tive life in order that through a vision of the world and 
the things in it praise of the Father might also be attained. 
For it is not possible for nature to see nor is it possible 
without wisdom to praise the creator of all things. And 
His ideas the Creator planted like trees in the most sovereign 
thing, the rational soul. But as for the tree of life in the 
midst (of the garden), it is the knowledge, not only of 
things on the earth, but also of the eldest and highest 
cause of all things. For if anyone is able to obtain a clear 
impression * of this, he will be fortunate and blessed and 
truly immortal. But after the world wisdom came into 
being, since after the creation of the world Paradise was 
made in the same manner as the poets say the chorus of 

" ao<f>ia. 

" aa<f>elav ^avraaLav. 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

Muses (was formed), in order to praise the Creator and His 
work. For just as Plato said," the Creator is the greatest 
and best of causes, while the world is the most beautiful 
of created things. 

7. (Gen. ii. 8) Why is He said to have planted Paradise 
in Eden toward the East ? 

In the first place, because the movement of the world is 
from East to West ; and that from which movement starts 
is first. Second, that which is in the region of the East 
is said to be the right side of the world, while that in the 
region of the West is the left. And so the poet testifies,* 
calling the birds in the region of the East " right," and 
those which are in the region of the West " on the left 
side." If they go to the right side, it is to the day and 
the sun ; but if to the left, toward evening and darkness. 
But the name Eden when translated is certainly a symbol 
of delicacies, joy and mirth. For all good things and 
benefits have their origin in this sacred place. In the 
third place, because it " is wisdom and radiance and light. 

8. (Gen. ii. 8) Why does He place the moulded man in 
Paradise, but not the man who was made in His image ? 

Some, believing Paradise to be a garden, have said that 
since the moulded man is sense-perceptible, he therefore 
rightly goes to a sense-perceptible place. But the man 
made in His image is intelligible and invisible, and is in 
the class of incorporeal species. But I would say that 
Paradise should be thought a symbol of wisdom. For the 
earth-formed man is a mixture, and consists of soul and 
body, and is in need of teaching and instruction, desiring, 
in accordance with the laws of philosophy, that he may be 
happy. But he who was made in His image is in need 
of nothing, but is self-hearing and self-taught and self- 
instructed by nature. 



" Timaeus Q2 c. 
* Hom. II. xii. 239, Od, xx. 242. " i.e. Paradise. 



5 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

9. (Gen. ii. 9) Why does (Scripture) say that in Paradise 
was every tree beautiful to look at and good ° to eat ? 

Because there are two virtues of trees, to be many- 
branched and fruitful, of which one is for the pleasure of 
sight, and the other for the enjoyment of taste. But not 
ineptly is the word " beautiful " used, for it would be 
natural * that plants should be ever flourishing and ever 
green, as belonging to the divine Paradise, without suffer- 
ing the extremity of being leafless. But it did not say 
that the fruit also was " beautiful " but " good," " and 
this is philosophically said, for men use food not only for 
pleasure but also for utility, and utility is the outflowing " 
and the distillation of the good. 



10. (Gen. ii. 9) What is " the tree of life " and why is it 
in the midst of Paradise ? 

Some believe that as plants are corporeal and subject to 
death, so also some have life and immortality. Wherefore 
they say that life and death are opposed to each other. 
And some plants are destructive, and it is necessary to be 
saved (from their effects). '^ But that this state is healthful 
they do not know. For generation, as the arguments of 
philosophers go, is the beginning of corruption. And 
may it not be that this {i.e. the above) is said allegorically ? 
For some say that the tree of life is the earth, for it causes 
all things to grow for the life of both man and all other 
things. Wherefore He apportioned a central place to this 
plant ; and the centre of all is the earth. And some say 
that the tree of life is a name for the seven circles * which 
are in heaven. And some say it is the sun because it is, 
in a sense, in the midst of the planets and is the cause of 
the seasons, by which all things are produced. And some 
have said that the tree of life is the government ^ of the 
soul. For the soul innervates and strengthens sense- 

" KoXos. * eiVos av a.t}. '^ airoppoia. 

** Arm. obscure, lit. " and of necessity salvation is 
obtained." * kvkXol or arpo^aL 

^ 7)Y€fiovLa (or v<f>riYqais). 

6 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

perception by directing its energies" to what is suitable 
for it, with the participation " of the parts of the body. 
And the centre, in one meaning, is the chief and head, as 
is the leader of a chorus. But worthy and excellent men 
say that the tree of life is the best of the virtues in man, 
namely piety,*' through which pre-eminently the mind 
becomes immortal. 



11. (Gen. ii. 9) What is " the tree of knowing the 
science ** of good and evil " ? 

This very clear statement, which in its literal meaning 
is elusive, it presents to us as an allegory. For, as he 
intimates, it is prudence,* and this is the science of know- 
ing, through which good and beautiful things and bad and 
ugly things are distinguished ; and (the science of know- 
ing) all things which are contrary to each other, of which 
the one is of a superior order, and the other of an inferior 
order. Now the wisdom which is in this world is not God 
but is truly the work of God ' ; it sees nature and studies 
it. But the wisdom which is in man sees with dim eyes, 
confusing one thing with another, for it is weak in seeing 
and understanding purely, simply, clearly each thing by 
itself alone. Wherefore with man's wisdom a kind of 
deception is mixed, in the same manner as to the eyes 
certain shadows are often an impediment to catching sight 
of unmixed and pure light. For what the eye is to the 
body, mind and wisdom are to the soul. 

12. (Gen. ii. 10) What is the river that went out from 
Eden, by which Paradise is watered ; and four rivers 
separated, the Pishon," Gihon," Tigris and Euphrates ? 

" evepyeias. ^ KOtViovia. " euae/Seta. 

** Tov yiyvcooKeiv ttjv eTTurr'qfiriv (or Tijs yvwaecus rrjs rov tVi- 
araaQai). * <f>p6vTjais. 

^ Probably we should correct the Arm. to read " Now the 
wisdom which is in this world sees {tese for e " is ") not God 
but truly the work (or the true work) of God." 

" Arm. Phison = Gr. Oeiacuv. '^ Arm. Gehon = Gr. Trjiov. 

7 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

For the sources of the Tigris (Arm. Dkfat') and Euphrates 
(Arm. Aracani) are said to rise in the Armenian moun- 
tains. And in that place there is no Paradise, nor are 
there the two other sources of the river. Unless perhaps 
Paradise is in some distant place far from our inhabited 
world, and has a river flowing under the earth, which 
waters many great veins so that these rising send (water) 
to other recipient veins, and so become diffused. And as 
these are forced by the rush of water, the force which is 
in them makes its way out to the surface, both in the 
Armenian mountains and elsewhere. And these are the 
supposed sources, or rather the outflowings of the river ; 
but properly the supposed sources, since divine Scripture, 
in which the matter of the four rivers is mentioned, is 
wholly veracious. For the origin is a river and not a 
source (according to Scripture). Unless perhaps in this 
passage matters are allegorized, and the four rivers are 
a symbol of four virtues " : of prudence,'' called Pishon 
in respect of frugality " ; of moderation,^ called Gihon 
because it labours with regard to food and drink, and 
produces the various pleasures of the belly and those parts 
which are below the belly, and this is earthly ; of courage," 
called Tigris, for this checks the affection of anger which 
rages in us ; of justice,' called Euphrates, for in nothing 
do the thoughts of man rejoice and have gladness more 
than in justice." 



13. (Gen. ii. 14) Why does (Scripture) omit to give the 
location of the Euphrates alone, while it says that the 
Pishon goes round all the land of Havilah (Arm. and lxx 
Evilat), and the Gihon goes round all the land of Cush 
(Arm. and lxx Ethiopia), and the Tigris flows opposite 
Assyria (Arm. Asorestan) } 

The Tigris (Dkfat') is the wildest and most destructive 

"' dpCTCOV. ^ (f)p6v7)ai£. " (f>€lBu). 

^ a(x)(f)poavv7]. * dvBpcia. ^ SiKacocrvvr] . 

" In the above passage, paralleled in Leg. All. i. 63 ff., 
Philo plays on the Greek names of the four rivers. 
8 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

of rivers, as the Babylonians and the Magians testify, who 
have determined that its nature is somewhat different from 
(that of) water. However it is likely that (Scripture) has 
still another reason for keeping silence. For the Euphrates 
(Aracani) is very gentle and life-giving and nourishing, 
wherefore the wise men of the Hebrews and Assyrians call 
it " augmenting " and " prospering." For this reason it 
is known, not from anything else, like the three (other 
rivers) but by itself. To me it seems that the matter is 
symbolical and figurative. Since prudence " is a faculty ^ 
of the rational element,*^ in which evil is found, and cour- 
age •* is a faculty of the irascible element,* and modera- 
tion ^ is a faculty of the concupiscent element," but anger 
and concupiscence are bestial.'* Thus (Scripture) refers to 
the three rivers by the regions through which they flow 
but the Euphrates (Aracani), which is a symbol of justice,* 
is not similarly referred to, since not merely some part of 
it is assigned to the soul, but it is acquired all at once and 
becomes a partnership ' and harmony of the three parts of 
the soul and of the same number of virtues. 



14. (Gen. ii. 15) Why does (God) place the man in Para- 
dise for two things, to work and guard it, when Paradise 
was not in need of work, for it was complete in all things 
as having been planted by God, and was not in need of a 
guardian, for who was there to be harmed ? 

These are the two things which a cultivator should keep 
in mind and achieve, cultivation of the field and guarding 
of the things in it, for it may be ruined either by idleness 
or by invasion. But although Paradise was not in need 
of either of these things, nevertheless it was necessary that 
he who received the supervision and care of it, (that is) the 
first man, should be, as it were, a law to husbandmen in 
all things which it is fitting to labour in. Moreover it was 

" <l)p6vrjais. ^ aperrj. '' rov XoyiKov. 

'' dvSpeia. " Tov dvfjLiKov. ^ o<x)(f>poavvr]. 

^ TOV inLdvyirfriKOv. ^ d-qpiwheis. 

* hiKaLOOvvT]?. ' ofiovoia, KOLVCovia, etc. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

proper that as it was full of all things, He should leave 
to the cultivator the superintendence" and the work of 
caring for it, such as watering it, tending it, nurturing it,'' 
spading it, digging trenches, and irrigating it with water. 
And although there was no other man, it was necessary 
to guard it at least against wild animals, and especially 
against air and water, for when there is a drought, one 
must water it abundantly, but when there are rainstorms, 
one must stop the overflow by making another channel. 

15. (Gen. ii. 16) Why does (God) say, when He com- 
mands (Adam) to eat of every tree which is in Paradise, 
" Eat " in the singular number ; but, when He forbids 
eating of the tree which gives knowledge of good and evil, 
says, in the plural number, " Do not eat, for on the day 
when ye shall eat, ye shall die " ? 

First, because though it extends over many things," the 
good is one, and not less for this reason,"^ namely that He 
who gave the benefit is one, as is also the one who received 
the benefit. This " one " I speak of, not with reference to 
the number which precedes the number two, but with 
reference to the unitary power, in accordance with which 
many things are harmonized and agree and by their con- 
cord imitate the one, such as a flock, a herd, a drove, a 
chorus, an army, a nation, a tribe, a household, a city. 
For all these, extending over many, are one community 
and embrace lovingly ; but when they are unmixed and 
have nothing in common, they fall into duality and into a 
multitude and are divided. For duality is the beginning 
of division. But two who use the same philosophy as one 
enjoy an unadulterated and clear virtue which is free of 
evil. But when good and evil are mixed, they have as 
their beginning a mixture of death. 

" cTTifxeXiLav. * rpv^dv, fiaXaKi^eiv^ etc. " 8id ttoAAcSv. 

** The Arm. phrase is obscure to me, as also to Aucher 
apparently. He renders, " primum, quia unum ex multis 
factum bonum est ; id autem baud exiguum his etiam 
rationibus . . ." 

10 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

16. (Gen. ii. 17) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Ye shall die by the death ■» " ? 

The death of worthy men is the beginning of another 
life. For life is twofold ; one is with corruptible body ; 
the other is without body (and) incorruptible. So that 
the evil man dies by death even when he breathes, before 
he is buried, as though he preserved for himself no spark 
at all of the true life, and this is excellence of character.* 
The decent and worthy man, however, does not die by 
death, but after living long, passes away to eternity, that 
is, he is borne to eternal life. 

■^17. (Gen. ii. 18) Why does (Scripture) say, " It is not 
good for man to be alone. Let us make for him a helpmeet 
like him " ? 

By these words it refers to partnership, and that not 
with all persons but with those who wish to help and bring 
mutual profit even though they may not be able (to do 
so). For love is a strengthener of character " not more by 
usefulness than by union and concord, so that to every one 
of those who come together in the partnership of love the 
saying of Pythagoras can be applied, that " a lover is 
indeed another self." 

18. (Gen. ii. 19) Why, after first saying, " Let us make 
a helper for man," does (God) create wild animals and 
cattle ? 

Intemperate"* and gluttonous people would say that wild 
animals and fowl, being necessary food, are a help to man. 
For the eating of meat co-operates with the stomach toward 
(attaining) health and bodily strength. But I believe that 
now, because evil is found in him, man has enemies and 
adversaries in terrestrial animals and fowl. But to the 
first man, who was altogether adorned with virtue, they 
were rather like military forces and allies, and a close 

" davdrip diTodavelade, a reflection of the Hebrew idiom. 

* KaXoKayadia. " ^e^alcoais -qdwv^ cf. Greek frag. 

** aKoXaaroi, 

11 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

friend naturally becomes tractable (?). And with this 
man alone they became familiar, as was fitting for servants 
with a master. 



19. (Gen. ii. 19) Why are beasts and birds now again 
created, when their creation * was announced '' earlier in 
the six-day (creation story) ? " 

Perhaps those things which (were created) in the six 
days were incorporeal ** and were symbolically typical 
species * of beasts and birds. But now were produced 
in actuality ^ their likenesses,'' sensible ^ (likenesses) of 
invisible things.* 



*20» (Gen. ii. 19) Why does (God) bring all the animals 
to the man that he may give names to them ? 

Scripture has cleared up the great j)erplexity of those 
who are lovers of wisdom by showing that names exist by 
being given and not by nature, since each is an apt and 
naturally suitable name through the skilful calculation of 
a wise man who is pre-eminent in knowledge. And very 
proper to the mind of the wise man alone, or rather to the 
first of earth-born creatures, is the giving of names. For 
it was fitting that the lord of mankind and the king of all 
earth-born creatures should obtain this great honour also. 
For as he was the first to see living creatures, so he was the 
first to be worthy of being lord over all and the first intro- 
ducer and author of the giving of names. For it would 
have been vain and foolish to leave them without names 
or to accept names from some other younger man to the 
disgrace and degradation of the honour and glory of the 
older man. We must, however, also suppose that the giv- 
ing of names was so exact that so soon as he gave the name 
and the animal heard it, it was affected as if by the pheno- 
menon of a familiar and related name being spoken. 

" yeveoLS. ^ avrj-yyeXOrj. "^ iv rw e^arjfiepu). 

** aGcofiara. * SeiKTiKoi /cat rpoTTiKal iSeai. 

^ epyio. " ofioioTrjTcs- '^ aladr]Tai. * aopdroiv. 

12 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

*21. (Gen. ii. 19) Why does (Scripture) say, " He led 
the animals to man to see what he would call them," when 
God is not in doubt ? 

Truly it is alien to the divine power to be in doubt. 
But it appears that He was not in doubt, since He gave 
mind to man, especially the first earth-born noble man, in 
accordance with which he became wise and could natur- 
ally reason like a leader and ruler and know how to move 
and make himself known." And he saw the good origin 
of his spirit. Moreover through this he also typifies all 
that is voluntary in us, thus confounding those who say 
that all things exist by necessity. Or perhaps because 
mankind was destined to use them, for that reason He 
granted to man the giving of their names. 

22. (Gen. ii. 19) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Whatever he called a living soul, that was its name " ? 

It is necessary to believe that he gave names not only 
to animals but also to plants and to all other things without 
life, beginning with the highest genus : and the animal is 
the highest thing. Scripture contents itself with the best 
part, not completely illustrating the naming of all things 
for stupid men. Wherefore the naming of inanimate 
things, which could not change their places or make use 
of the affections of the soul,* was easy. It was more 
difficult in the case of animals because of the movements 
of the body and the various manifestations of the impulses 
of the soul through the senses and passions from which 
energies arise. Thus the mind was able to give names to 
the more difficult and more troublesome genera of animals. 
Wherefrom it follows that he named (other things) as if 
they were easy and near at hand. 

23. (Gen. ii. 20) What is the meaning of the words, 
" For Adam there was not found a helper like himself " ^ 

" The Arm. is very obscure and apparently a mistransla- 
tion. Cf. Greek fragment, in Appendix A in Suppl. II. 
* TTaQruiara t-^s ^^XV^' 

13 



I 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Everything helped and co-operated with the founder of 
mankind, such as earth, rivers, sea, air, light and sky. 
Also co-operated all the species of fruit and plants and 
herds of cattle. And wild animals were not ferocious to 
him. However, none of these was in any way a helper 
like himself, since they were not human. Thus (Scrip- 
ture) approves of one man showing himself a succourer and 
co-operator with another man and showing his complete 
similarity in body and soul. 

*24. (Gen. ii. 21) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And He cast a trance " upon Adam, and made him 
sleep " .'' 

Philosophers are at a loss and uncertain how to explain 
how sleep comes about. But the prophet clearly solved 
the problem. For sleep in itself is properly * a trance, not 
that which comes about through madness,'' but that which 
comes about through the relaxing '^ of the senses and the 
withdrawal of the reason. For then the senses withdraw 
from sense-perceptible things, and the intellect withdraws 
from the senses, not activating the nerves and not giving 
motion even to those parts which have as their special 
function the production of energy, being separated from 
sense-perceptible things. 

25. (Gen. ii. 21-22) What is the " side " " which He 
took from the earth-born man ; and why did He mould 
the side into a woman ^ 

The literal sense is clear. For by a certain symbolical 
use of " part " ^ it is called a half of the whole, as both 
man and woman, being sections of Nature, become equal 
in one harmony of genus," which is called man. But in 
the figurative sense, man is a symbol of mind, and his side 

" (EKoraaiv. 

" *' Properly " is omitted in the Greek frag. 

^ fiavia^. ^ v<f>€aiv in the Greek frag. 

* TrXevpd. ' fxepos. 

" ev fitq. Tov yevovs apuoviq.. 

14 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

is a single sense-faculty. And the sense-perception of a 
very changeable reason is symbolized by woman. Some 
speak of prowess" and strength as " side," whence they 
call a fighting athlete with strong sides a powerful man. 
Accordingly the lawgiver says that woman was made from 
the side of man, intimating that woman is a half of man's 
body. For this we also have evidence in the constitution 
of the body, its common parts," movements, faculties, 
mental vigour and excellence. For all things are seen as 
if in double proportion. Inasmuch as the moulding " of 
the male is more perfect than, and double, that of the 
female, it requires only half the time, namely forty days ; 
whereas the imperfect woman, who is, so to speak, a half- 
section of man, requires twice as many days, namely 
eighty. So that there is a change in the doubling of the 
time of man's nature (or natural growth), in accordance 
with the peculiarity of woman. For when the nature of 
the body and soul "* of something is of double measure, 
such as man's, then the forming* and moulding of that 
thing is in half-measure. But when the nature of the 
body and the construction of something is in half-measure, 
such as woman's, then the moulding and forming of that 
thing is in double measure.' 



26. (Gen. ii. 22) Why does Scripture call the likeness ' 
of the woman " a building " " ? 

The harmonious coming together * of man and woman 
and their consummation is figuratively a house. And 
everything which is without a woman is imperfect and 
homeless.' For to man are entrusted the public affairs of 
state ; while to a woman the affairs of the home are proper. 

" dper-qv. ^ Kowuivia. " TrXdafxa. 

^ 4'vx'q (or TjvevfjLa). * tvttcjois. 

^ i.e. that material which is imperfect or half -perfect takes 
twice as long to complete as that which is perfect to start with. 
" eiKova. 

'^ otKohoiirjv ; cf. LXX wKoSofn^ac. 
* avvaycDyrj dpixouias vel sim. ^ dotKos. 

15 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

The lack " of her is ruin,* but her being near at hand " 
constitutes household management." 

*27. (Gen. ii. 21) Why was not woman, like other animals 
and man, also formed " from earth, instead of the side 
of man ? 

First, because woman is not equal in honour with man. 
Second, because she is not equal in age, but younger. 
Wherefore those who take wives who have passed their 
prime are to be criticized for destroying the laws of nature. 
Third, he wishes that man should take care of ' woman as 
of a very necessary " part of him ; but woman, in return, 
should serve him '* as a whole. Fourth, he counsels man 
figuratively to take care of* woman as of a daughter, and 
woman to honour man as a father. And this is proper ; 
for woman changes her habitation from her family ' to 
her husband. Wherefore it is fitting and proper that one 
who receives something should in return show goodwill 
to those who have given it, but one {i.e. the woman) who 
has made a change should give to him who has taken her 
the honour which she showed those who begot her. For 
man has a wife entrusted to him as a deposit * from her 
parents, but woman (takes a husband) by law. 

*28. (Gen. ii. 23) Why does the moulded man, on seeing 
the woman, say in addition, " This is now bone of my 
bones and flesh of my flesh ; she shall be called woman, 
for she was taken from her husband "'' ? 

He might have said deprecatingly , ^ being dumbfounded 

** aTTopLa. * KaTokvais. 

" ovaia ttjs ofjLiXias or dyxt-areCas, prob. for original ovotjs 
avrijs ttXtjoLov. ^ olKovofiia. * iSpvro. 

^ TrpoK'qBecdai or TTpovoe.lv. " dvayKaxorepov. 

* €K€i, an error for eKcivo). * TrpoK-qheadai. 
^ The Greek frag, has yovicov. 

* TTapaKaradriKrjv^ as in the Greek frag. 

^ The Arm. has a word-play on arn " man " and arnem 
" to take." *" dis irapaiTovfievos vel sim. 

16 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

at this apparition, " Is it really possible that this wonderful 
and lovely vision <» came from bones and formless flesh and 
things without quality * — this most shapely " and very 
charming creature ! It is incredible that a similar thing 
can be. And yet it is credible, for God was the creator 
and painter." ** He might have said trustingly,* " Truly 
this is a creature of my bone and my flesh, for she has been 
separated and put together from these several parts of 
mine." Moreover he makes mention of bones and flesh 
very naturally, for the human ^ tent " is made of bones, 
flesh, arteries, veins, nerves, ligaments and the vessels of 
breathing and of the blood. And the woman is called the 
power of giving birth ^ with fecundity, and truly so ; 
either because after receiving the seed, she conceives and 
gives birth, or, as the prophet says, because she came from 
man, not through spirit nor through seed, like those after 
him, but by a kind of mediate nature, just as a shoot is 
taken from a vine for growing another vine.* 



*29. (Gen. ii. 24) Why does (Scripture) say, " Wherefore 
man shall leave his father and mother, and cleave to his 
wife, and they shall be two in one flesh " ? 

(Scripture) commands man to act toward his wife with 
the most extreme exaggeration in partnership,^ so that he 
may endure to abandon even his parents. Not as though 
this is proper, but as though they would not be causes of 
goodwill * to the wife. And most excellent and careful 
was it not to say that the woman should leave her parents 
and be joined to her husband — for the audacity ' (of man) 
is bolder than the nature of woman — but that for the 
sake of woman man is to do this. Since with a very ready 

" elSos, IBda, opaoLS, etc. 

** ttTTOicov. *^ €VfjLop<f>6TaT0S. ** C^ypd(f>os. 

* d)S a.va8€x6p.€vos. ^ Variant " corporeal." 

^ aKt]vrj. 

^ The Greek must have had a word-play on ywrj and 
yewdv. * The Greek frag, paraphrases. 

ffia. 

17 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and prompt impulse* he is brought to a concord of know- 
ledge.'' Being possessed * and foreseeing the future,*^ he 
controls and stills his desires,* being fitted to his spouse 
alone as if to a bridle. And especially because he, having 
the authority of a master,^ is to be suspected of arrogance. 
But woman, taking the rank of servant, is shown to be 
obedient to his life. But when Scripture says that the 
two are one flesh, it indicates something very tangible and 
sense-perceptible, in which there is suffering and sensual 
pleasure, that they may rejoice in, and be pained by, and 
feel the same things, and, much more, may think the 
same things. 



30. (Gen. ii. 25) Why are both the earth-born man and 
the woman said to be naked, and were not ashamed ? 

First, because they were related to the world, and its 
parts are naked, all showing their own qualities and using 
their own covering. Second, because of the simplicity of 
their morals " and because they were by nature without 
arrogance ; for not yet had presumption been created. 
Third, because the pleasant climate of the place was also 
a quite sufficient covering to them, so that there was 
neither too much cold nor too much heat for them. Fourth, 
because of their kinship with the world, they suffered no 
harm from any of its parts, it being closely related to them. 



■^31. (Gen. iii. 1) Why does (Scripture) represent the ser- 
pent as more cunning '' than all the beasts ? 

It is proper to tell the truth, that the serpent is truly 
more cunning than all the beasts. To me, however, it 
seems that this was said because of the serpent's inclina- 

" CTO(./xa>T€pa Kai npoxeipa opufj. 

^ ofjLOVoiav TTJs iTTicrr'qiiTjs (or yvwaeojs). " fiaivofievos. 

^ TTpovowv. * eyKpaTeiTai koI avareXXei ras eTnOvpuas. 

^ Kvpiav €xcov e^ovaiav. 

" 8ia TTjv rcov rjdwv aTrXoT-qra. 

'' Or " prudent " — <f)povLpLa)T€pos. 

18 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

tion toward passion, of which it is the symbol. And by- 
passion is meant sensual pleasure,** for lovers of pleasure 
are very clever and are skilled in arts ^ and means " ; they 
are clever in finding devices,** both those which produce 
pleasure and those which lead to enjoyment of some kind. 
But it seems to me that since that creature which excelled 
in cunning was prepared to become the deceiver of man,* 
the argument applies to a very cunning creature, not the 
whole genus, but this particular serpent alone, for the 
reason mentioned. 



*32. (Gen. iii. 1) Did the serpent speak in the manner of 



men 



First, it is likely that not even in the beginning of the 
world's creation were the other animals without a share 
in speech, but that man excelled in voice (or utterance), 
being more clear and distinct. Second, when some mira- 
culous deed is prepared, God changes the inner nature. 
Third, because our souls are filled with many sins and deaf 
to all utterances except one or another tongue to which 
they are accustomed ; but the souls of the first creatures,^ 
as being pure of evil and unmixed, were particularly keen 
in becoming familiar " with every sound. And since they 
were not provided only with defective senses, such as 
belong to a miserable bodily frame, but were provided with 
a very great body and the magnitude of a giant, it was 
necessary that they should also have more accurate senses,*^ 
and what is more, philosophical sight and hearing. For 
not inaptly do some conjecture that they were provided 
with eyes with which they could see those natures and 
beings and actions which were in heaven, and with ears to 
perceive sounds of every kind. 

•^ rpoTTOts or i^evpeoem. ** fxrixavas. 

* The Greek frag, reads differently. •'' tcDv TrpcLrcov. 

" 9ndelout'iun " familiarity " is prob. error for andoune- 
lout'iun = '' perception." The Greek frag, paraphrases. 

* aKpi^eardpas aladTJacLS. 

19 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

33. (Gen. iii. 1) Why does the serpent speak to the 
woman and not to the man ? 

In order that they may be potentially mortal *• he 
deceives by trickery and artfulness. And woman is more 
accustomed to be deceived than man. For his judgment,*" 
like his body, is masculine and is capable of dissolving or 
destroying the designs of deception ; but the judgment of 
woman is more feminine, and because of softness she 
easily gives way and is taken in by plausible falsehoods 
which resemble the truth. Accordingly, since in old age 
the serpent casts off his skin from the top of his head to 
his tail, by casting it, he reproaches " man, for he has 
exchanged death for immortality. From his bestial 
nature he is renewed and adjusts himself'' to different 
times. Seeing this, she was deceived, though she ought 
to have looked, as if at an example, at him who practised 
stratagems and trickery, and to have obtained ageless and 
unfading life. 



34. (Gen. iii. 1) Why does the serpent lie, saying, " God 
said. Do not eat of any * tree of Paradise " ? For on the 
contrary. He said, " From every tree which is in Paradise 
you may eat except from one." 

It is the custom of those who fight to lie artfully in order 
that they may not be found out. This is what happens 
now. For it was commanded that every (tree) might be 
used except one. But he who devises evil stratagems, 
coming between, says, " The command was given not to 
eat of any." As a slippery thing and a stumbling-block 
to the mind, he put forward an ambiguity ^ of words. For 
the expression " not to eat from all " clearly means " not 
even from one," which is false. And again it also means 

" Arm. obscure, lit. = vrrkp rod dvai avroiis Swdfiei dava- 
alfjLovg. ^ Siavoia, Xoyiaixos. " dveiSt^ei. 

"* ofjLOLOvraL, dTrei/ca^erai, lit. " likens himself." 

* Lit. " all, every," reflecting the Semitic idiom in which 
" all " after a negative = " any." 

^ wnopiaVt dfJufna^'qTTjatv. 

20 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

" not from every one," by which is to be understood " not 
from some,"' which is true. Thus he spoke a falsehood in 
a very clear manner. 



35. (Gen. iii. 3) Why, when the command was given not 
to eat of one particular tree, did the woman include even 
approaching it closely, saying, " He said, You shall not 
eat of that one and not come near it " ? 

First, because taste and every sense consists generically ** 
in its contact.* Second, for the severe punishment of 
those who have practised this. For if merely approaching 
was forbidden, would not those who, besides touching the 
tree, also ate of it and enjoyed it, adding a great wrong 
to a lesser one, become condemners " and punishers of 
themselves ^ 



36. (Gen. iii. 5) What is the meaning of the words, 
" You will be as gods, knowing good and evil " ? 

Whence did the serpent know this plural noun " gods ? " 
For the true God is one, and he now names Him for the 
first time. It could not have been a prescient quality ^ 
that foresaw that there was to be among mankind a belief 
in a multitude of gods, which, as the narrative * first 
proved, came about not through anything rational nor yet 
through the better irrational creatures, but through the 
most noxious and vile of beasts and reptiles. For these 
lurk in the ground, and their dens are in caves and in the 
hollows of the earth. And it is truly proper^ to a rational 
being to consider God to be the one truly existing being," 
but to a beast to create many gods,'^ and to an irrational 
creature to create a god who does not exist in truth.* 

" y€V€i. * 6[iiXia. " KaraKptroi. 

'^ TTpoyVOJaTLKT] 8vvafjLLS. 

* StT/yT7CTi?, loTopia, etc. ; apparently Scripture is meant. 

^ IhlOV. " TOV €Va OVTCDS "OvTtt. '* d€07rXaaT€iv. 

' Aucher's rendering, " to create many gods and irra- 
tional ones," is not justified grammatically. 

21 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Moreover he shows cunning in another way ; for not only 
is there in the Deity knowledge of good and evil but also 
the acceptance" and pursuit of good and the aversion to 
and rejection of evil. But these things he did not reveal, 
for they were useful ; he included a reference only to the 
knowledge of both contraries, good and evil. In the 
second place, " as gods " in the plural was now said not 
without reason but in order that he might show forth the 
good and evil, and that these gods are of a twofold nature. 
Accordingly, it is fitting that particular " gods should 
have knowledge of opposites ; but the elder cause * is 
superior (to good and evil). 



37. (Gen. iii. 6) Why does the woman first touch the 
tree and eat of its fruit, and afterwards the man also 
take of it ? 

According to the literal meaning the priority (of the 
woman) is mentioned with emphasis.** For it was fitting 
that man should rule over immortality and everything 
good, but woman over death and everything vile. In 
the allegorical sense, however, woman is a symbol of sense, 
and man, of mind. Now of necessity sense comes into 
contact with the sense-perceptible ; and by the participa- 
tion of sense,* things pass into the mind ; for sense is 
moved by objects,' while the mind is moved by sense. 

38. (Gen. iii. 6) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And she gave to her husband with her " ? 

What has just been said is stated because there is almost 
one and the same time of appearance — at the same time 
sense-perception is received from objects and the mind is 
impressed by sense-perception. 

** TO 86;^ea^ai or fx-eroxTJ. * Kara fiepos. 

* 17 TTpea^irrdpa atria (God). 

^ iv€pyda, the precise sense of which is doubtful here. 

* TTJ TTJs aladTJaecjs Kowoivia. 

^ VTTO TcDv VTTOKClfUvWV KlVeLTai. 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

39. (Gen. iii. 7) What is the meaning of the words, " The 
eyes of both were opened " ? 

That they were not created blind is evident from the 
fact that even all the other beings were created perfect," 
both animals and plants ; and should not man be endowed 
with the superior parts, such as eyes ? Moreover, a little 
while before he gave earthly ^ names to all animals, and 
so it is clear that he had first seen them. Or it may be 
that by eyes Scripture symbolically indicates the vision of 
the soul, through which alone are perceived all good and 
bad, noble and shameful things, and all opposites. But if 
the eye is a separate intelligence,* which is called the 
counsellor"^ of the understanding,* there is also a special 
irrational eye which is called opinion.' 

40. (Gen. iii. 7) What is the meaning of the words, " For 
they knew that they were naked " ? 

It was of this, that is, of their own nakedness, that they 
first received knowledge by eating of the forbidden fruit. 
And this was opinion " and the beginning of evil, for they 
had not used any covering, inasmuch as the parts of the 
universe ^' are immortal and incorruptible * ; but (now) 
they needed that which is made by hand and corruptible. 
And this knowledge was in being naked, not that it was in 
itself the cause of change ^ but that now a strangeness * 
was conceived by the mind toward the whole world. ^ 



*41. (Gen. iii. 7) Why do they sew the leaves of the fig 
tree as loin-cloths ? "* 

First, because the fruit of the fig tree is sweeter and 

" TtActa. * Lit. " earth-born " — yTjycvd. 

" Stavoia, Aoyia/tids, etc. 

'^ vovdiTTjixa, avfi^ovXia, TratSeia, etc. 

* <f>povq(T€cos, iTTiaT-qixris, etc. ^ So^a. 

" Sd^a. ^ rov Travros. 

• d(f>dapTa. ' dXXoioTTjTos or Sta^opaj. 

'' dXXoTpLCJGLS. ^ KOaflOV. 

'" The Arm. Bible has " apron "=lxx Trept^co/iara. 

23 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

pleasant to the taste. Accordingly it symbolically indi- 
cates those who sew together " and weave together ^ many 
sense pleasures " one with another. Wherefore they (the 
leaves) are girded round the place of the genitals, which 
are the instrument ^ of greater things.* Second, because 
the fruit of the fig tree is, as I have said, sweeter than that 
of other trees, and its leaves are rougher.^ Accordingly 
(Scripture) wishes to make clear symbolically that although 
the movement of pleasure seems to be somewhat slippery 
and smooth, nevertheless in truth it proves to be rough, 
and it is impossible to feel joy or pleasure without first 
feeling pain and again feeling additional pain. For it is 
always a grievous thing to feel pain in the midst of two 
painful states, one of them being at the beginning, and the 
other being added." 



42. (Gen. iii. 8) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The sound was heard of God's walking " .'' Can there be 
a noise of words or feet, or does God walk ? 

Whatever sensible gods are in heaven — that is, the stars 
— all move in a circle and proceed in revolutions.'^ But 
the highest and eldest cause ' is stable and immobile,^ as 
the theory of the ancients holds. For He gives an indica- 
tion and impression * as though He wished to give the 
appearance ^ of moving ; for though no voice is given 
forth, prophets hear through a certain power a divine voice 
sounding what is said to them. Accordingly, as He is 
heard without speaking, so also He gives the impression of 
walking without actually walking, indeed without moving 
at aJJ. And you see that before there was any tasting of 
evil, (men) were stable, constant, immobile, peaceful and 
eternal ; similarly and in the same way they believed God 

** avppaTTTOvai. ^ avvv(f>aivovai. " lySovas. 

^ opyavov. * fiei^ovcov. ^ rpaxvrepa. 

" The Greek frag, paraphrases. 

^ TT€pi<f>opais or Trepiobois. 

* TTpea^vrepa alria. ' jSejSata Kol OLKLVip-os. 

^ (f)avTaaiav, €TTL(f>dv€iai'. ' Sd^av. 

24 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

to be, just as He is in truth. But after they had come 
into association with deceit, they moved of themselves, 
and changed from being immobile, and believed that there 
was alteration and change in Him. 



43. (Gen. iii. 8) Why, when they hid themselves from the 
face of God, was not the woman, who first ate of the for- 
bidden fruit, first mentioned, but the man ; for (Scripture) 
says, " Adam and his wife hid themselves " ? 

It was the more imperfect and ignoble element, the 
female, that made a beginning of transgression" and 
lawlessness,* while the male made the beginning of rever- 
ence and modesty '^ and all good, since he was better and 
more perfect. 



44. (Gen. iii. 8) Why did they hide themselves, not in 
any other place, but in the midst of the trees of Paradise .'' 

Not all things are done with reflection and wisdom by 
sinners ; but there are times when thieves sit over the 
theft which they have committed, not seeing the conse- 
([uence ^ and that that which lies beside them and at their 
feet is already sought and hunted. So also it now befell. 
Whereas they ought to have fled far away from the tree 
whence came their transgression, in the very midst of this 
place he was caught, so that proof of their lawlessness was 
•more evident and clear, and there was no fleeing. And 
thus (Scripture) symbolically indicates that every evil 
person has a refuge in evil, and every sensual person resorts 
to, and finds rest in, sensuality. 

45. (Gen. iii. 9) Why does He, who knows all things, ask 
Adam, " Where art thou ? ", and why does He not also ask 
the woman } 

The things said appear to be not a question but a kind 

" vapa^daeojs- * irapavo^ias. 

' alaxvvTjS. ^ TO aKoXovdov. 

25 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of threat and reproach <* : where art thou now, from what 
good hast thou removed thyself, O man ! ; giving up im- 
mortality and a blessed life, thou hast gone over to death 
and unhappiness, in which thou hast been buried. But 
the woman He did not consider it fitting to question, 
although she was the beginning of evil and led him (man) 
into a life of vileness,'' But this passage also has a more 
apt " allegory. For the sovereign and ruling element '^ in 
man, having reason,* when it listens to anyone, introduces 
the vice of the female part also, that is, perception. 



46. (Gen. iii. 12-13) Why does the man say, " The woman 
gave me of the tree and I ate," while the woman says, 
" The serpent did not give it, but deceived me, and I 
ate " ^ .? 

What is so stated (literally) contains a sentiment that is 
to be approved,^ for woman is of a nature to be deceived 
rather than to reflect greatly, but man is the opposite here. 
But according to the deeper meaning,'' the object of sense- 
perception ^ deceives and deludes the particular senses of 
an imperfect being to which it comes ; and sense-percep- 
tion being already infected by its object,^ passes on the 
infection to the sovereign and ruling element.*^ So then 
the mind receives from sense, the giver, that which the 
latter has suffered. And sense is deceived and deluded by 
a sense-perceptible object,^ but the senses of a wise man, 
like the reflections of his mind, are not to be deceived. 

" d77eiAi7 Kal iTnTLfxrjois. * tov cfjavXov. 

'^' TTpOX€LpOT€paV. 

^ TO apxqy^TLKOv Kal TO -qycfioviKOV. ^ Aoyov. 

^ So the Arm. literally ; one expects " the woman said 
not, ' the serpent gave me it,' but, ' the serpent deceived me 
and I ate.' " The " not " appears to be out of place. 

" 86^av aTToSeKTijv. '' vpos Sidvoiav. 

* TO aladrjTov. 

^ VTTO TOV V7TOK€tpL€VOV. 

* T(o dpxrjyeTLKa) /cat -qyefJiovLKcp {i.e. mind). 
' VTTO rov vvoKCiiidvov aladirjTov. 

26 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

47. (Gen. iii. 14-17) Why does He first curse the serpent, 
next the woman, and third the man ? 

The arrangement of curses follows the order of the 
wrongdoing. The serpent was the first to deceive. 
Second, the woman sinned through him, yielding to deceit. 
Third the man (sinned), yielding to the woman's desire 
rather than to the divine commands. However the order 
also is well suited " to allegory ; for the serpent is a symbol 
of desire,'' as was shown ; and woman is a symbol of sense, 
and man of mind. So that desire becomes the evil origin 
of sins, and this first deceives sense, while sense takes the 
mind captive. 



48. (Gen. iii. 14-15) Why is this curse laid upon the 
serpent — to move upon its breast and belly, to eat dust and 
to have enmity toward woman .'' 

The text is plain, since we have as testimony that which 
we see. But according to the deeper meaning it is to be 
allegorically interpreted as follows. Since the serpent is a 
symbol of desire,'' he takes the form ^ of lovers of pleasure," 
for he crawls upon his breast and belly, stuffed with food 
and drink, and has the insatiable desire of a cormorant,^ 
and is intemperate and unbridled in eating flesh.'' And 
whatever has to do with food is altogether earthy ; where- 
fore he is said to eat dust. And desire has a natural 
, enmity toward sense, which (Scripture) symbolically calls 
woman. And notwithstanding that desires seem to be 
critical '' of the senses, they are in reality flatterers who 
plot evil in the manner of enemies. And it is the custom 
of adversaries * that through that which they bestow as 
gifts ^ they cause great harm, such as defectiveness of vi- 
sion to the eyes, and difficulty of hearing to the ears, and 
insensibility '' to the other (sense organs) ; and they bring 

" KaXa>s ex^i. ^ CTTidvfxias. " €Tn6vnias. 

** CT;^77//.aTi^ei or axfllJ-o-TOTTOKi. * <f)iX'q86va}v . 

^ aKopearrj rrjs aiTvas (?) eVi^u/xia. ^ aapKO(f)ayia. 

'' ^lAaiTioi, * Or " warriors " — noXefiLCDv. 

^ Xo.pit,ovrax. * dvaiadr^aiav. 

27 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

upon the whole body together dissolution and paralysis," 
taking away all its health ^ and for no good reason " newly 
bringing ^ many bad sicknesses. 



49. (Gen. iii. 16) Why does the curse on the woman 
consist of an increase in sorrow and lamentation and in 
giving birth in pain and in turning * to her husband and 
being under his rule.^ 

This experience comes to every woman who lives to- 
gether with " a man. It is (meant) not as a curse but as 
a necessity. But symbolically the senses of man have 
difficult labours and suffering,'' being treated badly * and 
scourged by domestic ills.' And these are the offspring * 
of sense : seeing, of the organ of sight ; hearing, of the 
organ of hearing ; smelling, of the nostrils ; tasting, of 
the organ of taste ; contact, of the organ of touch. And 
since the life of the worthless and evil man is sorrowful and 
necessitous,' it is necessary that whatever is acted upon "• 
by sense should be mixed with fear and suffering. But 
according to the deeper meaning, there takes place a 
turning of sense to the man, not as to a helper, for it is a 
subject of no worth," but as to a master," since it prizes 
force * more than righteousness.' 



.50. (Gen. iii. 17) Why does He curse the serpent and 
the woman by referring directly to them *" and not do so 
similarly to the man, instead of placing it * on the earth, 
saying, " Cursed be the earth for thy sake ; in sorrow shalt 

" eKXvoiv Koi TrapdXvGLV. ^ vyUtav. 

" eiK-i]. ^ KaLvovpyovvTCs. * €7naTpo(f)fj. 

^ KvpiOTrjri, or e^ovaia. ' avfx^Lihaa. 

'^ XaXcTTovs TTOVovs Kal oXyrjpiaTa. 

' (f)avXL^6fJL€Vai Vel sim. ' OlKOVOflLKots KOKLatS. 

* €KyovoL. ' aiTopos. ''* ivepyeiTai. 

" v7T0K€i,n€vr) Kai evreX'qs. ° Kvpiov. 

^ 8vvaaT€iav or ^iav. ^ SiKaLoavvrjv. 

*■ vevaas irpos avroifs e(f>' eatrrovs. * I.e. the curse. 

28 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

thou eat it ; thistles and thorns it shall grow for thee, and 
thou shalt eat the grass of the field ; in the sweat of thy 
brow shalt thou eat thy bread " ? 

Since the mind is a divine inbreathing,** He does not 
deem it right to curse it, but He turns the curse against 
the earth and its cultivation.* And the earth is of the 
same nature *" as the body of man, of which the mind is 
the cultivator. When the cultivator is virtuo\is and 
worthy, the body also bears its fruits, namely health, 
keenness of sense,** power and beauty. But when he is 
cruel,* the opposite is brought to pass, for his body is 
cursed, receiving as its cultivator a mind undisciplined and 
imprudent.^ And its fruit consists of nothing useful but 
only of thistles and thorns, sorrow and fear and other ills, 
while thoughts strike the mind and shoot arrows at it. 
And the " grass " is symbolically food, for he changes from 
a rational being to an irrational creature, overlooking " the 
divine foods ; these are those which are granted by philo- 
sophy through principles ^ and voluntary laws.* 



*51. (Gen. iii. 19) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Until thou return to the earth from which thou wast 
taken " ? For man was moulded not only from the earth 
but also from the divine spirit. 

First, it is evident that the earth-born creature was com- 
pounded out of earth and heaven. And because he did 
not remain uncorrupted ^ but made light of the commands 
of God, turning away from the best and most excellent 
part, namely heaven,* he gave himself wholly over to the 
earth, the denser and heavier element.* Second, if he had 
been desirous of virtue, which makes the soul immortal,*" 
he would certainly have obtained heaven as his lot. Since 

" €fj,<f)vaT)(TLS. '' yecopyiav. " 6fio<f>vi^s or ofioovaios. 

** evaiadrjaiav. * Beivos or x^'^^'^os vel shn. 

' aTTaihevrov koI a.<j>pova. ^ vTrepopatv. 

'' Xoycov. * €Kovaio}V voficov. ^ d(f)dapTOS. 

*= The Greek frag, reads differently. 

' Traxvrepu) koI ^apvrepu) aroixeiw. "* ddavari^ei, Trjv ^vxrjv. 

29 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

he was zealous for pleasure, through which spiritual death 
is brought about, he again gives himself back to earth ; 
accordingly Scripture says, " Dust thou art, wherefore to 
dust shalt thou return." Thus earth is the beginning 
and end of the evil and vile man, but heaven of the 
virtuous man. 



52. (Gen. iii. 20) Why does the earth-born man call his 
wife " Life " and exclaim, " Thou art the mother of all 
living things " ? 

First, he gave the name of Life, which was most suit- 
able " to the first created woman, because she was to be 
the source of all the generations that were to come after 
them. Second, perhaps because she took the substance of 
her being ^ not from the earth but from a living being, and 
from one part of the man, the rib, was given bodily form 
as a woman, she was called Life ; for from a living being 
she first came into being, and because the first rational 
creatures were born to her. However it is also possible to 
understand this metaphorically " ; for is not sense, which 
is symbolically woman, rightly called Life ? For the living 
is distinguished from the non-living by sense, through 
which impressions " and impulses * come to us, since sense 
is the cause of these. And in truth sense is the mother of 
all living things ; just as nothing is born without a mother, 
so there is no living creature without sense. 



53. (Gen. iii. 21) Why does God make tunics ^ of skin 
for Adam and his wife and clothe them ? 

Some may ridicule the text when they consider the 
cheapness " of the apparel of tunics, as being unworthy of 
the touch '^ of such a Creator. But a man who has tasted 

" oIk€i6t€POV. 

^ TTiv TTJs VTrdpieo)? ovaiav or possibly tt^v ttjs ovaias av- 
araaiv. 

" TpoTTLKcbs. ^ (f)avTamai. * opfxai. 

30 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

of wisdom and virtue •* will surely consider this work suit- 
able to God for the wise instruction * of those who labour 
idly " and care little about providing necessities but are 
mad for wretched glory "^ and give themselves up to amuse- 
ment, and despise wisdom and virtue. Instead, they love 
a life of luxury * and the skill of the artificer ^ and that 
which is hostile to the good." And the wretches do not 
know that contentment with little,'' which is in need of 
nothing, is like a relative and neighbour,' but luxury^ is 
like an enemy, to be driven away and made to live far 
off. Accordingly, the tunics of skin, if we judge truly, 
are to be considered a more precious possession '' than 
varicoloured dies and purple stuffs. So much, then, 
for the literal meaning. But according to the deeper 
meaning,^ the tunic of skin is symbolically the natural 
skin of the body.'" For when God formed the first 
mind, He called it Adam ; then he formed the sense, 
which He called Life ; in the third place, of necessity 
He made his body also, calling it symbolically a tunic 
of skin, for it was proper that the mind and sense should 
be clothed in the body as in a tunic of skin, in order that 
His handiwork might first appear worthy of the divine 
power." And could the apparel of the human body 
be better or more fittingly made by any other power 
than God ? Wherefore, having made their apparel. He 
straightway clothed them. For in the case of human 
clothing, there are some who make it and others who 
put it on. But this natural tunic, that is, the body, was 
the work of Him who had also made it, and having made 
it, also clothed them in it. 

** ao(f>Las Koi dpeTrjs. * els Traibeiav ao(f>Las. 

" fxaTalcos. ** TTpos raXaiTTOipov ho^av fiaivofxevou 

* jSi'ov XapLTTpov. ^ ;;^etpoTe;^i'tTOU. 

" TO fiiaoKoXov. ^ oAtyoSeia. 

* (jvyyev^S Koi yeiVcov. 

^ XafjLTTpoTTjS or TToAin-eAeta. 

^" TCfiaX<f)€aT€pav Krrjaiv. ' irpos Sidvoiav. 

'" TO Tov acofMaTOS <f>vaiK6v Sep/xa. 

" a^iov rijs deias Bvvafxecjs. 

31 



QUESTIONS AND* ANSWERS 

54. (Gen. iii. 22) To whom does He say, " Behold, Adam 
is as one of us, to know good and evil " ? 

" One of us " indicates plurality." But it must not be 
thought that He spoke with His powers,* which He used 
as instruments " in making the whole universe."* Now the 
word " as " is indicative of an example and likeness and 
comparison ^ not of a dissimilarity.^ For the intelligible 
and sense-perceptible good is known by God in one way 
and by man in another way." For to the extent that the 
natures of those who inquire and comprehend * differ, as 
do those things which are accurately grasped and com- 
prehended, to that extent is man's power able to compre- 
hend.* And all these things are likenesses and forms 
and images in man. But in God they are archetypes and 
models and very brilliant examples of ^ dark things. And 
the unbegotten and uncreated One * and Father mingles 
and associates with no one. He holds out ' to sight the 
glory of His powers.*" 



'^'55. (Gen. iii. 22) What is the meaning of the v/ords, 
" Lest perchance he put forth his hand and take of the 
tree of life and eat and live forever " ? For there is neither 
doubt ** nor envy " in God. 

It is true that the Deity neither doubts nor envies. 
However, (Scripture) often uses ambiguous ^ terms and 
names, according as it indicates a principle as if ad- 
dressed to man.' For the highest principles, as I have 
said, are two : one, that God is not like man ; and the 

" TrXijdos. ^ Suva/Lteai. " opydvois. ''' tov Koofiov. 

* SrjXcoTiKOV Tcbv VTToBeLyfxdTOiV Koi OfJLOiOTiJTCov Kal dvaXoyicov. 

^ dvofxoioTTjTOS. " dXXcos • • • dXXoJS. 

^ Tcov €^€rat,6vTcov Kal KaraXafx^avovrcov. * KaTaXTjiTTLKi]. 

•' vrroBcLyfiaTa. '^ o dyevvTjros Kal dyevqros. 

' TTporeivcL. '" ttjv tcov 8vvdfi€OJv Bo^av. 

" evboiaafios, as in one Greek frag. 

" <f)d6vOS ibid. ^ ivSoLaUTLKOLS. 

« The Greek frag, from John Monachus reads Kar dva- 
<f>opdv em to " ws dvOpcovos " K€(f>dXaiov. 

32 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

other, that just as a man disciplines'* his son, so the Lord 
God disciplines you. Accordingly, the first principle is a 
matter of authority,^ while the second is one of discipline " 
and the first step in training,** in order that one may be 
quite voluntarily and gradually led into it/ For the 
words " lest perchance " are not a sign of doubt in God 
but an indication ^ of man's being a doubter by nature, 
and a manifestation of the afi"ection " that exists in him. 
For whenever there comes to someone an appearance of 
something, there immediately follows an impulse ^ toward 
the appearance, of which the appearance is the cause.' 
And (so comes) the second uncertainty ' of one who is 
in doubt and is drawn here and there in spirit, whether 
(the appearance) is to be received or not. It is this 
second " lest perchance " that these words indicate. The 
Deity, however, is without part * in any evil and is not 
envious of immortality or anything else whatever in the 
case of the good man. And a sure sign of this is that 
without being urged by anyone,' He created the world 
as a benefactor,*" making contentious, disordered, confused 
and passive substance" into something gracious and lov- 
ingly mild with a great and harmonious order and array 
of good things. And the truly existent One " planted 
the tree of life by His lucid understanding. ^ Moreover, 
He did not use any intermediary to urge Him or exhort 
Him « to give others a share of incorruptibility.'" Now 
while (man's) mind was pure and received no impression ' 

* TTaibevei. ** €^ovaias. " TraiSciW. 

** TTJs TTpwTr}S els eniT-qSevfia dycoyijs. 
Kal eKovaios Trapeiadyrjrat. 

- g - 

Arm. construction not quite clear. 
' aTTopia. ^ dfj,€TOXOs. 

' fiTjSevos TTapaKoXovfievov. "* cuepyeTcov. 

€pLt,ovaav Koi aKoafiov Kal dra/cTov Kal irdaxovaav overlay. 

" O OVTOJS "Civ. 
^ TTJ XayLTTpa {(fxareivij) <f>povija€L. 
"^ fieaiTT) TTapaKoXovvTL koI irpoTpeTTOvri. 
irpos rrjv ttjs d<f}9apaias Kotvioviav. ' ^avraoiav. 

SUPPL. I C 33 



I 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of any evil deed or word, he had secure enjoyment " of 
that which led him to piety ,'' which is unquestioned and 
true immortality." But after he began to turn to 
wickedness ** and to hurl himself down * thereto, desiring 
mortal life, he failed to obtain immortality,' for it is 
unseemly " to immortalize '' evil, and it is unprofitable 
for him to whom it happens. For the . longer the evil 
and wicked man lives, the more wretched he is and the 
more greatly harmful both to himself and to others. 



56. (Gen. iii. 23) Why does He now call Paradise ** de- 
light," * when He drives man out of it to till the earth, 
from which he was taken ? 

The difference in agriculture is clear.' When he was 
cultivating wisdom in Paradise, he took care * of the 
cultivation of wisdom as if of trees, nourishing himself on 
its immortal and beneficial fruits, through which he became 
immortal. And when he was driven out of the place of 
wisdom, he was to practise the opposite, (namely) works 
of ignorance,^ through which his body is polluted,"* and 
his mind is blinded," and being starved of his own food," 
he wastes away and suffers a miserable death. Wherefore 
now indeed as a reproach to the foolish man" He called 
Paradise " pleasure "as the antithesis' of a painful and 
terrible life. For in truth a life of wisdom is a delight of 
spacious joy *■ and an enjoyment most suitable to tlie 
rational soul.' But a life without wisdom is harsh and 

" aSeiav ttjs aTToXavaccoS' ^ evae^eiav. 

" dtp€vBr)s Kal dXrjdrjs dOavaaia. ** ro (f>avXov. 

* caxjTOV KaTappiTTTCiv. ^ 8ii]fxapT€ rrjs ddavaaias. 

" aTTpeTres. ^ dOavaTi^eiv. * Tpv<f)'q — Heb. 'eden. 

' 17 TTJs yioipyias 8ia(f>opd aa^-qs €cm. 

^ eVe/icAeiTO. * rd ttjs dfiadlas epya. 

"* ^e^TjXovTai, ixiaiverai. " TV(f>XovTai. 

" 7T€iva>v TTJs eavTOV Tpo<f)rjs. ^ fls 6v€l8os rod d<f>povos. 

' eiV dvTidemv. •" evpvxiopov ev<f>po(TVVT]s. 

* oiKetOTaTr] rfj XoyiKij t/jvxij- 

34 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

terrible. For even though one is completely deceived by 
sense-pleasures, both before and after (them) comes 
suffering. 

57. (Gen. iii. 24) Why did He place" over against 
Paradise the cherubim and the fiery * sword, which was 
turning, to guard the way to the tree of life ? 

The cherubim are symbols of the two primary attributes" 
of God, namely the creative '^ and the kingly,* of which 
one is called God,^ and the other, the kingly one, is called 
Lord." And the form of the creative attribute is a bene- 
volent and friendly and beneficent '* power. Bilt that of 
the kingly attribute is legislative and punitive.* More- 
over " fiery sword " is a symbolical name for heaven, for 
the ether ^ is flamelike and turns round the world.*' And 
as all these have undertaken the guarding of Paradise, it is 
evident that they are overseers of wisdom,^ like a mirror. 
For in a certain sense"* the wisdom of the world was a 
mirror of the powers of God, in accordance with which 
it became perfect" and this universe is governed and 
managed." But the road to wisdom is called philosophy, 
for the creative power is a lover of wisdom ^ ; so also 
the kingly power is a lover of wisdom, and the world 
too is a lover of wisdom. But there are some who say 
that the fiery sword is the sun, since by its revolution 
and turning it reveals the yearly seasons,' as if it were 
the guardian of life and of whatever leads to the life of 
all things. 

" KarwKiae : Lxx KarcoKiae . . . koI Ira^c. 

* TTvplvqv: LXX (fyXoyivTjv. 

" rwv Suotv TTpwTcov 8uva/xecuv. 

** TTJs TTOirjTiKTJs. * TTJs ^aaiXiKrjs. 

^ deos. " Kvpios. 

^ evficvrjs KOL (f>iXr) koL evepyeriKi^. 

* vopLoOeriKTj KOL KoXaaTiKrj. ' atdi^p. 

* atcova. ' iTTLcrrdTai rrjs ao(f>Las. 

"» TpOTTOV TLvd. " ireXeiwdr]. 

" Kv^epvaTai koI oiVovo/LcetTai. ^ (f>iXoao(l)i.Kij. 

' Tous irrjaiovs xpovovs. 

S5 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

58. (Gen. iv. 1) Was it correctly said about Cain, " I 
have acquired " a man through God " ? ^ 

(Concerning acquisition) a distinction is made between 
" by someone " " or " from someone " •* and " through 
something "^ or " from something," that is, from matter.^ 
" Through someone " means through a cause," and 
" through something " means through an instrument.* 
But the father and creator of the universe^ is not an 
instrument but a cause. Accordingly he errs against 
correct thinking ^ who says that things * come into being 
not by the agency of God * but through God."* 



*59. (Gen. iv. 2) Why does (Scripture) first describe the 
work of the younger man Abel, saying, " He became a 
shepherd of flocks, and Cain tilled the ground " ? 

Even though the righteous man " was younger in time 
than the wicked one," still he was older in activity .*' Where- 
fore now, when their activities are appraised," he is placed 
first in order. For one of them labours and takes care of 
living beings *■ even though they are irrational," gladly 
undertaking the pastoral work which is preparatory * to 
rulership and kingship. But the other occupies himself 
with earthly and inanimate things. 

" iKrrjadjjLrjv. 

^ Arm. has instrumental case of deos : lxx 8ta rov deov. 

" Arm. has instrumental case of indef. m. pr. 

** €K TLVOS. 

* Arm. has instrumental case of indef. n. pr. 

^ ii vXrjs. " 8i* atriav, e| alrlas. 

^ 8i* opydvov, e^ opydvov. 

* TraTTjp Kal rroiTjT'qs rod navros. 

^ opdov Xoyiafjiov, Xoyov. ^ rd ycvofieva. 

^ Arm. has ablative case of " God." 

"* Arm. has instrumental case of " God." 

" o biKaios in Procopius. " rov <j>avXov. 

^ eTTiTTjBevixaai in Procopius. 

« Or *' tested " ? (SoKi/ia^ovrai) : Aucher " conferenda sunt." 

*" ifupvxcov. ' dXoycov. 

36 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

*60. (Gen. iv. 3-4). Why did Cain after some days " 
offer firstfruits of offerings,* while Abel (brought an offer- 
ing) from the first-born* and fat ones, not after some 
days ? " 

Scripture manifests a distinction between the lover of 
self and the lover of God. For one of them took for him- 
self the fruit of the firstfruits and impiously thought God 
worthy (only) of the second fruits. For the words " after 
some days " instead of " immediately " and " from the 
offerings " instead of " from the firstfruits " "* indicate 
great wickedness.* But the other offered^ the first-bom 
and elder animals without any delay at all or rejection by 
his Father. 

*61. (Gen. iv. 4-5) Why does (Scripture), having begun 
by first mentioning Cain, (now) mention him in second 
place, for it says, " God looked upon Abel and his offer- 
ings," but of Cain and his sacrifice " He did not approve " .'' * 

First, (Scripture) does not mean that he is first by 
nature who happens to be the first to be perceived, but he 
who comes in his time and with sound morals. Second, as 
there were two persons, good and evil. He turned toward 
the good man, looking upon him because He is a lover of 
goodness and virtue,^ and first seeing him to be more 
inclined toward that side in the order of nature,* He 

* Arm. obscure : Aucher " post dies primitias fructuum 
offert," in note " vel ita, post dies primitiarum primitias 
offert," but cf. Greek fragments. 

* Procopius differs : lxx oltto twv Kafmwv rrjs yfjs dvaiav. 

" TWV TTpWTOTOKWV. '^ TWV TTpCOTOTOKCOV. 

* dSiKiav, dvofxiav. 

^ dyidl^cov i^v, dvaridcfievos -^v. 

^ 8d>pa, 7rpoa<f>opds. ^ Ovaia. 

* ovK TjvhoKriae ; Aucher suggests hayecaw " looked " for 
hadecaw " approved." lxx ov npoaeaxev. 

^ Aucher translates, " seeing that he (Abel) is a lover of 
goodness and virtue," but in that case we should expect in 
the Arm. zi " that " for wasn zi " because." 

* TT] rrjs <f>v(T€CDS rd^ei. 

87 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

deprecates " and turns away from the evil man. Accord- 
ingly, most excellently (Scripture) says not that God saw 
the offerings * but that He first saw those who were offering 
gifts " before the gifts themselves, for men look at the 
quantity of gifts and approve ^ them ; but God looks at 
the truth of the soul,* turning aside ^ from arrogance " 
and flattery.'' 



^62. (Gen. iv. 4-5) What difference is there between a 
gift ' and a sacrifice ? ' 

He who slaughters * a sacrifice,^ after dividing it, pours 
the blood on"* the altar" and takes the flesh home. But 
he who oflFers " something as a gift ^ offers the whole of it, 
it seems, to him who receives it. And the lover of self is 
a divider,*' as was Cain, while the lover of God is a giver,' 
as was Abel. 



^63. (Gen. iv. 5) Whence did Cain know that his sacrifice 
was not pleasing ? • 

Perhaps his difficulty was resolved through the cause 
mentioned in the addition * ; for he was grieved " and his 
countenance fell. He therefore took this grief as a sign 
of having sacrificed something not pleasing. For joy * 
and gladness ** ought to come to him who sacrifices some- 
thing purely * and blamelessly." 

** TTapairelrai. ^ to. TTpoG(f)€p6fi€va. 

" Tovs TO. Scopa 7Tpoa<f)€povTas. ^ SoKifMOL^ovcn. 

* els TTjv TTJs ^vx'fjs dX-qdeiav. ^ €KKXiv(ov. 

" dAa^ovcia?, Tv<f>ovs, v7T€prj<f>avias vel sim. 

* KoXaKeias. * Sibpov. ^ dvaia. 

^ Ovei, a(f>dTT€i. ^ dvatav. 

"* Or " around," v.l. " near." 

" ^(Ofiov, Ovaiacrrrjpiov. ** 7Tpoa<f)€p€i. 

^ COS 8a)pov. « evLbiaipcov^ as in Greek fragments. 

*■ Siopovfievos, as in Greek fragments. * dpeari^. 

' In the second half of verse 5. •* iXvTrqdrj. 

^ €V<l>poavvT). ^ X°-P^' 

* Kadapws. " dfiioficos. 

38 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

*64. (Gen. iv. 7) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Not that thou dost not offer rightly," but that thou dost 
not divide rightly " ? 

First of all, correct division and incorrect division are 
nothing else than order.* And through order equally * 
are made the whole world and its parts.** Wherefore the 
creator of the world,* when He began to order ^ refrac- 
tory " and unordered '^ and passive * substance,' made use 
of cutting *= and division. For in the midst of the uni- 
verse,' He placed the heavy things "» and those that natur- 
ally bear downwards,** (namely) earth and water ; but air 
and fire He placed above, for they ascend through their 
lightness." But He separated ^ and marked off ' the 
pure nature, (namely) heaven, and surrounded and en- 
closed *■ the universe by it, that it might be invisible * to 
all, containing within itself all things equally.* But the 
fact that animals and plants come into being from moist 
and dry seeds " — what else is this than a cutting and 
separative division } " Accordingly it is necessary to 
imitate this order in all things in the world and especially 
in returning thanks for those things for which we are 
required ^ to make a corresponding * return to him who 
gives them to us. In the second place, to give thanks " 
to God is right in itself* specifically," but it is blame- 
worthy that He should not first receive them nor receive 
the first of the new products. For it is not proper to offer 
the best things ** to that which is created, namely oneself, 

" opdcos. * rd^is. " lacos. 

^ 6 KOGflOS Koi TO. aVTOV fjl-CpT]. * O TOV KOOfXOV TTOlTjT'qS. 

^ raTTCLV. " €p[t,ovaav. ^ draKTOv. 

' ndaxovaav. ' ovaiav. ^ "^^l^fji biaipeaei. 

' rov TTavTos. "* ra ^apij. ** rd <f>va€i KaTa<f>€p'rj. 

° Kov<f>iaiv. ^ St,€X(opi.a€. ^ d^cuptae. 

*" TrepipdXXcov ayve/fAeiae. 

* doparos : Aucher conj. tesaneli = oparos. 

' tacos or KOivfj. »* e^ vypwv koi ^r)pd>v ottcpijmtcov. 

" Sidcmjua StaKpiaecos. ^ e^era^ofjieda? 

* dXXo) Tporrcp ? " €Vxa.pi(rr€LV. 

' KaG* eavTO. ■" tSltos. ^ rd Trpea^da. 

39 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and the second best to the All- wise. This is a reprehensible 
and blameworthy division," showing a certain disorderli- 
ness of order.'' 



*65. (Gen. iv. 7) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Thou hast sinned, be quiet " } " 

The oracle ^ utters something very useful. For not to 
sin at all is the greatest good. But he who sins and is 
abashed and ashamed is kin to this man * and, as one 
might say, is the younger beside the elder. For there are 
some who rejoice^ over sins as if over good deeds,' thus 
having a disease^ that is difficult to cure* or rather is 
incurable.^ 



*66. (Gen. iv. 7) Why does He seem to give the good 
man into the hand of the evil man, saying, " To thee is 
his return " ? 

He does not give him into his hand, but the sense * is 
quite the contrary, for He speaks not of the pious man ^ 
but of an act already done. And He says to him, " the 
return*" and reference" of this impiety is to thee." Do 
not therefore blame necessity,^ but thine own character,^ 
so that in this place He represents it as voluntary.*" But 
the words, ' thou shalt rule over him,' again have refer- 
ence * to an act." In the first place thou didst begin to 
act impiously, and then another wrong ' follows a great 
and impious lawlessness." And so He considers and 
proves * that this is the beginning of every voluntary 
wrongdoing. 

" Siaipeais. * dra^iav riva rd^eajs, as in John Monachus. 

" =LXX rjfiapres, ■qavxo.aov. ^ xPV^f^°^- 

* i.e. the one who does not sin. ^ dydXXovrai. 

" KaTopdwfiam. ^ Trddos. * hvaiarov. ' dviarov. 

^ d/co7^ ? * deoaepovs. *" dTTOOTpo^rj. " dva<j)opd. 

" vpos ae ioTLV. ^ fiij ttjv dvdyKrjv alTidarjs. 

^ "^dos, rpoTTOv. *■ cKovaiov. 

* vevjxa. * dSiKia. 

" /LtcyaAr^v dvopiias doe^iav. " iXiyx^i. 

40 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

67. (Gen. iv. 8) Why does he (Cain) kill his brother in 
the field ? « 

In order thaf when once again it is sown or planted, 
infertility " and unfruitfulness •* may altogether come upon 
its fruits, and by bringing the murder to mind, may reveal 
its foulness.* For the ground^ was not to be the same 
after being forced to drink human blood unnaturally so as 
also to grow food for him who polluted it with the blood of 
a foul deed. 



*68. (Gen. iv. 9) Why does He who knows all ask the 
fratricide, " Where is Abel, thy brother ? " .'' 

He wishes that man himself of his own will shall confess,' 
in order that he may not pretend ^ that all things seem to 
come about through necessity.* For he who killed through 
necessity would confess ^ that he acted unwillingly ; for 
that which is not in our power * is not to be blamed.' But 
he who sins of his own free will"* denies it,** for sinners are 
obliged to repent." Accordingly he (Moses) inserts ^ in 
all parts of his legislation « that the Deity is not the cause 
of evil. 



*69. (Gen. iv. 9) Why does he (Cain) reply as if to a man, 
saying, " I do not know. Am I my brother's keeper ? " ? 

It is an atheistic *" belief not to hold that the divine eye 
penetrates * all things and sees all things at one time, not 
only what is visible but also what is in recesses, depths and 
abysses. " Why dost thou not know where thy brother 
is ? " someone will say. " And how shouldst thou not 
know this, being the fourth man in the world together 

** eV to) TreSio)- * v.l. " lest." " d<f>opLa. 

'^ aKapTTia, dyovia. * ^SeXvyfia. ^ to €ba<f>os. . 

" i^oiJLoXoyfjrai. '* TrpoarroirJTai. * dvayKi^. 

^ Construction of Arm. uncertain. ^ Lit. " in us." 

' avvTraiTiov eariv, "• iKovaia yvatfij). 

" OLTrapvelTai. ° rfj ixeravoia evoxoi. 

* v<f)aiv€i. , . ' T'^s vofjLodeaias, 

*■ dOeos. * Sf^/cet, 

41 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

with thy two parents and thine only brother ? " But the 
reply, " I am not my brother's keeper " is a fine defence ! *" 
And of whom else rather than of thy brother shouldst thou 
have been a keeper and protector ? ^ Thou didst show so 
much care for violence,* injustice,'' treachery * and homi- 
cide,^ which is a great abomination ^ and accursed * deed, 
but didst show contempt for * thy brother's safety, as 
though it were something superfluous.* 

^70. (Gen. iv. 10) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The voice of thy brother calls to me from the earth " ? 

This is most exemplary,* for the Deity hears the deserv- 
ing ' even though they are dead,"* knowing that they live 
an incorporeal life." But from the prayers of evil men He 
turns away His face even though they enjoy the prime of 
life," considering that they are dead to true life and bear 
their body with them like a tomb that they may bury their 
unhappy soul ^ in it. 

71. (Gen. iv. 11) Why does he (Cain) become accursed 
upon '^ the earth ? 

The earth is the last *" of the parts of the universe.' 
Accordingly, if this curses him, it is understandable that 
appropriate ' curses will be laid upon him by the other 
elements " as well, namely by springs, rivers, sea, air, 
winds, fire, light, the sun, the moon, the stars and the 
whole heaven together.* For if inanimate ^ and terrestrial 

" aTToXoyia. * VTrepaaTnarqs. " ^ia. ^ dbiKia. 

" Text uncertain; I conj. dawacank' = im^ovXla for Arm. 
dawank = o/noAoyta. ^ avhpocfyovia. 

" ^BeXvyfia. ^ KardpaTOV. * KaT€(f)p6vT]aas. 

^ TTepiaaov. '^ SoyfxaTiKwraTOV. 

' oGLwv or biKaicjv in Greek fragments. 

"* Kaiirep reXevrijaavras. ^ ^Oi^v dawfxaTOV. 

" kSlv eve^ia xp''jor<ovTai in the Greek fragments. 

^ raXaiTTiopov ipv^^v. '^ iv or tTri: LXX a7ro 

*■ eaxoLTOV or " latest " vararov. * rov Koafiov. 

* dpfioviKas, dKoXovdovs. " UTOix^Za. 

* Koivfj. ^ dijjvxos. 

42 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

nature opposes and revolts " against wrongdoing,* will not 
purer natures " do so still more ? But he with whom the 
parts of the universe wage war — what hope of salvation •* 
will he any longer have ? I do not know. 



■*72. (Gen. iv. 12) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Groaning and trembling * shalt thou be upon the earth " .'* 

This too is a universal principle.^ For every evildoer 
has something which immediately awaits him and is to 
come." For things to come" already bring fears,* and 
that which is immediately present causes grief.' 



*73. (Gen. iv. 13) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Too great is my guilt * to let me go " ? ^ 

Indeed there is no misfortune of greater hopelessness*" 
than God's leaving and abandoning" one. For the lack 
of a ruler" is terrible and difficult for depraved men. But 
to be overlooked ^ by a great king and to be cast out and 
rejected ** by the chief authority is an indescribable mis- 
fortune.' 

*74. (Gen. iv. 14) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Every one who finds me will kill me," inasmuch as there 
were no other people but his parents ? 

* dvTiAcyet Kol (rraaid^ei. * aSi/ctav. 

" KaOapwrepai <f>V(T€is. ^ acoTTjplas. 

* aT€vd(,wv Kai Tpeficov : SO Lxx : Heb. different (A.V. 
" a fugitive and a vagabond "). 

^ Xoyiov KadoXiKcorarov in Procopius. 

' Bexofievov kol fxeXXov. * rd fieXXovra. 

* (f)6^ovs. ' XvTras. * alria. 

' Cf. LXX Tov d<f>€drjvai fxc ; Arm. O.T. " for thee to let 
me go." 

"• fiei^ovos dnopias. " d<f>i4vai Kai eyKaToAeiTretv. 

" dvapxio.. 

^ Or " looked down upon " — Trapopdadai or inrepopdadai. 
' dTTO^dXXfadai. ^ drvxia.. 

43 



I 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

First of all, he was likely " to suffer harm from the parts 
of the world, which were made for the use ^ and participa- 
tion " of good men but none the less exact punishment 
from the wicked. Second, because he feared the attacks 
of beasts and reptiles, for nature produced these for the 
punishment of unjust men. Third, perhaps one may think 
of hi§ parents, to whom he first brought new grief and their 
first misfortune,** as they had not known what death is. 



75. (Gen. iv. 15) Why shall everyone who slays Cain 
suffer seven punishments ? 

Our soul " is made and constituted of eight parts : of the 
rational part,^ which permits of no division, and of the 
irrational part," which is naturally ^ divided into seven 
parts — the five senses,* the organ of speech and the organ 
of reproduction. And these seven parts are the causes of 
wickedness and are brought to judgment.' And death is 
acceptable * to the chief ruler {i.e. the mind) in whom evil 
is.^ Accordingly whoever kills the mind "* by mixing in 
folly " instead of sense " will cause the dissolution and 
breaking up ^ of the seven irrational parts. For just as the 
chief ruler is disposed toward virtue,' so also are disposed *" 
the parts which are subordinate to him.* 



^76. (Gen. iv. 15) Why is a sign placed upon the fratricide 
in order that any who finds him may not kill him, when it 

" avvi^T) avrco. ^ oi^cAeiav. " Koivcoviav. 

"* Procopius reads more briefly koivov nevdos. 

* xjivx^. ^ "^^ XoyiKov. " TO aXoyov. 

^ 7T€^vK€. * aladijaeis. ^ els Kpiaiv. ^ dyamjTOS. 

^ The Arm. construction is not clear to me ; Aucher's 
rendering is very doubtful, " mors autem principis praesidis 
(mentis sc.) propria est ilia quae in eo sedet malitia." The 
word " ruler " (iSxan) is nom., not gen. as Aucher renders. 

*" Tov vovv. " d<f>po(rvvrjv. ° atadrjaiv. 

* Xvaiv Kol TTapdXvaiv. ' Trpos dpcTrjv €)(€(,. 
♦■ dp/tid^€Tai. * avTcp vTrordrrerai. 

44 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

was fitting to do the opposite " and give him into the hands 
(of another) for destruction ? 

First, one kind of death is the change of nature of the 
living. But continuous sorrows, unmixed with joy, and 
violent fears,^ empty " of good hope, bring on "* many 
grave and manifold * deaths, which are caused by sense/ 
Second, immediately at the outset " (Scripture) wishes to 
describe the law of the incorruptibility of the soul ^ and to 
refute the false belief * of those who think that this bodily 
life alone is blessed.^ For behold one of the two (brothers) 
is guilty ^ of the greatest evils, namely impiety '■ and 
fratricide, and yet is alive and begets children and founds 
cities. But he who gave evidence of piety is destroyed by 
cunning."* Not only does the divine word" clearly pro- 
claim that it is not the life of sense " which is good and that 
death is not an evil, but also that the life of the body is not 
even related '' (to life). But there is another (life) unaging 
and immortal,^ which incorporeal souls *" receive as their 
lot.* For that which was said by the poet about Scylla, 
"She is not a mortal but an immortal evil,"* was said 
more appropriately about him who lives evilly and enjoys 
many years of life. Third, although Cain in the first place 
committed a great fratricide. He offers him an amnesty," 
imposing a benevolent and kindly law concerning the first 
(crime) on all judges, not that they may not destroy evil 
men, but that by hesitating ^ a little and showing patience,"' 

** TOVVaVTlOV. 

* aKparoi ^o/3ot. Aucher mistakenly takes Arm. anapak ( = 
aKpaTos) in the sense of " unmixed " (" meri "). 

'^ dfieToxoc. ^ iTTayovai. * TToXurpoTTOVs. 

^ Arm. construction doubtful, but apparently = StSou'cny? ttjs 
aladijaecjs, cf. the Greek frag. " evdvs eV rfj apxTJ- 

^ rijs TTJs ^vx'fjs d<f)dapaias. * i^eXeyx^iv Tr)v j/rey8o8of lav, 

* IxaKapios. * evoxos. ^ dae^eias. 

"* eTn^ovXjj hi.a(f>6€iperai. " d tov Kvpiov \6yos- 

^ "fj aladrjTrj ^cut^. ' ov avyyevijs iari. 

' dyqpoiS KoX dOdvaros. *" daoifxaroi iJjvxolC. 

' Xayxdvovai. * Odyssey xii. 118. " dfxvTjaTiav. 

" TTavoixevoi. ^' fxaKpoOvfiovvTes. 

45 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

they may cleave to mercy rather than to cruelty. But He 
most wisely " prescribed a canon of gentleness ^ and under- 
standing <= concerning the first sinner, not killing the 
homicide but destroying ^ him in another manner. For 
He did not permit him to be numbered with his father's 
family,* but announces that he is proscribed not only by 
his parents but also by the whole human race, counting 
him a genus ^ peculiar and separate from the rational 
species," like one driven out and a fugitive," and one trans- 
formed into the nature of beasts. 

■'^T?. (Gen. iv. 23) Why does Lamech after five genera- 
tions condemn himself* for his ancestor Cain's fratricide, 
for, says Scripture, he said to his wives Ada and Zillah, " A 
man have I killed to my wound, and a young man to my 
hurt. If sevenfold punishment shall be exacted for Cain, 
then for Lamech seventy times seven " ? 

In numbers the ones are prior to the tens both in order 
and in power,^ for the former are the beginnings and 
elements and measures.* And the tens are younger^ and 
are measured, and are second both in order and in power. 
So that seven is more archetypal and elder »" than seventy ; 
but seventy is younger than seven and has the status ^ of 
that which is generated. These things being determined," 
the first man who sinned, as one who did not exactly** 
know what it really meant," was more simply '" punished 

" 7Tava6(f>oJs. 

^ Arm. here = r)fi€p6T'r]Tos, not oIkciottitos as Aucher's ren- 
dering " familiaritatis " implies. 

" Or " moderation " — avveaeots or emeiKrcta?. 

^ 8ia<f>d€LpaiV. * rfj iraTpia yevea. 

' ydvos. " Tov XoycKOv eiSovs. 

^ SidiKOfievos Koi (f>vyds. 

* iavTOV KaraytyvcoaKei. 

^ rd^ei Koi Bvvdfiei. 

^ dpxal Kol oTOix^La koi fiirpa. ' v€U)T€pai. 

^ dpxeTVTTLKiOTepa Kai irpea^vrfpa. " Xoyov. 

° TOVTOiv opiadevrcov. ^ aKpi^ios, ^i^aCuiS. 

3 TO Kvpiov. '' dirXovarepov. 

46 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

in accordance with the first and doubtful number, I mean 
one. But the second man, as one who had the first man 
as an example," and had no excuse, was guilty of voluntary 
sin. And in not receiving august wisdom '' through the 
first simpler punishment, he will suffer this punishment 
also, and in addition, will receive the second punishment 
which is in the tens. For just as in the hippodrome it is 
the horse-trainer who gets both the first and second prize, 
so also some evil men by rushing toward an unjust victory," 
carry off a miserable victory ,** and then they are punished 
by a double penalty, first by that which is in the ones, and 
then by that which is in the tens. Wherefore also Cain, 
who was the first to commit homicide, because he did not 
know the magnitude of the foul deed,* since he had never 
encountered death, paid the simpler penalty, the seven of 
the ones. But his imitator, not being able to take refuge 
in the same defence of ignorance,' deserved to suffer a 
double punishment, the first equal and similar to the other 
(Cain's), and another, the seveH of the tens. For according 
to the law a sevenfold judgment is given. First, upon " 
the eyes, because they saw what was not fitting ; second, 
upon the ears, because they heard what was not proper ; 
third, upon the nose, which was deceived by smoke and 
steam ; fourth, upon (the organ of) taste, which was a. 
servant of the belly's pleasure ; fifth, upon (the organs of) 
touch, to which by the collaboration '* of the former senses 
in overcoming the soul * are also brought in addition other 
separate ^ acts, such as the seizure of cities and the capture 
of men and the demolition of the citadel of the city where 
the council resides ; sixth, upon the tongue and the organs 
of speech for being silent about things that should be said 
and for saying things that should be kept silent ; seventh, 

" TrapaScty/xa. *" acfivTjv ao<f>iav. 

" €ttI rijv TTJs dBiKias viktjv op/xcDvTe?. 

"^ ToXaLTTcopov VLK-qv. * ^heXvyfiaros, ynda^iaros. 

^ els Trjv avTTjv aTToAoyi'av ti)v rrjs dyvoias. 

" Lit. " through," Sid w. gen. 

* Kara ttjv ttjs ^vx^js VTrepdeaiv. 
^ Kar* iSi'av. 

47 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

upon the lower belly " which with lawless licentiousness 
sets the senses on fire. This is (the meaning of) what is 
said (in Scripture), that a sevenfold vengeance is taken on 
Cain, but on Lamech seventy times seven, for the reasons 
mentioned, in accordance with which he, being the second 
sinner and not being chastened ^ by the punishment of the 
earlier one, wholly " received both the latter 's punishment, 
which was the simpler, as is the unit among numbers, and 
also the more complex punishment, similar to the tens 
among numbers. 

78. (Gen. iv. 25) Why does Adam in begetting Seth say 
in addition, " God has raised up for me another seed in 
place of Abel whom Cain killed " ? 

Truly Seth is another seed and the beginning <* of another 
birth * of Abel in accordance with a certain natural 
principle.^ For Abel is like one who comes from above to 
below, wherefore he is injured," but Seth (is like one who 
comes) from below to above, wherefore he grows.'' And 
a confirmation • of this is that " Abel " is interpreted as 
" brought and oflfered up on high " ^ to God. And it is not 
fitting to offer up *= everything, but only what is good, for 
(God) is not the cause ' of evil. Wherefore the undefined '" 
and unseparated " and obscure " and confused ^ and per- 
turbed « one appropriately also receives a mixture of praise 
and blame ; praise, because he honours the Cause, and 
blame, because just as something happens,*" so it turns out 
by chance * without his taking thought * or giving thanks." 

" o Kara) yaaT-qp. ^ acocfypoviadeis, as in the Greek frag. 

" rravreXcos in the Greek frag. ^ °^PXV- * yeveaecos. 

^ Kara riva ^volkov Xoyov. " jSAaTTTcrai or iTTi^ovXeveTai. 



h 



faverai. * ttlcttis. 



' vpoa(f)€peTai dvcj, as though from Heb. ybl, wbl " to 
bring " ; cf. Quod Deterius 32. 

* TTpoa<f)€p€iVt avdyeiv. ' dvairios. 

"• o dopiaros. " o dxiopLOTOs. ° 6 dSrjXos. 

'"' 6 ovyK€XVfJi€voSt d/ivSpo?. * o Tcdopv^rjixevos. 

•■ avfi^aivci. * cos €tvxc. ' avey rod XoyLt,€adai.. 
** Tov €vxoLpi-aT€LVt €$op.oXoy€La6ai. 

48 



i 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

Wherefore nature separated from him his twin,** and made 
the good man worthy of immortality,* resolving " him into 
a voice interceding ^ with God ; but the wicked man it 
gave over to destruction. But " Seth " is interpreted as 
" one who drinks water," * in accordance with the changes 
that take place in plants which by watering grow and 
blossom and bear fruit. And these are symbols of the 
soul.^ But no longer may one say that the Deity is the 
cause of all things, good and evil, but only of the good, 
which alone properly puts forth live shoots." 



*79. (Gen. iv. 26) Why did Seth's son Enosh hope to 
call the name of the Lord God ? 

"Enosh" is interpreted as "man." And this is now 
taken, not as a mixture,'* but as the logical part of the 
soul,* the mind,^' to which hope is peculiarly fitting,* for 
irrational animals are bereft of hope.^ And hope is a 
certain anticipation of joy"*; before joy there is an 
expectation ** of good. 



80. (Gen. v. 1) Why, after (mentioning) hope, does 
(Scripture) say, " This is the book of the generation of 
men " ? 

By these words (Scripture) makes the aforementioned 
statement trustworthy." What is man ? Man is that 
which more than other kinds of animals has obtained a 
very large and extraordinary ^ portion of hope. And this 

** Tov BiBvfjLov. * adavaaias. 

" Auaa?. ^ rrapaKaXovaav. 

' As though from Heb. §th "to drink"; cf. De Poster. 
Caini 124 (TroTta/ids). 

^ TTJs 4'^XV^^ or " spirit " — tov vvevfiaros. 

" t,a}0(f)VT€lv. '' /Lit^t? or Kpdais. 

* TO T'^S' 'pvx'^s XoyiKOv fjLepos. ^ 6 vovs. 

'' tSico? TTpeTTOV earl ro e'ATri^etv. ^ api.€TOX(i Trjs e'ATTtSo?. 

"* TTpOTTadcid Tl? TTJS X<*/'^S'. " TTpOohoKLa. 

" TTiarov. ^ Oavfiaarov or rrapaSo^ov. 

49 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

is celebrated " as if inscribed in nature, for the mind of man 
naturally hopes. 

■^81. (Gen. v. 3) Why, in the genealogy of Adam, does 
(Scripture) no longer mention Cain, but Seth, who, it says, 
was made according to his appearance and form ? \^Tience 
it begins to count the generations " from him (Seth). 

Scripture does not associate the foul and violent homicide 
with the order of either reason or number, for he is to be 
thrown out " like ordure, as someone has said, considering 
him to be such. Wherefore (Scripture) does not show him 
to be either the successor <* of his earthly father or the 
beginning of later generations, but distinguishing Seth in 
both respects as guiltless,* being a drinker of water, for he 
is watered by his father, and begetting hope by his growth 
and progress.^ Wherefore not casually or idly does (Scrip- 
ture) say that he was made according to his father's appear- 
ance and form, in reprobation of the elder (brother) who 
because of his foul homicide bears within himself nothing 
of his father either in body or in soul. Wherefore (Scrip- 
ture) separated " him and divided ^ him from his kin,* but 
to the other apportioned and gave a part of the honour 
of primogeniture. ^ 

82. (Gen. v. 22) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Enoch was pleasing to God, after he begot Methuselah, 
two hundred years " }^ 

(Scripture) legislates ' about the sources of all good 

" Siac^Ty/ii^crai. *" yeveaAoyeiv, 

* The Arm. is obscure but seems to render Biaipwv Urid cbs 
dfi(f>oT€p(i)v dvaiTiov. Aucher renders, " sed utrumque illibato 
distribuens praestat Seth." The Greek frag, freely para- 
phrases. 

' av^TjOii KoX TTpoKOTrfj. SieiAe. * Biextopiae. 

* OLTTO TTJs airyyeveias. ^ rijs TTpea^eias. 

* So Lxx : Heb. has " And Enoch walked with God after 
he begot Methuselah three hundred years." ' vofModerei. 

50 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

things at the beginning of Genesis." What I mean is 
somewhat as follows. It defined ^ mercy " and forgive- 
ness '^ a little earlier. This time, however, it defines re- 
pentance, not mocking * or in any way reproaching ^ those 
who appear to have sinned. At the same time it presents 
the descent " of the soul from evil to virtue '^ like the return 
of those who have fled into a snare.* For behold, on 
becoming a man and father, in his very procreation, he 
made a beginning of probity,^ being said to have been 
pleasing to God. For although he did not altogether 
remain in piety, none the less that period of time was 
reckoned to him as belonging to the order of the praise- 
worthy,* for he was pleasing (to God) so many years. And 
so many (years) are symbolically mentioned,' not perhaps 
because of what he was, but as he was believed by another 
to appear."* But (Scripture) reveals the ordering " of 
things. For not very long after the forgiving of Cain it 
introduces the fact that Enoch repented, informing us that 
forgiveness is wont to produce repentance. 



83. (Gen. v. 21-23) Why is Enoch, who repented, said 
to have lived one hundred and sixty -five years before his 
repentance, but after his repentance two hundred .'' 

The hundred and sixty-five consists of the ten (digits) 
added one by one — 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10," which make 
fifty-five, and of the double numbers after one — 2, 4, 6, 8, 
10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, which make one hundred and ten. 
And the combination ^ of these (two sets of numbers) pro- 

" TTJs yeviaecos. * Biwpiae, or " set apart "— Stexcopiffe. 

" iXeos. ^ d<f>€aiv. * eVyeAcDv or x^cua^oiv. 

^ oveiSi^cuv. " (sic) Kard^aaiv. ^ dper-qv. 

' Ppoxov, ^ KaXoKayadias . * ets tt^v tov eiTaiverov rd^LV. 
' The Arm. is obscure, but seems to render Toaaiha 
avfjL^oXa Twv elprjfjLCvcov eWt. 
"" Here too the Arm. is obscure. 
** dKoXovdiav or Sioi/ciyaiv. 

° The Arm. here uses numeral letters = Greek a\ j3\ etc. 
'' avvdeais. 

51 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

duces one hundred and sixty-five. And among these the 
even numbers are double " the odd numbers, for the female 
is more powerful ^ than the male by some inversion," as 
when the wicked man lords it over the good man, or sense 
over mind, the body over sense, matter over cause. But 
two hundred (years) in which there was repentance consists 
of twice a hundred, of which the first hundred indicates a 
purification from wrongdoing,** while the other indicates the 
fullness of one who is perfect in virtue.* For even from an 
ailing body one must cut away ^ the sick part, and after- 
wards introduce health, for the former is first, while the 
latter comes second. The number two hundred is com- 
posed of fours, for it arises, as if from a seed," from four 
triangles " and four tetragons and four pentagons and four 
hexagons and four heptagons, and it stands, in a certain 
manner, in the number seven. And these are the four 
triangles — 1, 3, 6, 10, which make 20.* The four tetragons 
are 1, 4, 9, 16, which make thirty. And the four pentagons 
are 1, 5, 12, 22, which make forty. The five hexagons are 
1, 6, 15, 28, which make 50. And the four heptagons are 
1, 7, 18, 34, which make sixty. These combined produce 
two hundred. 

" StTrAaaioi. 

* SvvaTorrcpa, or " more violent "— jStaioTcpa. 

" TpOTTrjV. 

^ Kadapaiv dSi/ctas'. 

* TO TrXvpwfxa to tov /car' dpeTrjv avvTiTf.Xeap.4vov. Aucher 
renders, " plenitudinem virtutis consummatae." 

^ d7TOT€p,€tv. 

" COS e/c aTTepfiaTOS. 

'^ "Triangles" (T/3iy66j'<ov)=" triangular numbers," those 
which can be arranged in triangular form, e.g. 



3 = .. 6=... 10= 

etc. ; similarly, "tetragons" are "four-sided numbers," etc. 

* The Arm. here sometimes uses nun^eral letters, some- 
times numeral words. 

52 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

84. (Gen. v. 23) Why, being repentant,'* is (Enoch) said 
to have lived three hundred and sixty-five years ? ^ 

First of all, the year has three hundred and sixty-five 
days. Accordingly (Scripture) symbolically indicates the 
life of this penitent by the revolution " of the sun. Second, 
just as the sun is the cause of day and night, revolving 
above the earth's hemisphere by day, and under the earth 
by night, so also the life of the penitent consists of darkness 
and light — of darkness by the impact ^ of passions and 
injustices,* and of light when the light of virtue^ shines 
out, and its splendour is very bright. «' Third, (Scripture) 
apportioned to him a full number, in accordance with which 
the sun, sovereign of heavenly stars, is adorned ; and in 
this number is included also the time before his repentance, 
in forgetfulness '^ of the sins which he had formerly com- 
mitted. For as God is good,' He liberally bestows great 
kindnesses,^ and at the same time through the virtues of 
those who so desire, '^ He wipes out ^ the old convictions 
involving punishment."* 

^85. (Gen. v. 23-24) Why, after Enoch's end," does 
(Scripture) add, " He was pleasing to" God " } 

First of all, because it demonstrates that souls are 
immortal," since when they become incorporeal,' they 
again become pleasing. Second, it praises the penitent 
since he persevered in the same condition of morals *" and 
did not again change until the end of his life. For behold, 
some men after briefly experiencing uprightness ' and 

" (xeTavowv. 

^ Lxx and Heb. " And all the days of Enoch were three 
hundred and sixty-five years." '^ Trepiobio, KVKXcoaei. 

^ €K ^oXfjs. * Tradwv Koi dbiKicov. ^ dperrjs. 

" Or " pure " — KadapcvraTOS. ^ els dp-vyfariav. 

* dyados. ^ d(f>d6vcos ;^a/3i^€Tai. * toDv eTndvfxovvruiV. 
' €^aXei(f>€i. "* TOLS KarayvcoaeLS ras Tiiicopiav exovaas. 

" reXevT-qaavTos 'Fjvwxov. ° evrjpdcmjae. 

^ TTapiaTqai tcls tpvxds ddavdrovs ovaas. 

' daiofiaroi ycvofievai. ^ iv rfj avrfj 'qdwv Siadeaei. 

* yevadfievoL KaXoKayadlas. 

53 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

having been given hope of health, again quickly revert to 
the same disease. 



86. (Gen. v. 24) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And he was not found, for God had translated " him " ? 

First of all, the end of worthy and holy men *• is not 
death but translation ^ and approaching ** another place. 
Second, something very marvellous * took place. For he 
seemed to be rapt away ^ and become invisible." For then 
he was not found. And this is shown by the fact that 
when he was sought,'^ he was invisible,* not merely rapt 
from their eyes. For the translation to another place is 
nothing else than another position ^ ; but he is said (to 
have moved) from a sensible and visible place to an incor- 
poreal and intelligible form.^ This gift the protoprophet ' 
also obtained, for no one knew his burial-place. And still 
another, Elijah, followed him on high from earth to heaven 
at the appearance of the divine countenance,"* or, it would 
be more proper and correct to say, he ascended." 

87. (Gen. v. 29) How is it that at the very birth of Noah 
his father says, " This one will give us rest from our labours 
and from our sorrows and from the earth which the Lord 
God has cursed " .'' 

Not idly " did the holy fathers ^ prophesy, and although 
not always nor in all things, still at least for once and in 
one thing which they knew ' are they worthy of prophetic 

" IJL€T€d7]K€. * d^icDV Kal ayicov. " fX€Tdd€ais, ix€Ta^oX-q. 

^ TO eyy t'^eiv. * davfiaauoTarov ri. ^ dpTraadrjvai. 

^ doparos. ^ ^r/TOVfievos. * d(f>avTJs, doparos. ' deais. 

* els docLfiaTOv Koi voepdv ^op(f>T^v (or ethos, yevos). 

^ 6 7rp(X}T07TpO<f)T^T7)S (MoSCS). 

"* /card rrjv evt^dveiav ttjv rod Oelov Trpoauirrov. 

" dve^Tj. " ovK eiKTJ. 

** 01 dyioi -narepes. I do not know why Aucher renders, 
" sanctorum patres." 

" Arm. canean -= eyvwaav: variant cnan = eyewrjoav "pro- 
duced." 

54 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

praise." And not idly is this too a symbolical example, 
for " Noah " is a sort of cognomen ** of justice, by partici- 
pation " in which the mind gives us rest from the evil of 
labours and will give us rest from sorrows and fears, making 
us fearless and sorrowless. And it gives us rest from that 
earthly nature by whose curse the body is afflicted with 
sickness ; and they are guilty who consume their lives in 
pursuit of pleasures. ** But in the realization of the pre- 
diction ^ the prophecy spoke falsely, for in the case of this 
particular man it was not so much a cessation of evils ^ 
that took place but an intensification of violence and 
strange and unavoidable disasters and innovations " of the 
great flood. And carefully bear in mind ^ that Noah is 
the tenth from the earth-born man.* 



88. (Gen. v. 32) Who are the three sons of Noah — Shem, 
Ham and Japheth ? 

These names are symbols of three things in nature— of 
the good, the evil and the indiiferent.^ Shem is distin- 
guished * for good. Ham for evil, and Japheth for the 
indifferent. 



*89. (Gen. vi. 1) Why, from the time when the great 
flood drew near, is the human race said to have increased 
into a multitude ? ' 

<* The above is a slightly free (in construction) rendering of 
the obscure Arm. sentence, which has no main verb and an 
intrusive rel. pron. * eVcovu/iov. " Koivcovla. 

^ "qhovthv. * Kara rrjv tcov avayyeA^evrcov ivipyeiav. 

^ Kardvavais KaKCJV. " KaLVovpyCai. ^ intfieXcos npovoci. 

* Before the words " carefully bear in mind " the Arm. 
glossator inserts (in § 89) in cod. A " Some used to say that 
there were innumerable aeons from Adam to Noah, and 
others said that Noah was the first beginning, wherefore 
Scripture says." 

^ Prob. Tov aSia^dpoy, although Arm. anoros usu.= 
dopioTos. See below, QG ii. 71. 

* 8ia<f>4p€i. ^ els TroXvavdpwTTiav. 

55 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Divine favours " always precede His judgments,'' for 
His activity " is first to do good, while destruction ** comes 
afterwards. He, however, is loving, and it is usual,* when 
great evils are about to take place, that an abundance of 
great and numerous good things is first produced/ In 
this same manner, when the seven years' barrenness was 
about to come, as the prophet says, Egypt became fruitful 
for the same number of years in succession through the 
beneficent and saving power of the universe.* In the 
same way as He does good He teaches (men) to refrain and 
keep themselves from sins, lest they change the good into 
the opposite. Because of this now too cities grow to 
excellence ^ through freedom of customs,* so that if after- 
wards corruption ' arises, they may condemn " their own 
immeasurable and irremediable wrongdoing, and not make 
the Deity responsible,^ for He is innocent of evil and evil 
deeds,*" since His activity " is to bestow " only good first 
of all. 



90. (Gen. vi. 3) What is the meaning of the words, " My 
spirit ^ shall not remain in men forever, because they are 
flesh " ? 

This legislation ' is an oracle.'' For the divine spirit is 
not a movement of air but intelligence ' and wisdom.* 
Thus also concerning him who artfully constructed the holy 

" at delai ;^a/3tTes'. ^ KpiaeiSt KpLfiara. " efyyov. 

•^ TO hia^deipeiv^ dvatpetv vel sim. 

' eicjode, TT€(f>vK€. ^ y^vvdaOai. 

* 8ia TTjv €V€py€TiKriv Kal aorr-qpiav bvvafJLiv ttjv rcov oXcuv. 
^ els avhpayadiav (?). 

* e/c iXevdepias id(x>v (meaning ?). * hia(f>dopd vel sim. 

* Karayvcoat. ^ aiTiov. *" Kanias Kal KaKwv. 
" cpyov. " ;^api^ecr^ai. ^ -JTvevfia. 

' TO VOfJLLadeTOVfJLCVOV. 

*■ xRV^H-^s- Aucher reverses subj. and pred., " oraculum 
est velut lex prolatum." 

* avvcGts or (f>p6vT)ais or vovs or iiTLar'^fir). 
' ao(f>ia. 

56 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

tabernacle, namely Bezaleel, (Scripture) reported, saying, 
" I filled him with the divine spirit of wisdom and know- 
ledge."" Accordingly, this spirit comes into men* but 
does not remain or long endure." But (Scripture) adds 
the reasons therefor, saying, " because they are flesh." 
For the nature of flesh is alien to wisdom so long as it is 
familiar with desire.** Whence it is clear that incorporeal 
and unsubstantial * spirits do not stumble over anything 
heavy or meet any obstacle to seeing and understanding 
nature, since pure understanding ^ is acquired along with 
stability." 



91 . (Gen. vi. 3) Why shall " the days of man be a hundred 
and twenty years " ? 

By this number (Scripture) seems to define ^ human life, 
indicating many prerogatives ' of honour. For in the first 
place, it is derived from the units by composition^ of 
fifteen.* And the fifteenth reckoning ^ is a very brilliant 
one,"* for the moon becomes full of light on the fifteenth 
day, receiving its light from the sun at evening and giving 
it over to him in the morning, so that on that night no 
darkness appears, but everything is light. Second, a 
hundred and twenty is a triangular number " and consists 
of fifteen triangles." Third, because it consists of the equal 

" Cf. Lxx, Ex. xxxi. 3, /cat ivdnXrjKa avrov nvevfia delov 
ao(f>Las Kal avveaecDS koL eirtaT'qfnjS. 

* eyyiviTai ev dvdpcoTTOiS. 

" ovT€ jxevci, ovT€ Staiojvi^ei (or Sia;^povi^«i). 
'* TO yap '^Oos TO rrjs aapKos Tjj ao<f>ia aXXoTpiov dan icf)* oaov 
Xpovov oiKclov ioTL Tjj eTTl^V/Ltia. 

* Prob. dva(f>rj, as Aucher suggests. 
" ardaei or jSejSaicuaei or ar-qpiyfiart. 
" Or " limit"— dpi'^eti'. * irpovofiias. 
^ Kara avvdeaiv. 

^ i.e. 120 is the sum of the first fifteen numbers : 1+2 + 3 
. . . +15=120. 

^ Xoyos. "* (fxorofiBeaTepos. " dpidfios rplycjvos. 

° 120 is 15 X 8, and 8 is a triangular number (2 x 2 x 2). 

57 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and unequal," being comprehended by the power of the 
joining* of sixty-four and fifty-six. For sixty-four is an 
equality " consisting of the units of these eight odd num- 
bers : 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, whose parts when added ** 
produce squares summed up * in sixty-four. And this is 
a cube, at the same time producing a square. And from 
seven double units comes the inequality ^ fifty-six, con- 
sisting of seven twin even numbers," which produce their 
other extensions '' : 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, which add up to 
fifty-six. Fourth, it (the number 120) consists of four 
things : of one triangle,* namely fifteen ; of another 
number, a square, namely twenty-five ; of a third number, 
a pentagon, namely thirty-five ; and of a fourth number, a 
hexagon, namely forty-five, in the same proportion.^ For 
the fifth (number) is always taken in accordance with its 
several species.* For from the unit of triangles fifteen is 
the fifth number ; similarly, from the unit of squares the 
fifth number is twenty-five ; from the unit of pentagons 
the fifth number is thirty-five ; and from the unit of hexa- 
gons the fifth number is forty-five. And each of these 
numbers is divine ^ and sacred ; fifteen has been shown (to 
be such) ; twenty-five is that of the Levites "* ; and 
thirty-five is that of the double scale," the arithmetic and 
geometric and harmonic. But sixteen, 18, 19, 21 " add up 
to seventy-four, by which are formed the seven-month 

" €^ taov Kal dviaov. 

* Tj] TTJs av^irylas Svvdfxei (or i^ovala). 

'^ Or "even number" (?) — IcjoTrjSi but see note/. 

'^ wv rj Kara fiepos avvdeais. * reTpdycova Kc^aXaiovfieva. 

^ dviaoTTjs. " 8i8u/Li6i)r dpricov. 

^ Lit. " lengths." * rpiycovov. 

^ Kara tt)v auTi7v dvaXoy lav. * Kara rd CKaara eiSrj. 

' Perhaps KvpiaKos, although this word does not appear in 
Leisegang's Index to the Greek Philo. 

^ Cf. Num. viii. 24 " the tribe of Levi from twenty-five 
years old and upward." 

** SittXovs SiaypdfifxaTOS* 

" The first number in the Arm. is written as a word, the 
following as numeral letters. 

58 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

(children) ; and forty-five is that of the triple scale. But 
sixteen, nineteen, twenty-two and twenty-eight add up to 
eighty-five, by which are formed the nine-month (chil- 
dren)." And fifth, it (the number 120) has fifteen parts 
and a double composition * of its own, inasmuch as twice 
sixty is the measure of all things ; and it is three times 
forty, (which is) the form '^ of prophecy '' ; and it is four 
times thirty, (which is) a generation * ; and it is five times 
twenty-four, (which is) the measure of day and night,^ and 
it is six times twenty, (which is) the beginning ^ ; and it 
is eight times fifteen, most brilliant '' (of numbers) ; it is 
ten times twelve, (which is) the zodiac * ; it is twelve times 
ten, (which is) the holy (number) ' ; it is fifteen times eight, 
(which is) the first cube *= ; it is twenty times six, (which 
is) genesis ' ; it is twenty-four times five, (which is) the 
form "" of the senses " ; it is thirty times four, (which is) 
the beginning of solids ° ; it is four times thirty, (which 
is) fullness,^ consisting of beginning, middle and end ; it is 
sixty times two, (which is) the feminine ' ; and it is a 
hundred and twenty times one, (which is) the masculine.'' 
And each of these numbers is very natural,' as is shown 

" On this obscure calculation see Staehle, pp. 81-82. 

* avvdeoLv StTrAaatav. " €i8os or 184a. 

«' Referring to Moses' forty-day sojourn on Mt. Sinai. 

* Reckoning 30 years to a generation. 
^ Referring to the 24 hours of a day. 

" dpx"^ ; probably meaning the age when the young man 
is ready for communal responsibilities, cf. Ex. xxxviii. 26 
and QG iv. 27. 

'^ TTa(j,<t>aiva)v, referring to the full moon on the 15th day of 
the lunar month. 

* ^a)o<f>6pos kvkXos. 

^ Elsewhere Philo calls 10 the perfect (reAetos) number, 
cf. Staehle, pp. 53-58. *= 6 Trpuiro? kv^os. 

^ ye'veais ; referring to the six days of Creation. 

"* Or " species " — iSe'a. »* tcSv atadijaeojv. 

° Tj rrjs arepco/LieTpias dpx^. 

" TrXTJpcona ; probably because it is the sum of the first four 
square numbers : 1, 4, 9, 16, cf. QO ii. 5. 

« TO dijXv. •" TO appev. * ^vaiKorrcpos. 

59 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

separately. Moreover, it is a double composition," for it 
becomes two hundred and forty, which is a sign of becom- 
ing worthy of twofold life, for just as the number of years 
is doubled, so also life is to be thought of as doubled ; there 
is one (life) with the body, and another without the body, 
to receive the gift of prophecy,* each of them being holy 
and altogether perfect." Sixth, because the fifth and 
sixth are produced when three numbers are multiplied, ** 
(namely) three times four five times (sic) ; for three times 
four five times makes sixty. Similarly a hundred and 
twenty (is produced) by the following numbers, four times 
five six times (sic), for four times five six times makes a 
hundred and twenty. Seventh, taking the number twenty, 
in which is the beginning of man, his redemption "—twenty 
added to itself two and three times in the following manner, 
twenty, forty, sixty, makes a hundred and twenty. But 
perhaps a hundred and twenty years are not the universal 
limit ^ of human life, but only of the men living at that 
time, who were later to perish in the flood after so great 
a number of years, which a benevolent benefactor " pro- 
longed, allowing repentance for sins. However, after this 
limit they lived a more abundant ^ life in later generations. 



^92. (Gen. vi. 4) Why were the giants bom from angels 
and women ? 

The poets * relate that the giants were earthborn, 
children of the earth. But he (Moses) uses this name 
analogically ^ and frequently * when he wishes to indicate 

" avvdeais SiTrAaaia. 

^ Arm. construction difficult, lit. " the gift with respect to 
the prophet " ; Aucher renders, " donum prophetiae." 

" TravreXcLOS. '^ TToWaTrXaaiaadcvroyv. 

* Xvrpoiais r, the connexion of the number 20 with " re- 
demption " eludes me, but see note g, p. 59. 

f 6 KaOoXiKos opog. ' evepY^TrjS evixevqs. 

'* irXeiova or Treptaaov. 

' ol TTOL-qraL ^ Karaxp^OTiKios. 

" avv€x<oSi or perhaps " for the most part " — im to ttoXv. 

60 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

excessive size of body, after tlie likeness of Haik." And he 
relates that their creation ^ was a mixture of two things, 
of angels and mortal women. But the substance '^ of 
angels is spiritual "* ; however, it often happens that they 
imitate the forms of men and for immediate purposes,^ as 
in respect of knowing women for the sake of begetting 
Haiks/ But if children become zealous emulators ^ of 
maternal depravity,'* they will draw away from paternal 
virtue and depart from it through desire of pleasure ^ in 
a wicked stock,' and through contempt ^ and arrogance ^ 
toward the better*" they are condemned as guilty" of 
wilful wrongdoing." But sometimes he calls the angels 
"sons of God" because they are made incorporeal" 
through no mortal man ' but are spirits '" without body. 
But rather does that exhorter,* Moses, give to good and 
excellent men the name of " sons of God," while wicked 
and evil men (he calls) " bodies." 



"""QS. (Gen. vi. 6) What is the meaning of the words, 
" He was concerned ' when reflecting " that He had made 
man upon the earth, and He considered " " ? 

Some believe that the repentance of the Deity ^ is shown 
by these words,* but not rightly do they so believe, for the 

" The Arm. has probably substituted the name of the 
legendary Armenian eponymous hero for Greek Heracles, 
as Aucher remarks. ^ yeveaiv. 

" ovaLa. ^ TrvevfJLaTiKT^. * npos VTTOKcifidvas XP^ta?- 

' i.e. " giants," see note a above. 

" ^TjXcoTai. * TTOviqpias or d(f>poavvT)s. * "^Bovrjs (?). 

' yevovs. * KaTa<f)povqa€i. ' VTr€pr}(f>avia or dXa^oveia. 

"• TOtJ KpeiTTOVOS. " €VOXOl. " CKOVaOiV dSlKLCOV. 

^ dawfiaroi. ' Ovtjtov. ^ TTvevjJiaTa. 

* TTpOTpeTTTlKOS OY TTapaiVCTlKOS. 

' €<f>p6vTLa€ or €p,€pip.vrja€. " Xoyi^opLfvos. 

" 8i€VOTqdr). LXX has KOI eveOvfi-qOri 6 deos on eTToiiqaev tov 
dvdpwiTov €7tI TTJs yi]s Koi 8i€vo-q9r). The Arm. O.T. also diifers 
from the Arm. text of Philo's citation of the verse. 

*^ /iera/xeAeiav . . . Trepi to delov in John Monachus. 

* ovofxaTwv. 

6] 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Deity is without change. Nor are His being concerned 
when reflecting and His considering signs of repentance 
but of lucid and certain reflection," which is concerned and 
considers the reason why He made man upon the earth. 
And since earth is a place of wretchedness,'' even that 
heavenly man * is a mixture ** consisting of soul and body ; 
and from his birth until his end he is nothing else than a 
corpse-bearer.* Accordingly, it does not seem at all very 
remarkable ^ that the Father should be concerned with, 
and consider, these things, since indeed many men acquire 
wickedness rather than virtue," being governed by the two- 
fold impulse'' mentioned above, (namely) by the nature 
of the corruptible body * and the horrid position ^ of the 
earth, which is the last *^ of things. 



■^94. (Gen. vi. 7) Why, when threatening to wipe out ' 
man, does He say that He will also destroy the beasts'" 
together with him, " from man to beasts and from reptiles 
to birds "?" For what sin were the beasts committing? 

The literal meaning is this : it makes it clearly known 
that not necessarily " and primarily '" were beasts made but 
for the sake of men and for their service. " And when these 
were destroyed, the former were rightly *" destroyed to- 
gether with them, since there no longer existed those for 
whose sake they had been made. But as for the allegorical 
meaning * — inasmuch as symbolically ' man is the mind " 
within us, and beast is sense-perception,* when the chief 

" John Monachus reads more briefly dKpai<f>vovs Xoyiafiov. 

^ TaXaiTTopiaSi drvxias. " 6 ovpdvLos dvdpcoTTOs. 

'^ fxl^is. * v€Kpo<j)6pos. ^ TTapaSo^oTcpov. 

" dperrjs. ^ ^PH-V- * (f>9apTOv awfiaros. 

' (f>pLKTa> TOTTO). * TO eaxoLTOv. 

' drraXel^ai. "• rd dXoya, rd KT'qvT). 

" Cf. LXX etoy 7T€T€Lva)V rov ovpavov. 

" dvayKaicos. * TTporjyovfMevais. 

' virripeatas. See below, QG ii. 9. *" cIkotcos, SiKalcos. 

* TO irpos vovv or Kad^ vTTOvoiav. 

' aviM^oXiKws. " vovs. * atagrjais. 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

ruler <* is perverted and corrupted by evil, all sense-per- 
ception also perishes together with it, because it has no 
remains " of virtue. 



*95. (Gen. vi. 7) Why does He say, " I am angry " that 
[ have made them " ? 

In the first place, again as if warning man He relates 
something extraordinary. ** However, properly speaking, 
God does not become angry but is immune (from anger) 
and is above all passions.*' Accordingly, He wishes to 
prove by using exaggeration ^ that the lawless deeds of 
men have increased to such an extent that they have 
invited and provoked and incited to anger One who is 
naturally without anger. Second, He intimates symboli- 
cally that those things which have been done confusedly " 
are also blameworthy,'' but those things which have been 
done out of wise reflection ' and determined ' are praise- 
worthy. 

*96. (Gen. vi. 8) Why is Noah now said to find favour *= 
with God ? 

In the first place the occasion ' requires a comparison."* 

" Tov irpwTov apxrjyoVi lyye/xdvo?. 

** Acii/rava, VTToXeififia. 

" Similarly Arm. O.T. ; lxx has iveOvfi-qd-qv = Heb. 
nihamtt " I repent." 

** aKpov, K€(f>dXaiov. * Trddr). ' VTrep^oXij. 

" atryK€xvfx€va)s or " obscurely " — dfivBpais (?). 

'' evoxa. * Tw rijs cro(f)ias Xoyiajicp. 

^ hiopiaOivra. The sentence is obscure ; Aucher renders, 
" quae vero ex consilio sapientiae procedunt definitive, 
laudabilia." Procopius briefly paraphrases the section. 

* xdpiv. ^ Kaipos or xpovos (?). 

"* avyKpiaiv. The meaning of the sentence is not clear, 
but perhaps is that this statement about Noah stands in 
contrast to the preceding statement about God's anger. 
Aucher renders, " primum tempus postulat comparationem," 
which is literal but as obscure as the original. 

63 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Inasmuch as all the others were rejected " because of 
ingratitude," He justly puts him in their place, saying that 
he found favour, not because he alone was deserving of 
favour, for the entire human race in common had met 
with (His) beneficence,*' but because he alone appeared 
grateful.** In the second place, since the generation was 
given over to destruction,* with the exception of one house- 
hold,^ it was necessary to say that the remnant was worthy 
of the divine favour as the seed and spark " of the new 
generation of men that was to be. And what favour is 
greater than that this same one should be both the end * 
and beginning * of mankind ? 



97- (Gen. vi. 9) Why does (Scripture) give the genera- 
tions of Noah not by his predecessors but by his virtues ? ' 

First, because the men who were of his time were wicked. 
Second, it lays down the laws of the will,* because to the 
virtuous man virtue is truly a generation.' For a genera- 
tion of men (consists of) men, and (a generation) of souls 
(consists) of virtues. Wherefore it says, " he was righteous, 
perfect and pleasing (to God).""" But righteousness and 
perfection and being pleasing to God are the greatest 
virtues. 



98. (Gen. vi. 11) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The earth was corrupted " before God, and the earth was 
filled with injustice " " .'' 

" aTroBoKLfjLacrdevTcov, dTTO^Xrjdevrojv. Procopius aTToXojXoTcov. 

" dxapiaTtav. " evepyeaCaVt dyadoTToUav. 

** evxdpicrros. 

* Or " corruption " — if)dopa, 8t,a(f>dopa. 

^ oXkov. " aTTivd-qp. ^ tcXos. 

* dpxrj. ^ dperats. 

* deX-qnaros (?). The sense escapes me. 

' Aucher renders, less literally, " virtutis studioso pro vera 
generatione est virtus." 

"* Of. LXX BiKaios, TcXcios cov €v TTJ ycvctt avTOv, TU) ^eai 
evrjpiarqae. " €<f}ddpr]. " aBiKias. 

64. 



genp:sis, book i 

He (Moses) himself has given the reason in speaking of 
injustice (as being) for the sake of the earth's corruption. 
For deliverance " from this in particular is justice ^ both 
for men and for the parts of the world, (namely) heaven 
and earth. 



*99. (Gen. vi. 12) What is the meaning of the words, 
" All flesh corrupted his " way upon the earth " ? 

First of all (Scripture) has called the self-loving ** man 
" flesh " ; therefore having formerly called him " flesh," it 
adds, not " the same " * but " of the same," ^ evidently 
meaning " in respect of man," <> for one who misuses'" an 
uncultivated life is flesh. Second, it considers flesh as the 
cause of spiritual corruption,* which is indeed the truth, 
for it is the seat of desires,^ from which, as from a spring, 
flow the properties * of desires and other passions.^ Third, 
the (pronoun) " his "is more natural, being declined as the 
oblique case "* or from the nominative case of the pronoun 
" himself." " For when we ofl^er honour to someone we 
do not venture to call him by any other name than " him- 
self." Hence was derived the Pythagorean principle," " He 
himself has said it " ^ when they exalted and magnified 
their honoured teacher, fearing to call him by name. The 
same custom is found both in cities and in homes ; for at 
the coming of the master, slaves say " Himself is coming 

" acoTTjpia. ^ BiKaioavvr] . 

" avrov as in lxx ; Heb. requires aurou " his own " ; Arm. 
O.T., like Heb., has reflexive pronoun, referring to man. 

'^ (fiiXavTOV. * TT7V avTTjv <CTa/3/fa>. ^ tov avrov. * 

" Trepi or €V€Ka tov dvdpcoTTOv. '' rrapaxpo-r at. 

* TTV€VfiaTt,Krjs ^dopds. ' tovos tu)V €7n6vfj.id>v. 

^ at IbiOTTjTes. ^ TTadatv. '" irXayia TrrwaLS- 

" i.e. ain-os. Lit. "from the nominative pronoun" — oltto 
TTjs opdrjs avrcovvfiias. The sense is somewhat obscure to me. 
Aucher renders, " tertio magis naturaliter ejus, casus est 
partialis declinatus (ab Is), vel de recto pronominis (Ipse) 
ipsiusJ'"' For the general meaning see the parallel, Quod Deus 
sit Immut. §§ 140 f. Procopius condenses and paraphrases. 

" apX^. * ainos €<f>a. 

SUPPL. ID 65 



I 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

in." And in the several cities, when the lord has come, 
they call him by the name " himself." But why have I 
dwelt at length on such things .'' Because I wished to 
show that the Father of the universe " is here mentioned, 
since all good things celebrated for their virtues are His. 
And out of reverence '' (Scripture) uses truly admirable 
names " cautiously because it was about to introduce the 
destruction (of mankind). But the oblique case of the 
pronoun is taken in an honourable sense in the saying, 
" All flesh corrupted his "^ way," for truly the way of the 
Father has been corrupted through the desires and pleasures 
of the flesh ; for these are the adversaries * of the laws of 
continence,^ frugality," prudence,'' courage * and justice,^ 
through which (virtues) the way which leads to God is 
found and broadened, becoming wholly . . .*= 



*100. (Gen. vi. 18) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The time of all mankind has come against * me, for the 
earth is filled with injustice " ? 

Those who reject Fate "* use (these and) many other argu- 
ments, especially when death comes upon very many in a 
short time, as in the overthrow of houses, in conflagrations, 
shipwreck, tumult, in war, in combats on horse and com- 
bats on foot, in naval battles and plagues. To those who 
say this we say the same thing that was just said by the 
prophet (Moses), taking the reasoning" from him. For 

" TTarrip twv oXcov. * 8i' aiSco. 

" davixaaiois ovofjLaai. ^ avrov ; see note n on p. 65. 

'* dvTifiaxoii OLvrirraXoi. ^ iyKparelas. 

" oXiyapKias, oXiyoSeias. '^ aco(f>poavv7]s. 

* dvBpeias. ^ BiKaioarvvrjs. 

* The word eriwr is, as Aucher remarks, unknown ; he 
emends to diwr "smooth" or iw7' "his "; the Arm. glossator 
gives " open (or " spacious ") road." 

^ Lxx ivavriov, lit. " opposite " or " against " here renders 
Heb. liph^nS " before." Philo stresses the literal meaning of 
the Greek preposition, ignoring the required sense for homi- 
letical purposes. 

"• €lfiappL€vr)v (prob.). ♦» Lit. " reason " — cdriav. 

66 



GENESIS, BOOK I 

the meaning of the words, " The time of all mankind has 
come against me " is about as follows. The life-time of all 
mankind has been limited and restricted to one time.** In 
consequence of this they no longer live in accordance with 
the harmonious principle of Fate.'' And the reckoning " 
of every single one is gathered ** into one, and has the same 
end in accordance with some harmony * and revolution of 
the stars, by which the race of mortals ^ is constantly pre- 
served and destroyed. Accordingly, these things they 
may accept as they wish, both those who are among the 
learned " and those who contradict them. But this must 
first be said by us, that there is nothing so contrary and 
hostile and opposed to the Almighty * as is injustice.* 
Wherefore (Scripture) says that " The time of all mankind 
has come against me," and adds the reason for the opposi- 
tion,^ (namely) that the earth was filled with injustice. 
Second, time is considered a god * by the wicked among 
men, who would conceal ' the really existing One."* For 
which reason (Scripture) says, " The time of all mankind 
has come against me," inasmuch as they make a god " of 
human time and oppose it to the true (God). But this is 
indicated in other places as well, where (Scripture) expresses 
the same principle as follows, " The time stood far off from 
them but God is among us," " as if meaning that by wicked 

" BicDpiaOr] Kal . . . eis Iva xP'^vov. 

^ Kara tov avficfxuvovvra (or ofiovoovvra) Xoyov tov ttjs ei- 
lj.apfjL€vr)s. The syntax and meaning are rather obscure to 
ine. Professor H. A. Wolfson of Harvard University calls 
attention to a relevant statement in Aristotle, De Gen. et Corr. 
ii. 10, 336 b, 8io Kal ol xpovoi koI ol ^Iol e/cacrTcov dpidixov exovai 
Kal TOVTO) Siopi^ovraL. ttolvtcov yap eWt rd^LS, koI 7ra? XP^^^^ 
Kal jSi'os [xeTpeiTai TrepioSo). " Aoyos. "* avvdyeTat. 

* o/xovoiav. ^ TO ^daprov yevos. " tcov Bi8aKTa>v (?). 
'^ Dam. Par. has " to the most holy powers of God." 

* dSt/cia. ' TTJs evavTLorrjTOS. 

* deos. ^ KoXvTTTeiv vel sim. 

'*' TOV ovTcos 'Ovra. The Greek frag, has t<o dXrjdei dew. 

" deoTrXaarovai. 

" Cf. Lxx, Num. xiv. 9, d<f>€crrrjK€ yap 6 Kaipos dn ainwv, 

6 §6 KVplOS €V 'qfxiv. 

67 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

men time is believed to be the cause of the events of the 
universe * ; but by wise and cultured men * not time but 
God (is believed to be the cause), from Whom come times 
and seasons. But He is the cause not of all things but 
only of the good and of those which are in accordance with 
virtue. " For j ust as He is unsharing and without portion 
in evil, so also is He not responsible ^ for it. Third, in 
respect of the above statement (Scripture) indicates a 
certain excess of impiety in saying, " The time of all man- 
kind has come " as if it meant that all men everywhere with 
one accord * had agreed upon impiety. And the state- 
ment that " the earth was filled with injustice " is as much 
as to say that no part of it remains empty ^ so as to receive 
and support righteousness." But the expression " against " 
is a confirmation of what has been said, for the divine 
judgment '' of choice * alone is firm.' 

" rwv Tov Koa/jLOv Trpay/xarcDV. 
*• The Greek frag, has evae^eai. 
" dpeTijv. '^ avairios. * /i.ia yvcofir). 

K€v6v. ^ SiKaioavvTjv. ^ rj deia SiViy. 

* alpeaecos, eVAoy^?, Arm. va riant = deaecos. 
^ ^efiaia. The syntax of the last clause is obscure. 



68 



BOOK II 

1. (Gen. vi. 14) What is the construction " of (the ark of) 
Noah ? 

If anyone wishes to examine that ark more physically,* 
he will find the construction of the human body (in it), as 
we shall discover in detail. 

2. (Gen. vi. 14) Why does he (Noah) make the ark out 
of quadrangular beams ? 

First of all, the figure of a quadrangle, wherever placed, 
keeps its place firmly, making all right angles ; and the 
nature * of the human body is constituted most impeccably'* 
and most faultlessly.* Second, although our body is an 
instrument,^ and each of its parts is rather rounded," never- 
theless the limbs constituted by these parts perforce " 
reduce the quadrangular figure to the circular one, as (for 
example) in the case of the chest, for the lungs are rather 
quadrangular.' Such too is the stomach before it has 
become swollen with food or through intemperance,' for 
there are certain fat-bellied people whom one may leave 
out of the argument. However, if anyone will examine 
the arms and the hands and the back and the thighs and 
the feet, he will find them all in conmion having a quad- 
rangular form together with a spherical one. Third, a 

" KaraaK^vrj. ^ (f>vaiKa)r€pov, 

" (f)vaiSi v.I.= vXt). ^ OLTrXaveaTaTa, da^aAeoTara. 

' aiTraiaroTara. ^ opyavov. 

" KVKXtorepov. * j8ia, dvdy/cT;. 

* Aucher similarly renders, " pro exemplo sit pectus quod 
quadratum potius est quam orbiculare." 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

quadrangular beam has almost all its dimensions " unequal, 
since the length is greater than the width, and the width 
is greater than the height. Similarly constituted is the 
construction of our bodies, which are separated into a great, 
a medium and a small dimension * : a great one in length, 
a medium one in width, and a small one in height. 



3. (Gen. vi. 14) Why does (Scripture) say, " Nests, 
nests * thou shalt make the ark " .'' 

Very naturally (does Scripture speak), for the human 
body is altogether perforated ^ like a nest, and every 
one of its parts is built like a nest,* since a respiratory 
force ^ penetrates them from their very beginnings. So, 
for example, the eyes are, in a sense, holes and nests, in 
which visions nestle. Other nests are the ears, in which 
sounds nestle. A third kind of nest are the nostrils, in 
which smells make their home. A fourth kind of nest, 
greater than the preceding, is the mouth, in which, again, 
tastes make their nest. And this was made large because 
another great organ of the articulate voice nestles in it, 
(namely) the tongue, which, as Socrates said, when it 
strikes and touches now here now there, articulates * and 
forms the voice, making it truly rational.'' Moreover there 

" Lit. " differences (or " intervals ") of separation," 8ia- 
aroXal xf«>pt<7/^ta>v or the like ; Aucher renders, " distinctiones 
in sua extensione." 

* Xcoptafxos ; Aucher " extensione." 

" The Arm. and Palest. Syriac versions of Scripture repeat 
the word voaaids= Heb. qinnim " nests," i.e. " cells " (A.V. 
" rooms "). Lxx mss. have only a single occurrence of 
voaaids in this verse. Probably the Armenian translator of 
Philo has added the second occurrence to make Philo agree 
with his version of Scripture. Philo quotes part of this verse 
in De Confus. Ling. 105 but does not mention the " nests." 

** T€Tpr)fi€vov (?). * vocraeverai. 

^ 7TV€VfjLaTiKr) 8vvafiLS (?). " dpdpol. 

^ epya^Ofievrj rriv .(jxavrfv ovrcos XoyiK-qv, v.l. " becoming a 
truly rational instrument " — yevofievr] ovtcos XoyiKov opyavov. 
70 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

is another (nest) inside the skull." And there is a certain 
nest of the brain ^ which is called the dura mater. And the 
chest (is the nest) of the lungs and the heart. And both 
of these are the nests of other parts called the inwards * ; 
the lungs (are the nest) of the breath, and the heart (is the 
nest) of the blood and the breath. For it (the heart) has 
two sacs ** as if nests nestling in the chest ; (one is) the 
blood, from which the veins are irrigated like receptacles,* 
and the other is the breath, by which, again, being diffused 
as into receptacles the trachea is irrigated.^ And both the 
firmer and the softer parts are, in a certain sense, nests, and 
nourish their chicks, the bones ; the firmer parts are the 
nests of the marrow, and the softer flesh (is the nest) of 
pleasures and pains. And if one were to inquire into other 
parts he would find them to have the same kind ' of 
construction. 

4. (Gen. vi. 14) Why does He command that the ark be 
tarred inside and outside ? 

Bitumen ^ is so called because of its tarry firmness * and 
because it cements what is brought together of detached 
and disjoined things, being a bond ^ that is indissoluble 
and untouched and indivisible.* For everything that is 
held together by glue is forcibly held ' by this in a natural 
union."* But our body, which consists of many parts, is 
united both outside and inside. And it stands by its own 
cohesion." And the higher habit of these parts is the soul," 
which being in the middle, everywhere rushes out to the 
entire upper surface and from the upper surface returns to 
the middle, so that one psychic nature is enveloped ^ by a 

" €v TO) Kpavlo). * €yK€<f>dXov. 

" T<x)v airXdyxvcav. ^ KOiXiai. * be^afxevaC. 

^ Lit. " filled with breath." 

" Lit. " nature " — <f>vaiv. ^ da^aXros. 

* da<f>dX€iav (?). ' Seer/Lids'. 

^ dSidXx/Tos Kal dipavGTOS Kal drfMriTOS' ^ /Sia^crai. 

"* Kara <f>vaiK'fjv evcoaiv. 

" €^ei, cf. Colson on Leg. All. ii. 22. 

" 4'^Xl' ^ irepiTrXtKerai. 

71 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

double bond, (thus) being fitted <» to a firmer consistency '' 
and union." Accordingly this ark is overlaid with bitumen 
inside and out for the beforementioned reason. But that 
(other ark) in the temple,** which is overlaid with gold, is a 
likeness of the intelligible world,* as is shown in the treatise 
concerning this subject.^ For the intelligible world, which 
exists in one place, is, as it were," incorporated '' in the 
incorporeal forms,* being fitted together ' and united ^ out 
of all the forms. For in the measure that gold is more 
valuable than bitumen, in the same measure is the (ark) 
which is in the temple more excellent than (Noah's) ark. 
Wherefore He instructed that the measure of this ark be 
quadrangular, looking toward its usefulness ' ; but in the 
case of the other (ark He was looking toward) its imperish- 
ability,™ since the nature of incorporeal and intelligible 
things " is imperishable and incorruptible" and permanent.** 
And this ark is carried about here and there, but the other 
one has its position firmly in the temple. But that which 
is stable * is related to the divine nature, just as this (ark), 
which turns now in one direction and now in another and 
changes (is related) to that which is generated.'' And this 
ark of the flood is held up ' as a type of corruptibility.* 
But the other one in the temple follows the condition " of 
the incorruptible. 



^5. (Gen. vi. 15-16) Why does (Scripture) hand down the 
dimensions of the ark in this manner : " the length (shall 

" dpfxo^oiMdvT). ^ jSejSatdrepov rovov. 

'^ evwaiv. ** iv tCo Upw. 

* Tov vor)Tov Koayiov. ^ Cf. De Ebrietate 88-90. 

" Construction not certain. 



atofiarovTai. €V rats aaoipLwrois ibiais. 



^ dp/xo^o/Lievos". ^ evw/jLevos. * to xRV'^'-H'^^' 

"" TO aaairis (?). " aawfidroiv Koi vorjTcov. ° d(f>dapTOS. 

^ Sia/jLivcov. ^ ardaiiiov or ^ejSaiov. 

*■ Arm. here seems to have read to y6v(.p.ov or to yevvrjTiKov 
" generative " for ycvrjTov " generated." 

* Or " cited " — dva^cpcTat (?). 

* d)S rpoTTOS rrjs (ffdopds. " Or " lot " — tov KXrjpov. 
72 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

be) three hundred cubits, its width fifty (cubits) and its 
height thirty (cubits). And to a cubit above (it is to be) 
finished, coming together gradually in the manner of a 
mound " " ? 

In a literal sense ^ it was necessary to construct a great 
work " for the reception of so many animals, of which the 
several genera were to be brought inside together with their 
food. But symbolically,'* correctly considered and under- 
stood, it points to the knowledge * of the make-up -'' of our 
body, and there was now to be used," not the quantity of 
cubits but the accurate proportion '* which subsists in them. 
And the reckonings * which subsist in them are sixfold and 
tenfold and five thirds. For three hundred is six times 
fifty and ten times thirty, while fifty is five thirds of 
thirty. And similar are the proportions of the body. For 
if anyone wishes to ins])ect (the matter), he will perceive 
on reflexion that man has ' a measure * that is not very 
great and not very small ; and if one takes a cord and 
stretches it from the head to the feet he will find that the 
cord is six times (as long) compared with the width of the 
chest, and ten times (as long) compared with the thickness 
of the sides (of the body), and that the width is five thirds 
of the thickness. Similar is the actual proportion,^ taken 
from nature, of the human body, which is made with a 
measure essentially excellent in the case of those who are 
neither excessive nor deficient. And He most excellently "* 
determined the (ark's) being finished to a cubit above," for 
the upper part of the body imitates unity ; (that is), the 
head, like the citadel " of a king, has as its occupant 

" This is an expansion of lxx, koI els tttjxvv auvreAeaeis 
avTTjv dvojdiv. " Mound " here is given for Arm. kot'ol which 
usually renders ^dais or oKOTreXov ; Aucher renders " instar 
obelisci." ** vpos to prjTOV. " fieya epyov. 

** avfJi^oXiKcos or TTpos TO crr]fJL€io)d4v. * yvwatv. 

t^ TTJs TTOi-qaeoJS (?). " XPl^^V^^'^'^^ "^^^ ***^« 

* 7} eV OLKpi^eias dvaAoyia. » ol Xoyoi. 

* Xpcofievov. * AttVpo;, p.€Tprja€i. ' dvaXoyia. 

*" TTayKoXois. " See note «. 

* aKpov, aKpoTToXis. 
73 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the sovereign mind.*' But those (parts) which are below the 
neck are divided into several parts, into hands and especi- 
ally into the lower limbs ; for the thighs and the legs and 
the feet are separated (from one another). Accordingly 
the aforementioned proportion * of cubits of relation " will 
easily be recognized, as I have pointed out, by anyone who 
wishes to learn them."^ However, it is fitting not to ignore 
the fact that as for the number of cubits, each of them has 
its own necessary reckoning * ; but one must begin at first 
with the length. Now three hundred is composed of single 
numbers joined one by one with an increase of one (each 
time, namely), of these twenty-four ^ : 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 
8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. 
But twenty-four, a very natural " number, is apportioned 
among the hours of day and night and among the letters of 
written sound.'' And being composed of three cubes,* it is 
entire,^ complete and quite full in equality,^ since the triad 
steadily exhibits the first equality, having a beginning, 
middle and end, which are equal. And the number eight 
is the first cube because it first shows equality again with 
others.^ And the number twenty -four has also many 
other virtues, being the substance"* of three hundred, as 
has been shown ; this is the first (virtue)." And another 
virtue is that it is composed of twelve quadrangles, with 
which the monad is combined through single and double 
lengths, and of twelve doubles, moreover, which are com- 

* Tov "qyenoviKov vow. 

^ fidrpov, fjLerprjais. " dvaXoyias. 

'^ Construction of Arm. slightly uncertain. 

* Adyov. 

^ The following numerals are given as numeral letters 
in Arm. 

" <f>vaiKa)TaTOS. 

^ The 24 letters of the Greek alphabet. 

* 1 X 3 X 8. ^ oXos. 
'■ So literally ; Aucher renders, " quia cum ceteris aequi- 

tatem rursus primam declaravit." Probably Philo means the 
repetition of 2 in the factors of 8 (= 2 x 2 x 2). 
"* ovaia. " dper-q. 

74 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

posed of twos, to which two is separately added." Now 
the angular numbers which compose the twelve quad- 
rangles are as follows : 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 
23. And it composes quadrangles as follows : one, four,** 
9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81, 100, 121, 144.« But the angular 
(numbers) which compose the other lengths are the follow- 
ing : 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24 ; these make 
12 (numbers). But from these are composed 2, 6, 12, 20, 
30, 42, 56, 72, 90, 110, 132, 156, and these again are twelve 
(numbers).'* If you add the twelve quadrangles (that is), 
one hundred forty-four and twelve other lengths (that is), 
one hundred fifty-six, you will find that three hundred is 
produced. (And you will get) a harmony of the nature 
of the odd (number), which is completed and goes over to 
the even (number) and the infinite.* For the odd com- 
pleted (number) is the maker of equality in accordance 
with the nature of the square.^ But the even and infinite 
(number is the maker) of inequality in accordance with the 
composition of another length.*' But the whole consists 
of the equal and the unequal. Whence the Creator of the 
world '^ also in the corruption of earthly creatures has given 
judgment with the ark as an example.' Now enough has 
been said concerning (the number) three hundred. But 

° The Arm. is obscure. Aucher renders, " adhaec ex 
duplicibus longis, geminis duodecim, compositis nempe ex 
duobus singillatim auctis per duo." 

* The first two numerals are given as numbers, the rest as 
numeral letters. 

" The preceding are the squares of the numbers 1 to 12. 

'^ As my colleague I. J. Gelb has pointed out to me, each 
of the twelve numbers of this series combines the correspond- 
ing number of the earlier series with the numbers preceding 
the latter; thus 2=2+0, 6 = 2+4, 12=2+4 + 6, 20=2+4 
+ 6 + 8, etc. 

* TO apTLOV Kol TO aTTCipOV. 

^ Aucher inadvertently renders, " trianguli." 

" Cf. QG i. 15. ^6 KOGfJLOTTOLOS. 

* So literally ; Aucher renders more smoothly, " unde 
conditor ipse mundi etiam in corruptione terrenorum certum 
quasi exemplum praebuit in area." 

75 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

now we must speak concerning (the number) fifty." In 
the first place it consists of a rectangular (triangle) of 
quadrangles, *" for a rectangular (triangle) consists of three, 
four, five ; but from these (comes) the quadrangle," nine, 
sixteen, twenty -five, the sum of which is fifty. And in the 
second place, fifty is completed and filled "* by the unity of 
the following triangles : 1, 3, 6, 10, and again by the follow- 
ing four, equal in unity : 1, 4, 9^, 16.* Now the triangular 
(numbers), added together, make twenty,^ and the quad- 
rangular (numbers) make thirty," of which (the sum) is 
fifty. And if the triangular and quadrangular (numbers) 
are combined, the septangular (number) is produced, so 
that potentially it is contained in the divine fiftieth,'^ which 
the prophet had in view when he designated it as the 
festival of the fiftieth (year).* But the fiftieth year is 
entirely free ' and freedom-giving.*^ The third argument ' 
is that three squares"* in succession from unity and three 
cubes in succession from unity give fifty ; the three squares 

" The measure of the width of the ark in cubits. 

^ e'l opOoycovov TCTpaycovcov ; ef. De Spec. Leg. ii. 177, where 
Philo says it is formed from opdoycoviov TpiycLvov. 

"^ Meaning the square on each side of the triangle. 

'^ reXeadels TiX-qpovTai. 

^ Apparently these four numbers are considered equal in 
being squares of the first four digits. 

M +3 + 6 + 10=20. "1+4+9 + 16=30. 

^ €v rtp KvpiaKO) TTevTrjKoaTcp. The Arm. adds " the holy 
trinity," a Christian gloss. Aucher omits " trinity " in his 
translation but connects " holy " with " fiftieth." 

*' The word " year " is supplied from the context ; Aucher 
renders, " festum lubilaeum." 

^ In Lev. XXV. 9 f. Heb. ijobel " Jubilee " is rendered by 
Lxx as eviavTos d(f>€a€(jos, similarly by Arm. O.T. In De 
Spec. Leg. ii. 176 fF. Philo applies the virtues of 50 to Pente- 
cost, not to the Jubilee year. In dealing with the latter, De 
Spec. Jjeg. ii. 110 ff., he does not indulge in Pythagorean 
number-mysticism. 

* eXevdepoTToios, used only of God in extant Greek works 
of Philo. ' decopia or dewprj^ia. 

"» Aucher again inadvertently gives " trianguli." 

76 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

in succession from unity are the following : 1, 4, 9 (of which 
the sum) is 14 ; and the cubes are the following : 1, 8, 27 
(of which the sum) is 36 ; and their simi is fifty. More- 
over thirty is a very natural " (number). For as the triad 
is to unity, so thirty is to the decad, so that the period of 
the moon is full-orbed by collections of months.* Second, 
it consists of the following four squares in succession from 
unity : 1, 4, 9, 16, which (added together) make thirty. 
WJierefore not idly or inappropriately did Heracleitus call 
this a generation, saying, " From a man thirty years old 
there can come a grandfather, for he attains manhood in 
his fourteenth year, when he is able to sow seed, and the 
(child) sown within a year comes into being and similarly 
after fifteen years begets one like himself." " And from 
these names of grandfathers, fathers, begotten sons, and 
of mothers, daughters,** and sons of daughters there comes 
about a complete generation. 



6. (Gen. vi. 16) What is the meaning of the words, " a 
door at the side " } For (Scripture) says, " Thou shalt 
make a door at the side." 

Not vulgarly * does that door at the side (of the ark) 
represent the human structure,^ which He decently men- 
tioned, saying it was " at the side," " through which the 
excreta are removed to the outside. (This is) very excel- 

" <f)vaiK(X)raros. 

^ Text and meaning obscure ; Aucher renders, " idque 
lunae cyclus, collectio singulorum mensium plena delinea- 
tione." Staehle, following Robbins, cites a partial parallel 
from John Lydus, p. 55, eVei koX 6 tov /xr/vos kvkXos avv- 

4cm)K€V. 

" Cf. Plutarch, Def. Orac. ii. 415 d ap. Diels, Frag. d. Vor- 
sokratiker, 4th ed.,i. 76, also Censorinus 17. 2 and John Lydus, 
De Mens. iii. 14 (the latter " misverstanden " according to 
Diels). 

** Variant " sons." 

* Aucher " obscure," but Arm. douznak'^ay means 
" small," " slight," " cheap." 

" TrXayiav. 

77 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

lent, for," as Socrates used to say, whether taught by Moses 
or moved by the things themselves, the Creator, valuing * 
the decency of our body, turned to the rear of the senses 
the orifices of the passage of the canals," lest we should feel 
disgust at ourselves,*^ when in purging ourselves of the bile- 
carrying waste, we see this shameful sight. Wherefore 
He surrounded and enclosed that passage by the back and 
hinder parts as by high swelling mounds ; and also for 
other uses have the buttocks been made soft. 



7. (Gen. vi. 16) Why does (Scripture) say, " Ground-floor 
(chambers) * and second-storey ones ^ and third-storey 
ones «' shall be made " '^ ? 

Most excellently* has (Scripture) alluded to the re- 
ceptacles^ of food by calling them "ground-floor cham- 
bers," since food is corruptible and the corruptibility is of 
the lower part, because it (the food) is carried downward.*^ 
For only a very little food and drink is distributed (through 
the body),^ and by this we are nourished, while the greater 
part is separated and carried outside in the excrement. 
But the intestines have been made second-storey and third- 
storey chambers by the providence of the Creator*" for the 
preservation of created things." For if He had made 

" k^anzi "for" comes before "very excellent" in the 
Arm., but the sense requires its transposition. 

' 8oKLfxdl,cov. 

" TCLs Ti]s 68ov i^oSovs TTJs rd>v 6x€TU)v. For a difl'erent 
allegory of this physiological fact see De Poster. Caini 127 f. 

'^ BBeXvTTCofxeOa. 

* KardyeLa. ^ hiuipo<f>a, " Tpiu>po<f>a. 

^ So Lxx and Arm. O.T. (except for the verb which is 2nd 
p. sing, as in Heb.). The Heb. has for " ground-floor cham- 
bers," etc., merely " lower ones, second ones, third ones." 

* TTayKaXcos. ^ dyyeta or oKevrj. ^ Kdrco. 

'■ dvaSiSoTat in the medical sense ; Aucher renders literally, 
" sursum exhibentur." *» rij rov ^wovXdarov Trpovoiq.. 

"■ els TTjv Tcov KTiadevTcov Sia/xovT^v. Aucher renders, " ad 
sustentationem confulciendam factorum." 

78 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

straight " receptacles of food from the stomach * to the 
buttocks/ something terrible '^ might have happened. In 
the first place, (there might have been) continual lack,* 
desire ^ and famine ; these are the misfortunes which 
might have occurred in that case, and instantaneous 
evacuation. s' Second, a certain insatiate desire * (would 
have resulted). For when the receptacles have been 
emptied, hunger and thirst must of necessity immediately 
follow, as in the case of pregnant matrons, and the pleasant 
desire of food must become insatiate desire and something 
unphilosophical.* For nothing is more uncultured^ than 
to give oneself wholly '^ to the belly. And third, death 
lies in wait ^ at the entrance, for they must be subject to 
an early death "* who, when they eat, are immediately 
hungry, and when they drink, are immediately thirsty, 
and before they are filled, are emptied and feel hunger. 
But by the windings and twistings of the intestines we are 
saved from all hunger and insatiate desire and from being 
subject to an early death. So long as the food which is 
taken remains within (us), not that which is in passage but 
that which is necessary is changed." For the force " of 
the food is first released * and squeezed out « in the belly.'" 
And then it is warmed in the liver and carried out.' And 
then whatever is best flavoured* resolves itself" into the 
several parts, into growth for children and into strength 
for adults, but the rest is separated as excrement and 

" Or " direct "— dp^a. 

*• diTo Tov oTOfuixov meaning " stomach " as in De Opif. 
Mundi 118 ; Aucher renders, " visceribus." 

" T17V ehpav. ^ heivoTaTOV rt. * IvSeta. 

^ iTndvjjLia (?). " K€vu}ai,s> ^ arrXfiaTia. 

' a.(f>t,X6ao<f>ov. ^ dfiovaorepov. '^ CT;^oAa^eCT^at. 

' €(f>€8p€V€l. "* (hKVfXOpOL. 

" aXXoLovTai. The meaning is that only useful food is 
digested. Aucher renders, " non ut transitus exigit sed ut 
necessarium erat variatio efficitur." " Swa/iij. 

^ avaAu€Tai. ' eKTnd^erai. *" yacnrpL 

* Variant " it is warmed and poured out from the liver." 

* Or " most wholesome " — evxviidirarov. 
" dvaAuerai. 

79 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

waste, and cast out. Now for such a dispensation " much 
time is consumed, as nature easily performs this forever.'' 
But it seems to me that if the ark is taken (to refer) to the 
human body, nature is wonderfully '^ fond of life.'' For 
these reasons, when living beings were destroyed and 
perished in the flood. He prepared a counterpart * to the 
earth. Wherefore whatever flourished on the earth the 
ark most generally ^ carried. And He wished that which 
was to be on the waves should be like the earth, a mother 
and nurse. And as they were nourished in the manner of 
pregnant women, (He wished) to show them (who were) 
within the sun and moon and the multitude of other stars 
and also the universal whole heaven.'' For seeing by 
means of that which he '* had constructed by art,' they 
learned more clearly the principle ^ and proportions *= of 
the human body. For nothing so enslaved ' man as the 

" BiaKoviav or SiOLK-qaLV. * els atwva. * SeivoSs. 

"^ <f)iX6^u)osy cf. Be Spec. Leg. ii. 205 hia to irpofnjdes rijs 
(f)iXot,u)ov (f>va€cos. The Arm. variant reads " it is not im- 
possible for nature to make the human body, being fond of 
life." * dvTLKeinevov vel sim. 

^ Or " generically " — yevLKcoTara. 

'^ Sense obscure. Aucher's rendering is not much clearer, 
" atque educate res ipsos tamquam gravidas ostendere una 
cum sole ac luna, caeteraque astrorum multitudine et universe 
toto caelo." The Armenian gloss reads " as an infant, being 
in the womb, does not see the sun and moon but still lives and 
grows, so they were in the ark. They say that Noah had 
in the ark a device that showed the heavens, and through 
this knew day and night, and the sun and moon reached 
him." According to the rabbinic legends, " the ark was 
illuminated by a precious stone, the light of which was more 
brilliant by night than by day, so enabling Noah to distin- 
guish between day and night," see L. Ginzberg, Legends of 
the Jews, i. 42 ; v. 183. Possibly Philo's reference to 
pregnant women is based on the Heb. word sohar, which 
most versions render " window " (in the ark) but the lxx by 
€Tnavvdyo)v. 

^ Apparently Noah is meant. • '''^X^V- 

* Tov Aoyov. ^ Trjv dvaXoylav. ' KareSovXtoae. 

80 



GENESIS, BOOK II 



bodily elements " of his being,'' and those things through 
which passions * come, and especially wicked passions of 
pleasure ^ and appetites.* 



8. (Gen. vi. 17) Why does (Scripture) say, " There shall 
be a flood to destroy all flesh in which there is living breath^ 
under heaven " ? 

This is almost as if it now reveals ^ what before it had 
intimated.'' For there was no other reason for the de- 
struction of man to take place than that having become 
slaves of pleasures and appetites, they did everything and 
suffered,' wherefore they attained a life of the very utmost 
misery. However, (Scripture) adds something very 
natural ^ in saying that the place of the vital spirit ^" is 
under heaven, since the heavens too are living.^ For not 
(alone ?) fortunate is the body made from a heavenly 
substance,'" as if it alone had obtained a peculiar wonderful 
portion " better than (that of) creatures endowed with life." 
But heaven, in the first place, appeared worthy of this 
benefit " in the form « of wonderful divine living beings 
which are altogether intellectual spirits *■ and give also to 
those who are on earth a portion of participation in vital 
power,* and animate those who can be animated.* 

" aToix^ia (?). 

'' Aucher renders, " corporis humores essentiales." 

" TTaOr] or " vices " — /ca/ciai vel sim. 

'^ TjSovrjs. * lindv^iaL. 

^ TTveu/Att t,wv, so also Arm. O.T. ; lxx Trvev^a l^coijs. 

^ dTTOKaXvTTT€L (?). ^ yjvL^aro. 

* €Traaxov or " were ill " — ivoaovv. ^ (f)vaLKu)T€pov. 

'' Tov ^coTi/coy TTvevfjLaros, cf. T)e Opif. Mundi 30 ^cotikco- 
Tarov TO TTvev^a. 

' Variant " in heaven there are living beings." 

"* 6^ ovpavias ovaias. ** tSiov Kal Oavfidoiov KXrjpov. 

" TcSv ovrcov Twv ^(ooyovT^Oivrwv. Aucher renders less 
literally, " creaturis viventibus." 

^ Xo-piTos or xaplafiaroS' 

* eiKOvos or tvttov. ^ voepa TTvev/xaTa. 

* fxdpos TTjs Koivcovias rrjs l^wTiKrjs Suva/xetos. 
' t/jvxoL Tovs ipvxovadai, Bvvafxevovs. 

81 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

*9. (Gen. vi. 17) Why does (Scripture) say, " Whatever 
is on earth shall die," for what sin did the beasts " commit ? 

In the first place, just as when a king is killed in battle, 
his military forces also are struck down together with him, 
so He decides now too that when the human race is de- 
stroyed like a king, other beasts should be destroyed to- 
gether with it. For which reason it happens that beasts 
die before (men) also in a plague, especially those that are 
brought up with men and live with them,^ as, for example, 
dogs and their like, and men die later. Second, just as 
when the head is cut off, no one blames " nature if so many 
other parts of the body also die together with it, so also 
no one will now condemn (this). For man is a kind of 
ruling head,** and when he is destroyed, it is not to be 
wondered at* that other living beings should perish to- 
gether with him. Third, the beasts were made, not for 
their own sake, as wise men reason,' but for the service " 
and needs ^ and honour * of man. It is right that when 
those are taken away for whose sake they (the beasts) were 
made, they too should be deprived of life. This is the 
literal meaning. But as for the deeper meaning,^ we may 
say the following, that when the soul is deluged ^ by 
streams of passion,^ and in a certain sense "* is submerged,** 
those who are on earth — by which I mean the earthy parts ** 
of the body — must die with it. For a life of evil is death. 
The eyes that see die** when they see unjustly.' And the 
ears that hear die when they hear unjustly. Every sense 
also dies when it perceives unjustly. 

" TO, KT-qvTj or Ttt aAoya. A similar question is asked in 
QG i. 94, see above, p. 62. ^ avvrpo^a koI avvoiKa. 

" aLTidrai. ^ apxiKri tls K€<f>aXrj. ' ov davfiaoTOV. 

^ The Arm. seems literally to translate ws iarL rwv uo(f>wv 
6 Xoyos. Aucher renders, " ut a sapientibus dictum est." 

" els V7T7]p€aiav. ^ ;;^/3eias'. 

* €VTTp€7T€iav OT " cnjoymcnt " — aTToXavaiv. 

^ TO vpos Bidvoiav. * /fara/cAu^CTai. 

' Or " sin." "» rpoirov tlvol. 

" KaraTTOvrit^erai. ° ra xo'Ckol or ra yecoSr]. 

^ TeAeuTcoCTt. ' dBiKcos. 

82 



I 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

*10. (Gen. vi. 18) What is the meaning of the words, 
" I will establish my covenant " with thee " ? 

In the first place He announces ^ that no one will be the 
heir " of the divine substance '^ except only him who is 
virtuous. Though men have heirs when they are no 
longer (alive) but are dead, God is eternal and gives par- 
ticipation in inheritance * to the wise, and rejoices in their 
possession.^ For he who possesses all things is not in need " 
of anything, but those who lack " all things possess nothing 
in truth. Wherefore, being gracious. He benefits those 
who are worthy,* bestowing ^ on them whatever they lack. 
Second, He bestows a certain additional inheritance on the 
wise man, for He does not say, " I will establish my cove- 
nant for thee " but " with thee," that is to say, " thou art 
a just and true^ covenant, which I will establish as a 
rational class ^ in possession and enjoyment (of that) for 
which virtue is necessary." 

■^11. (Gen. vii. 1) Why does (Scripture) say, " Enter thou 
and all thy household "* into the ark, for I have seen thee 
righteous" before me in this generation " ? 

In the first place, (it is) clear evidence that because of 
one righteous and worthy man, many men are saved* 
through their relation" to him, just as sailors and a (mili- 
tary) force '^ (are saved, the former) when they meet with 
a good skipper ,*■ and the latter with one who is experienced 
in battle and is a good commander. In the second place, 
He praises the righteous man who acquires virtue not only 
for himself but also for his household,* wherefore it also 
becomes worthy of salvation.* And most excellently " is 
the following added, " I see thee righteous before me." 

" ^LadrjKrjv. * avayyiXXei. " KX-qpovofiov. 

^ TTJs delas ouCTiaj. * Koivcoviav TTy? KXrjpovofjLias. 

^ Dam. Par. Trepiovaiq.. ' ovk ivSe-qs. ^ arropoi. 

' Tovs d^iovs, ' ;^api^d/xevo9. 

^ SiKaia Kal olXtjOt^s. ' XoyiKov yevos. 

*" oiKia. " SiVatov. * ao)t,ovTaL. 

v atryyeveiav. *' Suva/itj. '' Kv^epvqrrj. 

oiKco. ' acoTTjplas. " TrayKaXcos. 

83 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

For in one way do men appraise " the manner of life ^ (of 
someone), and in another way the Deity (judges). For 
they judge by visible things, but He judges by the invisible 
thoughts of the soul.'' And it is remarkable ^ that what 
follows this is placed first,* in that He means, " in this 
generation thee have I seen righteous," lest He should seem 
to condemn former (generations) and cut off hope from 
those who are to come later.^ This is the literal meaning. 
But the deeper meaning " (is as follows). When God saves 
the sovereign mind,'' which is the master * of the soul,^ then 
He also saves the whole household with it. By this I mean 
all the parts *= and those things which are partial,^ and 
speech,"* which is projected outward, and the things of the 
body. For as the mind is in the soul, so the soul is in the 
body." Through reflexion " all the parts of the soul are 
well-off,*' and all its household experiences benefit together 
with it. And when the whole soul fares well, then its 
household experiences benefit with it,« the body (doing so) 
through moderation and restraint of habits *" and by cutting 
off its insatiable desire, which is the cause of illnesses. 



*12. (Gen. vii. 2, 3) Why does He command (Noah) to 
lead into the ark seven of the clean beasts,* male and 

" boKiixd^ovai. ^ 8i,aycoyT]v. 

" €K Tcov TTJs 4'^Xl^ dopoLTWv Xoyi-crfitJov. ^ OavfiaoTov. 

' TO. Tovrojv 4^'^s eridr] Trporepov. Aucher's rendering, 
" quod interea additur," misses the point, namely that in 
Scripture the words " in this generation " follow " thee have 
I seen righteous." 

^ Aucher renders, " neque posteriorem futurorum spem 
concideret." Procopius fi-qre rds avdis uTroycuwaKeiv. 

" TO rrpos hiavoiav. ^ rov rjyefjLOViKOv vovv. 

* olKoBeaTTOTTjS. 

^ I have slightly transposed here ; Arm. has " of the 
soul " after " mind " and before the rel. pr. 

* rd pAprj. ' TO. /card fiepi}. "* Xoyos. 

" Or " what the mind is to the soul, so is the soul to the 
body." " Aoyiff/icDv. ** evrraBovvTa. 

" Note the repetition. *" aw<f>poavvrj koI eyKpoTeia idcJv. 

* TcDv Kadaptov kttjvcov, 

84 



i 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

female, but of the unclean, two, male and female," to 
nourish seed on all the earth ? 

In a manner befitting God'' (Scripture) calls the heb- 
domad pure " but the dyad impure,'* for by nature the 
number seven is truly " pure, inasmuch as it is virginal ^ 
and unmixed ' and unmothered,'^ nor does it give birth * 
nor is it born, as are the several (digits) which are in the 
decad, because of its likeness to the Eternal,' for He * is 
uncreated and unbegotten ' and nothing is begotten by 
Him,^ although He is the causes of generation " and things 
begotten," for He moves ^ all those powers " which are 
naturally well suited to the generation of what is begotten. 
But the number two is impure. In the first place, because 
it is empty and not dense '' ; and what is not full is also 
not pure. Then too it is the beginning of a vast infinity 
in matter.* And it has inequality because of oblongs,' for 
those (numbers) which are multiplied by two are all ob- 
longs." But the unequal " is not pure, and neither is the 
material,'^ but that which comes from it is doubtful * and 

" Philo omits the birds mentioned in Gen. vii. 3. 

* diOTrpeiTws. " Kadapav. ^ Lit. " not pure." 

* ovTOis ; Aucher omits this word. 

^ irapdevos. " aKparos^ 

^ d/AT^Tfop. Cf. Leg. All. i. 15. 

* Ti'/crei. ' Tw ovri. 

* That God is meant seems probable from the context, but 
cf. Leg. All. i. 15. ^ 

' dyevTjTOS Kai dyevvTjros. 

"^ See note k. " ttjs yeveaecos. 

° Tcov y€vvr)d€VT(ov. ^ /civet. 

' SvvdfJLfis. ^ K€v6s Kol ov vaaros, as in J. Lydus. 

* aTTiipias hid ttjv vXtjv. Cf. QG i. 15. 

* hid Tous €T€po[j,T]K€is (dpidfiovs), meaning numbers " not 
square " or produced by multiplying unequal factors ; cf. 
Colson's Appendix on Leg. All. i. 3 (vol. i. p. 477 of Loeb 
Philo). 

" Aucher 's rendering " caeteros longos (numeros) " misses 
the point of the Greek behind Arm. ayl arkaracn,, lit. " other 
lengths," as explained in preceding note. 

" TO dviaov. "" TO vXlkov. * atjyaXcpov. 

85 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

incongruous," lacking a reason ^ for purity, (namely) that 
which brings it to an end." And it is automatically ** 
brought to an end by periods * of harmony and equality. 
These are the natural aspects/ But the moral aspects " 
are now to be spoken of. The irrational and unintelligent 
part '' of our souls * is divided into seven parts, into the five 
senses,' the organ of speech * and that of reproduction.^ 
These are all pure in a virtuous man '" and by nature are 
feminine when they belong to the irrational species," but 
(when they belong to) a good possessor," they are masculine, 
for the thoughts ^ of a virtuous man bring virtue to them 
also, since they are not permitted by his better part " to 
come to the external senses rashly and unrestrained and 
uncurbed but he subdues •■ them and turns them back to 
right reason.* But in a wicked man' the evil produces 
twins," for the foolish man is of two minds and hesitates 
between two courses, mixing things that are not to be 
mixed, and confusing and mingling those things which can 
easily be separated.* Such is he who bears a colour in his 
soul,"' for he is like one spotted * and a leper in his body, 

" dvapfioarov. 

* aiTias or " occasion " — d(l)opixrjs> 

" The last clause is obscure ; Aucher renders, " quae illud 
in desinentiam (vd, perfectionem) conducat." 

** aVTOVOfJLWS. 

" Arm. nowag has several different meanings ; two of its 
common Greek equivalents are TrepioSos (or KadoBos) and 
fjLeXos. Aucher chooses the latter meaning here, rendering 
it by " canticus." 

^ rd (f)v<7LKd. ^ rd rjdiKd. ^ rd dXoyov koX avow. 

* T(x)v tpvxdjv. ' aladriaeis. ^ to (f>covr]TT^pi,ov opyavov. 
'■ TO GTTipfjLaTLKov OY, as usually in Philo, to yovLp-ov. 

*" Tcp aTTOvhaiu). ** to) dXoyto etSei. 

" dyaOcp KTrjaap-evcp. " ol Xoyiap.oL 

' Or possibly " for the most part " — cV rov tt-Acicttou puipovs. 

^ TaTTCLVOi. * TTpos Tov opdov Xoyov dvaaTp€<f>€i. 

' TO) (f>avXa). " SiSu/xoTO/cei. ^ hiaKpLveadai.. 

^ The Arm. seems to be slightly corrupt ; the Greek 
fragment has roiavra iv ilfvxfj XP<^H'<^'^^ €'m<f>€pcov, " bearing 
such colours in his soul." '^ ttoikIXos. 

86 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

defiling and staining his healthy thoughts" by death- 
bringing and murderous ones.'' However, in a natural 
way " there is added (by Scripture) the reason for the entry 
and guarding '^ of the animals, for (Scripture) says this was 
for the nourishing* and preserving^ of seed." In the 
literal sense,'' although particular (animals) * may perish,'" 
nevertheless the genus * is preserved in the seed of others 
in order that the divine purpose ^ which was formed at the 
creation of the world "" might forever remain inextinguish- 
able by the saving of the genus. But in the figurative 
sense,'* it is necessary that there be saved " the irrational 
parts of the soul, pure of movement, to be, as it were, 
seed-bearing principles ^ of non-holy things ^ as well. For 
man's nature is receptive of contraries,*" both virtue and 
vice, each of which (Scripture) has indicated in the account 
of the Creation * by the tree which is called the knowledge * 
of good and evil, since our mind," in which are knowledge 
and understanding," comprehends both of them, good and 
evil. However, the good is kin*" to the hebdomad, while 
evil is brother to the dyad. Moreover, the Law, abounding 
in beauty and loving wisdom,'^ says that seed is to be 

** Tovs vyiels Aoyia/Ltous'. 

* €K davarovvTwv Kal ^ovovvriov. " (fivoiKtos- 

^ TTJs etadSoy Kal tt]S (fyvXaKrjs. * tov ^pei/rai. 

^ TOV SiaTTjpeiv. " TO OTTepfia. 

'^ TO prjTOV. * TO em fiepovs. ^ 8ia(f>9€ipr)T(u. 

^ TO yevos. ' 17 Ocla npodeais. 

"^ €V TTJ KoayiOTTOua. *» TO TTpos Siavotav. 

" The last four words are bracketed by Aucher. 

** The syntax of the Arm. is obscure ; Aucher construes 
differently, rendering, " oportet et in irrationalibus (partibus) 
animi mundos motus esse ut seminalia quaedam principia 
etsi non sint munda (animalia)." ' avoaiW. 

*" ivaVTLWV. * €V TTJ KOaflOTTOlta. 

' TO ytyvcoa/ceiv. " d ly/LteTepos vows'. 

" The first Arm. term, gitoutHwn, usually renders iTnaTT^fXTj 
or yvwais : the second term, handar, renders avvemst (f>p6vrjms, 
iTTiaTrniiq, etc., but in the Arm. version of Philo's De Vita 
Contemplativa it regularly renders eTnaTrnx-q. 

"^ atryyeves. ^ <f>i\6ao^o?. 

87 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

nourished not in one place but in all the earth. This is 
very natural and at the same time very moral," for it is 
very natural that in all parts and sections of the earth there 
should again be the seed of living things * ; and it is very 
fitting for God again to fill the emptied places with similar 
things through another (act of) generation. (It is also) 
very moral that the substance of our body, being earthy, 
should not be altogether overlooked,'' destitute and empty ** 
of living beings. For if we resort to drunkenness * and 
fine cooking and chasing after women ^ and to altogether 
lewd and loose behaviour, we shall be corpse-bearers " in 
our body. But if the merciful ^ God turns aside the flood 
of vices * and makes the soul dry,^ He will proceed to 
quicken ^ and animate ^ the body with a purer soul, whose 
guide "* is wisdom." 



*13. (Gen. vii. 4, 10) Why, after (their) entering the ark, 
did seven days pass, after which (came) the flood ^ " 

The benevolent Saviour ^ grants repentance of sins ' in 
order that when they see the ark over against them,*" which 
had been made as a symbol of time,* and the genera of 
animals placed in it, which the earth bore in itself, in 
accordance with their several particular species,' they may 
have faith " in the announcing " of the flood ; (and that) 

"■ ridiKiOTaTOV. 

^ The Arm. syntax seems slightly corrupt here. 



•^ d-qXo^avLa. 


^ V€KpO<f>OpOVVT€S' 


* otKreipcov. 


* Or " passions." 




' ^-qpdv. 


* t,cooyov€iv. 


' ipvxovv. 


"* Kv^ipv-qTTjs. 



ao<j)ia. Dam. Par. paraphrases. " 6 KaTaKXvap.6?. 

'' o €V[jL€vr]s (or lAecus) aoirrjp^ meaning God. 
'' fxerdvoiav apLaprichv. 
*" KOTevavrias. Procopius dvTLixLfiov yfjs. 

* TVTTov rov xpovov (?) : text and meaning doubtful. 

* Aucher " quae in se ferebat terra juxta partes ad speciem 
perspectantes." Cod. Barb, reads somewhat more intelligibly 
Ttt Ta>v t.a)a)v ycvrj . . . cov €(f)€pev rj yrj tA Kara, fiepo^ ctSr). 

" marevwai, '" tw Kr]pvyp,aTi. 

88 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

fearing destruction, they may first of all turn back (from 
sin), breaking down and destroying all impiety " and evil. 
Second, this passage ^ clearly represents " the extraordinary 
abundance ** of the seemly kindness *■ of the Saviour and 
Benefactor^ in loosing man's evil of many years," extend- 
ing almost from birth to old age, in those who repent for 
a few days.'* For the Deity is void of malice * and a lover 
of virtue.^ Accordingly, when He sees genuine virtue '^ in 
the soul. He apportions ^ such "■ honour to it as to be 
gracious" to all those who stand guilty of earlier sins." 
Third, the number of seven days, during which the (divine) 
command ^ kept back the flood after their entering the ark, 
is a reminder of the genesis of the world,' of which the 
birthday *" is celebrated on the seventh day, clearly exhibit- 
ing the Father* as though (saying), "I am both the 
creator of the world ' and He who brings into being non- 
existent things, and now I am about to destroy the world 
by a great flood. But the cause of creating " the world 
was the goodness and kindness "-' in Me, while (the cause) 
of the destruction that is about to befall them ^ is the 
ingratitude and impiety * of those who have experienced 

** dae^eiav. * Xoyos. " TrapiarrjaL. 

'' e^aiaiav vnep^oXrjv. '' Cod. Barb. ttJs eTncLKeias. 

^ Tov aoJTTJpos Koi evepyerov. ^ ttjv ttoXvcttj ixoxdrjpiav. 

^ Cod. Barb, and Procopius rjfxepais oXiyais. 

* Greek equivalent uncertain. 

^ (f)i,Xdp€Tos. * yvqaiav dperrjv. ' diTO\4p,ei. 

"* Arm. ay«ca/)*= " such " ; variant ancap'^= dpi^rpov ml 
slm. 

° Aucher renders less literally, " ut deleat onmia de priniis 
delicti imminentia damna." 

^ o xPV^I^ds (?). ^ rrjs tov KOfjfjLOv yeveaews. 

'' rd yevidXia. 

•* Aucher more freely renders, " demonstrando patris 
auctoritatem." 

' O KOafJLOTTOlOS. " TTJS y€V€a€0}S» 

^ rj dyadoT-qs koI rj xpf]or6TT}s- 
^ TTJ'S fieXXovaris KaTaXqtjjcadai. 

* TO dxcpioTovs KoX dae^els elvai. 

89 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

good." " He therefore holds off* for seven days in order 
that those who lack faith and belief*^ may be mindful of 
the genesis of the world, and coming as suppliants to the 
Creator of all <* may ask for the perpetuity of His works,' 
and that they may ask (this) not with mouth or tongue but 
rather with a chastened mind/ 



*14. (Gen. vii. 4, 12) Why was there a flooding rain « for 
forty days and as many nights ? 

First of all, " day " is spoken of in two senses. The first 
is the time from morning to evening, from the rising of the 
shining sim to its setting. Thus do they determine " who 
say, " It is day while the sun is above the earth." But the 
day is spoken of in a second sense and is reckoned with the 
night. Thus we say that the month is of thirty days, 
joining and reckoning with them also the night-time. 
Now with these things determined,* I say that the state- 
ment (of Scripture) ^ contains in itself ^ forty days and 
forty nights not vainly or idly but to emphasize the two 
numbers which are set apart ^ for the birth of man, (namely) 
forty and eighty, as is reported by many others, by physi- 
cians and also by naturalists."* And especially is this 
written in the sacred Law," which was for them " also the 
beginning ^ of being physiologists.' Accordingly, since 

" Aucher more freely renders, " qui beneficiis a me cumu- 
lati fuerant." Procopius ru>v evepyeTrjddvTwv dae^eia. 

* €7T€X€l (or KCoXvei SC. TOV KaTaKXvaix.6v). 

" ol OLTnaTovvTes /cat aneLdovvres, probably Arm. doublet. 

'^ TOV TcDv TraVTCOV TTOL-qTrjV. 

* Tr]v Twv epycDV avTov dibiOTTjTa. 



VO) 



erravopdcoaews. " Lit. " a rain of flood.' 



'^ Or " define " — biopi^ovai or " measure " — iierpovai. 

* TovTOiv (hpiafi,€V(x)v. ^ TOV \6yov. 

* Trepie'xei (?). ^ opiadevras. 

"' Tibv ^vaiKcov. On the number of days required for form- 
ing the male and female embryos see QG i. 25. 

" €V TO) UpCO VOflO). 

° Apparently the generation of Noah. 

" Or *' principle" — dpxq. ' tov elvai (f>voioX6yovs. 

90 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

destruction was about to come upon all persons every- 
where, both men and women, because of their excessive 
unity ^ in discord * and unbridled wrongdoing," the Judge ^ 
decided to fix * a time for their destruction equal to that 
which ^ He had determined for the creation of nature " and 
the first production of living beings/ For the beginning 
of generation is eternity in the parts of seeds.* And it was 
necessary to honour man with pure and unshadowed light,' 
but woman, since she was a mixture, with night and dark- 
ness and a mixed mass.* Therefore in the constitution of 
the universe ^ the (numerical) oddness *" of the masculine 
number composed of unity" produces squares," but the 
feminine even number, composed of two, produces ob- 
longs.^ Now the square numbers are splendour and light, 
consisting of an equality of sides. <* But the oblong num- 
bers have *■ night and darkness because of their inequality, 

" VTTCp^oXrjs TTJs avfjLcfxjovias (or ofxovoias). 

* €V a.avfi(f)covLa (or 8ia<f)a)via). 

" Aucher, construing a little diiFerently, renders, " ob 
unionem in excessu iniquitatum inter dissidia." 

** o Kpnrjs. * 6pit,€Lv or /Lierpeiv. 

^ Aucher, taking " people " as the antecedent of the rela- 
tive pr. instead of " time," renders, " aequale . . . tempus 
. . . eis quos " instead of " . . . ei quod." 

^ TTJ rrjs (f>va€u}S Kriaei. 

^ TTJ TTpcoTj) t,cpoyovia^ cf. Q(J i. 25. 

* 17 aXhioT-qs rj iv tols tcov aTTcpfioLTCOv /nepeai. This means 
that the species is eternal while the individual is subject to 
death ; cf. QG i. 96 and Be Aeter. Mundi 35 ff. 

' Kadapw Koi doKio) (?) <f>iOTL. See also the Greek frag. 

* (f>vpdiMaTi. The above is a literal translation of the 
obscure and probably incomplete Arm. clause ; Aucher, dis- 
regarding some of the syntactical problems, renders, " femina 
vero mixturam habebat massae cum nocte atque tenebris." 
The context requires an original something like " to honour 
woman, since she had a mixed nature, with a mixture of light 
and darkness." '■ iv rfj ra)v oXcov avardan,. 

"* TO TTepiTTOV. " e^ ivOTTJTOS aVVTiBiV. 

" One MS. " triangles." 

^ €T€pop.riK€is (Pythagorean terminology). 

" e'l laoTrjTOS TrXevpwv. ^ I At. " has." 

91 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

for that which is excessive casts a shadow on that which 
falls under the excess. In the second place, the number 
forty is a power " producing many things,^ as has been 
shown elsewhere," and is often used as an indication of the 
giving of the Law** both in the case of'' those who have 
rightly ^ accomplished something (deserving) of praise and 
honour and also in the case of those who because of trans- 
gressions are subject to blame and punishment. And 
evidently to adduce testimony » of these things would mean 
a lengthy speech.'' 

■^15. (Gen. vii. 4) What is the meaning of the words, " I 
will blot every growth of vegetation * which I have made 
from the face of the earth ' ' ? 

Would you not indeed jump up at hearing this because 
of the beauty of the sentiment ?^ It does not say, " blot 
from the earth " but " from the face of the earth," that is, 
from the surface,'' in order that in the depths the vital 
power ' of the seeds of all things may be preserved un- 
harmed and not suffer from anything that might be able 
to injure them. For the Creator does not forget His own 
purpose "* but destroys those things which move above and 
on the very surface while in the depths He leaves the roots 
for the generation of other impulses." Moreover, divinely " 

** Svvafjiis- 

* Aucher, construing diiferently, renders, " Humerus 
quadraginta plurimarum productor est virtutum." 

" QGi. 91. 

•^ T-fjs vofjLodealas. This probably refers to Ex. xxiv. 18 on 
iVF OSes' sojourn of forty days and nights on Mt. Sinai, though 
the " often " may refer to other writings beside Philo's. 

* eVi (?). Aucher has " super." 

^ opOois. " iiaprvpia 7Tpo(f>€peiv. ^ fiaKpoXoyia. 

* dvdaTTjiJLa (f>vTov. Lxx has €$avdaTaaiv= Heb. y^quni, 
" growth " (lit. " rising ") ; Arm. O.T. has hasak= -qXiKiav. 
Philo treats this passage again in QG ii. 24. 

' hid TO rrjs ivvoLas KdXXos. ^ ri]S €7n<f}av€ias. 

' 17 ^(JDTLKT) 8vvafj,is, as in Greek frag. 

'" TTJs ISias TTpodeaewg. 

"' Trpos yeveaiv dXXwv d(f>opfiwv. " OeonpeTrwS' 

92 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

is it written " I will destroy " for it so happens that when 
something is to be blotted out, the writing is blotted but 
the writing-tablets " survive. Thereby He shows that 
because of their impiety He will blot out the superficial 
generation '' in the manner of writing but will eternally 
preserve the use and substance * of the human race as seed 
for those to come in the future. In accord with this is 
what follows, for next to " I will blot " comes " the growth 
of vegetation." Now " growth " ** is the dissolution of 
opposites,* and that which is dissolved casts off its quality ^ 
but keeps its substance and its matter." This is the literal 
meaning. But the deeper meaning is as follows. The 
flood is a symbol of spiritual dissolution.'' And so, when 
by the grace of the Father * we wish to cast off and wash 
off ' from the mind *= all the sensible and corporeal things ' 
by which it was stained as if by ulcers,"* it is inundated " 
like salt-flats " by the flow of sweet streams and potable 
springs. 



*16. (Gen. vii. 5) Why does (Scripture) say, " Noah did 
everything whatsoever the Lord God instructed ^ him " ? 
(This is) great praise for the righteous man," first of all 

" Lit. " the tablets and writing." The Greek fragments 
have at SeAroi. 

^ Cod. Barb, has T17V imTToXd^ovaav yevemv. 

" XPV^^^ '^^'- ovcriav; Arm. var " use" is Aucher's emenda- 
tion of Mss. vayr " place," based on Ambrose's " substantiam 
et conversationem." The Greek fragments have ttjv SiaSoxrjv 
TTJs ovaias. 

** Lit. " rising," see note i on p. 92. 

* KaraXvais avTLKeLfxdvcov. Procopius avriiraXov Kadatpems. 

^ TTOLOTTJTa. " TTjV OVolaV KoL TTjV vXtJV. 

* avfji^oXov TTJs TTvevixaTiKTJs KaraXvaeais. 

' XapiTL Tov TTOTpo'S. ' aTTOppLTTT€LV KoX dvoXoviaOai. 

* TOV vovv. ' TTavra rd aladrjTLKd koI to. aiOfiaTLKa. 

"* Arm. palar " ulcer " here probably corresponds to K-qXrj, 
a corruption of ktjXis " stain," which the context demands. 
^ Kara/fAu^cTat. " dXfivpd, ef. De Confvs. Ling. 26. 

'" €V€T€lAaTO. ' TOV hlKaLoV. 

93 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

because he carried out, not a part, but all of the orders with 
a strong conviction and a god-loving mind." And second, 
because He does not wish to order * him so much as to 
instruct '^ him. For masters ^ command their servants, 
but loved ones * instruct their friends,^ especially elders 
their juniors." Thus it is a wonderful gift to be found in 
the rank '' of servants and in the rank * of ministers ^ of 
God. But it is a superfluity of beneficence * to be also 
beloved of the praiseworthy uncreated One.' Moreover 
(Scripture) now carefully presents both names "* ; it speaks 
of the higher powers," the destructive " and the beneficent,'' 
and it places " Lord " first, and the beneficent " God " 
second. For, as it was the time of judgment, (Scripture) 
says that the destroyer came first. However, being a kind 
and good and benevolent king,« He leaves some remains *■ — 
seminal principles * through which the vacant places may 
again be filled. Wherefore in the beginning of created 
things the expression " let there be " was not a destructive 
power but beneficent. And so, in the creation of the 
world* He changed the style of His names." For He is 
called God as beneficent, and this name He regularly " used 
in constituting the universe."" But after all this was com- 
pleted He was called Lord in the creation of the world, and 

" <f>t,Xod€cp (Cod. Barb. 0eo(^iAet) Siavota. 
^ KeXeveiv or TTpoardTTeiv. " ivriXXeadai. 

^ heoTTOTai. * dyaTTT/TOi. ^ rots <f>iXoig. 

° Lit. " the greater the less." ^ ra^ei. 

' Arm. here uses diff'erent word also= ra^ei. 
^ Prob. depavovTcov, as in Cod. Barb. 

^ VTTcp^oXr] TTJs evepyeaias. ^ vtto tov €7Taiv€Tov dyeviJTOv. 

»" i.e. the two highest attributes of God, identified with the 
names " Lord " and " God " respectively. 
** rds dvcoTaTa) SwdfieiS' 

" TTjv 8t,a<l>deLpovaav (elsewhere in Philo called KoXaoTijpiov). 
^ rrjv euepyeViv. 

'' XPV^^^^ '^^'- dyados kuI cvixiVTjs ^aaiXevs. 
*■ Xeli/java. " aTrepfxariKas dpxds. 

*■ eV Tjj KOOIXOTTOlta, 

" rds T<x>v ovofxarcuv KXi^aeiS' 

" auve;^a)? or eVt ttoXv. ^ eV rfj rwv oXcov avardaei. 

94 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

this is His kingly and destructive name." For where there 
is coming into being,* " God " is placed first in order, but 
where there is punishment, " Lord " comes before " God." 

*17. (Gen. vii. 11) Why (does Scripture say), " In the 
six-hundredth (year) of Noah's life was the flood, in the 
seventh <= month, on the twenty-seventh "^ of the month " ? 

Perhaps it would have been fitting for * the righteous 
man^ to be born at the head of the month in the first 
month, opportunely " at the beginning of that year which 
it is the custom to call in honorary fashion the sacred 
month.'' For (otherwise) * (Scripture) would not have been 
so exact in stating the month and day when the flood took 
place, both the seventh month and the twenty-seventh day. 
But perhaps in this way it clearly shows the time of the 
vernal equinox, for this always occurs in the seventh 
month, on the twenty-seventh.* But why does the flood 

" See note o on p. 94. * yevems. 

" Heb. and lxx have " second," Arm. O.T. like Philo has 
" seventh " ; Josephus also gives " second month called . . . 
Marsuan (Heb. Mar heSwan = Oct .-^oy.).'^ Philo also diff^ers 
from Heb. and lxx of Gen. viii. 14 (QG ii. 47), by giving 
" seventh " for " second " month for the drying up of the 
flood-waters in the 601st year of Noah's life. 

^ So LXX ; Heb. " seventeenth." 

' Or " might have happened that " ; Arm. dep renders 
avfJL^aiveL as well as et/cd?, TrpoarJKOV, etc. ^ rov Si/caiov. 

^ KaTOL Kaipov (?) ; Aucher omits this phrase in his rendering. 

^ TTjv Upofi7]vlav (not " annum sacrum " as Aucher ren- 
ders). By this word Philo elsewhere (c/. Colson's appen- 
dix to De Becalogo 159 in vol. vii. pp. 613-614) means the 
period introduced by the 1st of Tishri (autumnal New Year) 
or the 1st of Nisan (vernal New Year). 

* I follow Aucher in inserting " otherwise," which is 
required by the context. 

* Philo means the seventh month reckoned from the 1st of 
Tishri, namely Nisan (March- April) ; cf. De Opif. Mundi 116 
on the two equinoxes of the two seventh months, Tishri and 
Nisan. But on what tradition he bases his statement that 
the equinox occurs on the 27th of the seventh month is not 
known to me. 

95 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

occur at the vernal equinox ? Because at that time come 
the increases and births of all things, both animals and 
plants. Accordingly, the punishment carries a more 
terrible threat at the time of increase and abundance of all 
produce," and in time of fertility the evil supervenes to 
convict '' of impiety those who are subject " to punishment. 
For, behold, says (Scripture), the nature "^ of all things 
contains in itself its own fullness sufficiently * — grain, 
barley and all other things as well which are sown and 
brought to completion, and it begins to bear the fruits of 
trees. But you, as mortals, corrupt His benefactions ^ and 
with them corrupt the intention of the divine gift." For if 
the flood had happened to take place at the autumnal 
equinox, when there was nothing on the earth but all things 
were collected in their mass,'' it would not have seemed a 
punishment so much as a benefit ' because of the water 
purifying fields and mountains. Accordingly at this time 
there came into being the first earthborn man,' whom the 
divine oracles * call Adam ; for it was fitting and proper 
that the progenitor of the human race or forefather or 
father or however one ought to call that eldest man ' should 
be formed at the time of the vernal equinox when all earthly 
things are full of fruits. And the vernal equinox occurs in 
the seventh month and this is also called the first in ac- 

" Lit. "sheaves " or " stalks " — Spay/xarcov. 

* els eXeyxos. 

" Arm. pres. subj. of kr&m " to bear, suffer." 

'' 17 (f)vaLS. 

*■ Meaning doubtful; apparently= ra cavrijs apKovvrcos 
TrX-qpr). Aucher renders, " sua vel plenissime." 

^ ras evepyioias avrov. 

» Syntax and meaning uncertain ; Aucher renders, 
" divina simul dona consilia {vel^ mysteria)." The Arm. 
construction pargew zxorhourdsn seems to be genitival rather 
than appositional, but the word xorhourd has many meanings 
such as " thought," " intention," " mystery," " type," 
" symbol." ^ i.e. future plants under the earth. 

* evepyecria. ' ytjyevTJs. 
^ ol deioi xpT)ap.OL. 

' €K€tvov Tov TTpea^vrarov. 

96 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

cordaiice with a varying assumption.* Accordingly, since 
Noah after the destruction (of mankind) by the flood 
becomes the first beginning of the race,^ with mankind 
again being propagated," he is made similar, so far as 
possible, to the first earthborn man.'' Now the six hun- 
dredth year has as its source the number six, but the world 
was created with ^ the number six ; accordingly, through 
this again He exposes ^ those who act impiously * and 
shames ^ them, for in no wdse would He who brought all 
things into being through the number six, have destroyed 
earthly creatures under the form * of six, had it not been 
for the excess of their wrongdoing.' For six hundred is 
a third and lesser six,'= and the number sixty is the mean 
of both, for the tens bear a likeness to one, and in a lesser 
degree, the hundreds. 



18. (Gen. vii. 11) What is the meaning of the words, 
" All the fountains of the abyss broke forth and the cata- 
racts^ of heaven were opened " .'' 

The literal meaning "• is clear, for it is stated that earth 
and heaven are the principles and extremities of the uni- 
verse," and are joined in the condemnation" and destruc- 
tion of mortals, as the waters met together with one 

" Arm. arac — usu.= A'^/x/ta; the Greek fragment has eVt- 
^oX-qv. Philo means that the seventh month of the autumnal 
calendar, Nisan (March-April), is the first month of the 
vernal calendar. 

* T] TTpiiirrj Tov ydvovs OLpx^j' 

" Lit. " sown " — aneipo fxevojv. The Greek fragment has 
BevTipas avdpoiTTwv a-nopas. ^ rw Trpwrw Yrjyev^. 

' In Arm. expressed by instr. case of noun " number " ; 
Aucher renders, " sub numero." 

^ iXeyx^i. " TOWS' dvooLOvpyovs. 

" KaraiaxvvcDV. * axTjiiari.. ' aSt/ftaj. 

*= In the sequence 6 : 60 : 600. 

' Arm. sohank" or sahank" " streams "= lxx KarappaKTai. 

"* TO prjTov. 

" TcDi' TravTcov at apxcd (>cai) to. a/c/aa. Aucher renders, 
" orbis extrema." " els KaraKpiaiv. 

SUPPL. I E 97 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

another, some rushing up from the earth, some pouring 
down from heaven. And most clear and evident (is it why) 
it is said that " the fountains of the abyss broke forth," for 
when there is a break," the course (of the waters) is un- 
restrained. But as for the deeper meaning,^ this is to be 
said. The heaven is symbolically <= the human mind,'* and 
the earth is sense-perception and body.* And great mis- 
fortune and doubt ^ are incurred when neither one remains " 
but both together practise deceit.'^ Now what do I mean 
by this .'' Many times the mind entertains cunning and 
evil and shows bitterness* toward all things when the 
sensual pleasures^ of the body are restrained and sup- 
pressed.*' And many times it happens that it experiences 
the contrary when the sensual pleasures are fortunate ' and 
creep along"* and grow luxury-loving and prodigal in living. 
And the senses and the body " are the harbours " of these 
things. Now when the mind stands firm ^ in indifference « 
to these things, they decline and are inert.*" But when 
they both come together, reason * using all kinds of wicked- 
ness, and the body flushed ' with all the senses and indul- 

** prJYfia. * TO npos Siavotav. 

" avfi^oXiKcbs. ^ 6 dvdpcorreios vovs. 

* aXadiqais koX aoD/xa. 

^ Lit. "of doubt" — diTopLas vel sim.; Aucher renders, 
" aerumna calamitatum." 

" Apparently " remains constant " is meant. 

^ dTraraj vel stm. * TTiKpiq. XP'^^-'- 

' at rjhovai. * KOiXvovrat, koX crvaTeXXovrai. 

' evTvxels or evBaCpLoves. *" epTTovai. 

" al alad'qaeLS kol to awfia, " Xifidves. 

" Lit. " stands in itself." ' dixeXeia. 

»■ Arm. has verbs in sing. (prob. reflecting sing, verb with 
neut. pi. in Greek) = /caTa/cAiVcTat koI irapaXverai. The context 
requires us to take " senses and body " as the subjects of 
these verbs ; Aucher renders, " sed quum intellectus neg- 
lectis rebus constet in se, illi inefficaces jacent ut derelicti," 
and remarks in a footnote, " Hunc sensum tenuit nobiscum 
Glossarius in serie obscuri huius loci." 

* Tou Xoyiafiov. 
Lit. " watered " — apBevonevov vel sim. 

98 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

ging all the passions to satiety, (then) we are flooded." And 
this is truly a great flood when the streams of the mind 
are opened by folly,'' madness," insatiable desire,*^ wrong- 
doing,* senselessness,^ recklessness " and impiety ^ ; and 
when the fountains of the body are opened by sensual 
pleasure,* desire,^ drunkenness,* gourmandism and licen- 
tiousness with kin and sisters and by incurable vices. ' 



19. (Gen. vii. 16) What is the meaning of the words, 
" God closed *" the ark outside of" him " ? 

Since we have said that the structure " of the human 
body is symbolically ^ indicated by the ark, it is also to be 
noted that our body is enclosed « on the outside by a hard 
skin which is laid around it as a covering *■ for all parts. 
For Nature made this as a garment lest cold and heat have 
power to do harm. The literal meaning * is clear. For 
the ark is carefully ' closed from the outside by the divine 
power ** for the sake of guarding (it) "^ lest the water come 
in through any part, since it was destined to be storm- 
tossed for a whole year. 

20. (Gen. vii. 18) What is the meaning of the words, 

" /caTa/cAu^o/xe^a. 

** d<f>po(Jvv'r} or " baseness " — irovrjpia^ ^avXoriqTL. 

* Arm. §aprouinn is glossed here by 'yimarout''iun = fiai- 
pi'a, €Karaais ; Aucher renders, " insipientia " ; elsewhere 
saproumn=fiavla or evi^deia. 

'^ aKopiarcp iTTLdvfiia. 

" dSiKLa. 

^ avaLadrjaia or d^poavvrj. Aucher omits the word. 

' ToXfXT] or dpdaei. ^ dacjSeia. * -^Sovfj. 

^ 6p€^€i. *^ olvo(f)Xvyia. 

^ dvidrots TrdOeai. "* cKXeiae. 

" e^codev (so Lxx) = Heb. ba'ado^ here meaning " behind." 

* KaraaKevT]. ^ avix^oXiKws. 
' TTepiKX-j^erai., *" aKenaafxa. 

* TO prjTov. ' iinfjLeXoJS' 

" Oeia 8wdp.€i. " t'^s <f>vXaKi]S' 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

" And the water increased and lifted the ark, and it was 
borne upon the water " * ? 

The literal meaning is clear. But it is to be allegorized * 
as follows. Our body must in a certain sense " cross the 
sea and be storm -tossed by necessities ** overcoming hunger 
and thirst, cold and heat, by which it is thrown up and 
down,* perturbed and moved. 



,21. (Gen. vii. 20) Why did the water increase fifteen 
cubits above all the high mountains ? ^ 

It should be noted that as for the literal meaning " it 
was not increased fifteen cubits over'' all the high moun- 
tains but over the very longest and highest,* and (thus) it 
was still higher over ' the lower ones. But one should 
treat this allegorically.'' The high mountains indicate the 
senses ' in our bodies, for it happens that they have their 
fixed position in the top of our head. And they are five, 
each of them severally being viewed as threefold,™ so that 
altogether there are fifteen : sight, the thing seen, (the act 
of) seeing " ; hearing, the thing heard, (the act of) hear- 
ing"; smell, the thing smelled, (the act of) smelling^; 
taste, the thing tasted, (the act of) tasting " ; touch, the 

" Philo's text diflfers slightly from lxx, which reads /cai 
iireKpoLTei to vScup Kal eirXrjOvveTO o^obpa em Trjs y^S Kal eV- 
€(f)€p€TO t) Ki^coTos iTTOLvco Tov uSttTo?. Thc Arm. O.T. agfccs 
with LXX. ^ dXXrjyopeiTat. " rponov rivd. 

^ rots dvayKaioLS. * dvoa koX /carcu /cAoveirat. 

^ Philo combines two parts of the lxx verse, ScVa TreVre 
TTrjX€is eVavo) vt/jw6r) to vbcop Kal e7re/caAi;(/»ev TravTa to. op-q rd 
vifj'qXd. " irpos to prjTov. ^ Lit. " more than." 

' Apparently Philo takes iravTa to. vipr)Xd in the lxx to 
indicate the superlative degree of height. 

^ Lit. " more excessive," 

* irpaypLareveadai vpo dXXrjyopias vel sim. 

» rds aladrjoeis. , ^ , "" Lit. " three." 

" 17 opaaiSi TO oparov, to opdv. 

" 7) UKorj, to aKovoTov, TO dKoveiv. * 

^ 17 6a<f)prjais, to 6a(f)pavT6v, to 6a<f>paLveadai. 

' 17 yeuaij, to yevaTov^ to yeveadai,, 

100 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

thing touched, (the act of) touching." These are the 
fifteen cubits which were over and above (the mountains). 
For they too are flooded and destroyed by the sudden 
onrush of never-ending vices and evils.* 



22. (Gen. vii. 21) What is the meaning of the words, 
" All flesh that moved died " ? 

Excellently and naturally has (Scripture) spoken of the 
destruction of moving flesh, for flesh moves " the sensual 
pleasures ^ and is moved by sensual pleasures. But such 
movements are the causes ^ of the destruction of souls, just 
as the rules of self-control ^ and patience ^ (are the causes) 
of salvation.'' 



23. (Gen. vii. 22) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Everything that was upon the dry land died " * ? 

The literal meaning is known to all,^ for in the great 
flood everything that was upon the earth was utterly 
destroyed.* But the deeper meaning ^ is that just as the 
wood of trees, when it is altogether dried out,"' is immedi- 
ately consumed by fire, so also the soul,^' when it is not 
mixed " with wisdom, justice and piety ^ and also with the 

" Tj d(f)i], TO aiTTOV, TO aTTTeadai. 
^ dvTjvvTiov TTadcbv /cat KaKcHv. 

* KLvel. '^ Ttts -qhovas. ^ a.1 aiViat. 
^ iyKpanias or " endurance " — Kaprepias. 

^ VTTOixovTJs. ^ acoTTjpias. 

' Philo's text diff'ers slightly from lxx, which reads koL 
navra oaa e^ei wo-qv ^o)-^? Kal Trds os '^v eVt ttjs ^T]pds dn- 
edavev. Philo applies the neuter gender of the first subject 
to the second, which is masc. and animate in lxx (the Heb. 
indef. pron. kol " all " may refer to either animate or in- 
animate subjects). ■' TO p-qrov yvcopiiiov iari. 

* Lit. " being destroyed was overturned." 
' TO TTpo? Siavoiav. 

"" Arm. uses three different adjectives all meaning " dry." 
" -q tjivx-q- ° K€Kpap,€vrj vel sim. 

^ <70(f)ia Kal SiKaioavvT) Kal deoae^eia. 

101 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

other fine virtues " which alone are able to gladden the 
mind,* dries up and becomes arid like a plant that is barren 
and sterile, or like an aged tree, and dies when it is given 
over to the flood of the body. 



24. (Gen. vii. 23) What is the meaning of the words, " He 
blotted out every growth" that was on the face of the 
earth " ? 

The literal meaning ^ has a clear explanation.' But it is 
to be allegorized ^ as follows. Not idly ^ does (Scripture) 
speak of " growth," for this is the name of arrogance and 
pride,'' through which men despise the Deity and human 
rights. But arrogance and haughtiness on the surface of 
our earthly and corporeal nature appear more (clearly) 
when the face is lifted up and the eyebrows are knitted. 
For there are some who approach with their legs, but with 
their breast, neck and head sway backwards and forwards,* 
rearing back ^ and wavering like a balance ; with half the 
body, the legs, they come forward, but from the breast 
upward * they lean backward like those whose backbone ' 
or occiput*" pains them, whereby they are prevented from 
bending over naturally. But it was reasonable ** that all 

" doreiots aperais. Arm. asti is twice ' used in De Vita 
Cont. to render daTclos because of its similarity in sound to 
the Greek word, although its meaning is quite diiferent, usu. 
" firm," " fresh," etc. ; Aucher renders, " virtutibus con- 
stantibus." * Lit. " thoughts " — Xoyiaixovs- 

" Lit. " rising," lxx dvdaTrjfia ; see above, p. 92 note i on 
QG ii. 15. ** TO prjTov. 

* i^TJyrjaLv or " narrative " — Bi-qyTjaiv, as Aucher renders. 

^ dXXrjyopeladai. ^ ^'■'<fj or diro okottov. 

'^ Both Arm. words render dAa^oveta, viT€pT)(f>avia, v^pis, etc. 

' ToXavTcvovai. ' dvaxaiTL^ovTes vel sim. 

*= Not " pectore superior! " as Aucher renders. 

' Arm. gloss " loins," Aucher " musculi." 

"* Ivlov. Arm. gloss " nerves," similarly Aucher, Prob- 
ably the original text of Philo referred to the tendons and 
nerves of the hack of the neck. 

" eiKos. 
102 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

men of this sort should be blotted out from the Lord's 
memory « and from the divine narrative of Scripture. 



25. (Gen. vii. 23) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Noah remained alone and those who were with him in 
the ark " ? 

The literal meaning * is clear. But the deeper meaning " 
must be somewhat as follows. The mind <* which is de- 
sirous of wisdom and justice,* like a tree, cuts off all the 
harmful growths which grow on it and drain ^ its nourish- 
ment." By this is meant immoderateness of the passions * 
and wickedness and the acts (resulting) from these. He 
is left alone with his own. And peculiar * to each are all 
the thoughts ' which are ordered * in accordance with 
virtue.' Wherefore it is added that " he remained alone 
and those who were with him " to (give) a clear impression 
of the truest joy."* And he remained in the ark, by which 
is meant the body, which is pure ** of all passions and 
spiritual diseases," not yet having been enabled to become 
altogether incorporeal.^ But thanks should be given to 
the Saviour and Father « for this benefaction also, (namely) 
that he received a yoke-fellow *■ and one bound to him.* no 
longer a ruler * over him but under his rule. Therefore his 
body was not overwhelmed by the flood but (remained) 
above the flood, not being destroyed by the streams of the 

" eK TTJS TOV Kvpiov flVqflTJS. 

^ TO prqrov. " to Tr/aos Stavotav. 

^ 6 vovs. * ao(f>Las Kal hiKaioavvqs. 

^ Lit. " suck " or " drink up." 

" Tpo<f>'qv. Aucher renders, " humores nutritionis." 

^ TTjv TU)v iradwv a/Lt€Tpiav. 

* thiol. ^ oi XoyiafMoi. '' raTTOvrai. 

' Kara ttjv apeT-qv. 

'" €15 (f)av€pav (f)avTa<7iav ttjs dXrjOeaTaTrjS x^P^^' 

" Kadapov. 

" TTavTcov TTadcov KOI ipvxtKwv (or TTvev/xaTiKaJv) voacov, 

** TrdvTcus dacofxarov. " to) acoTTjpi /cat Trarpi. 

'■ avl^vyov {i.e. the body). * awSeafiiov. 

* dpxovra vel sim. 

103 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

cataracts which gurgled up, (namely) luxuriousness and 
intemperance and lewd habits and empty desires. 



■^26. (Gen. viii. 1) Why does (Scripture) say, " God 
remembered Noah and the beasts and the cattle," " but 
does not mention his wife and children ? 

When a man is united ^ and associated '^ with his wife, 
and a father with his sons, there is no need for several'' 
names, but only of the first one. And so, having men- 
tioned Noah, (Scripture) potentially * mentions those who 
Avere in his household.^ For when a man and woman 
quarrel, and their children and relatives, the household no 
longer bears (the name of household),* but in place of one 
there are many. But when there is concord,'' one house- 
hold is described ' after one eldest person,^ and all (the 
others) depend * on him like the branches which grow out 
of a tree or like the fruits of a plant which do not fall off. 
And the prophet has said somewhere,^ " Look at Abraham 
your father and at Sarah who travailed with you," which 
shows very clearly that there was (only) one root "* in 
respect of concord with the woman." 



27. (Gen. viii. 1) Why does (Scripture) first make mention 
of the wild beasts " and afterwards of the cattle,^ saying 

" Lxx has " all the beasts (drjplcov) and all the cattle 
(kttjvwv) and all the birds and all the reptiles, etc." 

* ivovrai. " /cotvcoveiTai (?). 

** Lit. " many." * SvvdfMei. ^ iv rfj olKia. 

" The last phrase must be supplied to make sense ; cf. 
Aucher's rendering, " nee ultra patitur donms (una did)." 
^ ofjLovOLa. Procopius avfKfxvvLa. 

* Arm. grem usu. — ypd(f)€iv. Aucher renders, " exhibetur." 
^ d(f)* 4v6s vpea^vraTOV. 

^ Kpefiavrai. Procopius avvvTraKOveadai. 

^ Isaiah 11. 2. '" pi^a. 

" The syntax is somewhat obscure ; Aucher renders, 
" quod nempe una erat stirps ad mulierem versus concordiam 
patefacit." " tcov Orjpiiov. ^ rcov KT-qvwv. 

104 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

that " He remembered Noah and the beasts and the 
cattle " ? 

In the first place, this poetic saying <* is not inaptly 
quoted, (namely) that " he drove the base ones into the 
middle." * For He stationed * the wild beasts in the 
midst of the domestic ones,'' (that is) men and cattle, in 
order that they might become tamed and domesticated by 
acquiring familiarity * with both. Second, it did not seem 
right to the Overseer ^ to bestow a benefaction on the wild 
beasts at the same time. For (Scripture) was immediately 
about to " mention further the beginning of the diminution 
of the flood. This is the literal meaning.'' As for the 
deeper meaning * — the righteous mind,^ living in the body 
as in an ark, also has wild beasts and cattle * but not those 
particular ones ' which bite and are harmful, but, as I 
might say, the generic ones "* having the status " of seed 
and principle " ; for without these the soul ^ is not able to 
appear in the body. Accordingly, (the soul) of the wicked 
man « uses all things poisonous and lethal, but that of the 
virtuous '■ those things which transform the nature of wild 
beasts into that of domestic ones. 



■^28. (Gen. viii. 1) What is the meaning of the words, 

" ToSe TO TTOITJTIKOV. 

* KaKovs 8' is fJidaaov eXaaaev, Iliad iv. i?99. 

'^ era^ev. ^ tcov oiKeicov. * oiKeiOTrjTOS - 

^ Tip iiTOTTTrj or cTnaKOTTcp (God). Perhaps, however, one 
should take Arm. tesoud " overseer " as having adjectival 
force here, i.e. meaning " providential " and agreeing with 
" benefaction " ; so Aucher renders, " providum benefi- 
cium." ° e/LieAAe. 

^ TO pt]t6v. * TO TTpos Bidvoiav. 

' 6 hlKaLOS vovs. 

^ Or " animals " ; Arm. anasoun (lit. " irrational ")= both 
KTTJi'os and dXoyov {t,ipov). ^ to. fxepLKa.. 

'" Tct yevi/ca. " tov Xoyov. 

° OTTepixaTos Koi a.px'^S- 

^ 7) ifjvxrj although Arm. ogi (hogi) also=:To rrveCfxa. 
'^ TOV TTOvTjpov {oT (fiavXov). *" TOV oTTOvBalov. 

105 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

" He <* brought a spirit ^ over the earth and the water 
ceased " ? 

Some would say that by " spirit " is meant the wind " 
through which the flood ceased. But I myself do not know 
of water being diminished by a wind. Rather is it dis- 
turbed and seethes.*^ Otherwise vast expanses* of the 
sea would long ago have been consumed.^ Accordingly, 
(Scripture) now seems to speak of the spirit of the Deity,^ 
by which all things are made secure,'' and of the terrible 
condition of the world, and of those things which are in the 
air and are in all mixtures * of plants and animals. For this 
time the flood was not a trifling outpouring ^ of water but 
a limitless and immense one, which almost flowed out 
beyond the Pillars of Heracles and the Great Sea.*^ There- 
fore the whole earth and the mountainous regions were 
flooded. That such (an amount of water) should be cleared 
out by the wind is not fitting, likely or right ; but, as I 
said, (it must have been done) by the invisible power of 
God.^ 



^29. (Gen. viii. 2) What is the meaning of the words, 
" the fountains of the abyss were covered up,*" and the 
cataracts of heaven " ? 

In the first place, it is clear that the downpour " was 

« Lxx (and Heb.) " God." 

* TTvevfia. " o dvefjLos. 

'^ Kvixaiv€i, as in Procopius. * Procopius to. ixeyiara. 

f i.e. dried up by the action of the winds. 

" TO To£> Qelov TTvevfjia. Procopius TTvevfia to delov. 

'^ Or " freed (of danger from the flood) " ; Arm. yapa- 
hov = hoi\\ da(f)aX'qs and aTnjXXayfievos. Aucher renders, 
" securitatem assequitur." 

* So lit., apparently meaning " varied forms." 

'" Lit. " blow," " incidence." ^ The Atlantic. 

' V7t6 TTjS dopdrov Bvvd{X€Ct}S rijs rov deov. 

"* eTT€KaXv<f>dr)aav (as in Lxx) or €Kpv<f>67]aav. Arm. O.T. 
" were closed." 

" Lit. " streams of falling " ; Aucher renders, " fluenta 
poenosa." 

106 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

incessant during the first forty days when from the earth 
below the fountains broke forth, and from the heaven 
above the cataracts were opened " until all the regions of 
plain and mountain were flooded. And for another full 
hundred and fifty days the streams did not cease from 
pouring down nor the fountains from welling up, but they 
were more gentle, no longer for increase * but for the 
continuation " of the outpouring ^ of water. And from 
on high there was assistance.* This is indicated by what 
is now said, " after a hundred and fifty days the fountains 
and cataracts were covered up." Thus, so long as they 
were still not kept back, it is clear that they were active.^ 
Second, it was necessary that what (Scripture) adduces 
(as) streams of the flood, (namely) the twofold reservoir " 
of water, one being the fountains in the earth, the other 
the streams in the heaven, should be closed ; for in propor- 
tion as the additional supplies '' of material give out, so is 
this consumed by expending itself,* especially when the 
divine power ^ has commanded it. This is the literal 
meaning.^* As for the deeper meaning ' — since the flood 
of the soul"* wells up from two (sources), from reason" as 
though from heaven, and also from the body and the senses 
as though from the earth, evil entering it ° through the 
passions, and passions through evil at the same time, it 

" C/. above, QG ii. 18 on Gen. vii. 11. 

** ovK€Ti TTpos av^Tjaiv. 

" TTpos Sia/xov^v. 

** Arm. taracank" = both Kardxvais and e/cTcveia. Aucher 
" extensionis." John Monachus reads diff^erently. 

^ This seems to mean that at God's command the out- 
pouring of the waters of heaven and earth ceased, cf. below. 

^ ivqpyovv. 

" rafietov or dnodiJKrjv. 

'^ Lit. " assistances " or " means." 

* Aucher more freely renders, " quo magis enim deficiunt 
praebitiones materiae, ista consumitur a se." 

^ tJ Beta 8vvafiis. ^ to prjTOV. 

^ TO TTpos 8idvoiav. 

*" o TTJs ^X7)S KaraKXvafios . ** eV tov XoyiapLov. 

" i.p. the soul. 

107 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

was necessary for the word " of the divine physician '' to 
enter into the soul for a visit of healing " in order to heal 
its illness and to keep back*^ both streams. For the 
beginning of healing is to keep back the causes of the 
illness and not to leave any more material for the effects of 
illness.* (Scripture) has indicated this also in the case of 
the leper ^ ; for when (the spot) stays and no longer spreads, 
then in respect of its staying and remaining in the same 
place, (Scripture) has legislated " that it '^ is clean, for that 
which moves against * nature is unclean. 



30. (Gen. viii. 3) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The water went down, diminishing^ after a hundred and 
fifty days " ? 

We must inquire '' whether indeed these hundred and 
fifty days of subsiding and diminishing are other than (the 
period) which lasted five months ' or else allude to this 

" Tov Xoyov. 

'' Or " the healing word of (iod." On the Logos as healer 
of ills see Leg. All. iii. 177 tov Se ayyeXov os eWi Xoyos a>a7T€p 
tarpov KaKOJv. " Trpos e-maKOTrr^v Idaews. 

^ KOiXveiv or etpyeLv or iTnax^iv. 

* Lit. " the making of illness." 

■^ Cf. Lev. xiii. 6 if. " cvofwdcT-qae. 

'^ Or " he," the suspected leper. 

* Lit. " not in accordance with." 

' Philo's text differs slightly from the lxx, which in turn 
differs slightly from Heb. (the Arm. O.T. differs slightly from 
both LXX and Philo). Heb. has " And the waters returned 
from the earth, continuously returning, and the waters dis- 
appeared at the end of a hundred and fifty days " ; lxx has 
If at eVeSiSou to vScop TTopevofxevov oltto rrjs yijs, eveSiSou /cat 
rjXaTTOvovTO to vBcop fj,€Ta TT^VTrjKovra koL e/carov rjixepas. 

* i,7)TT]T€OV. 

' Cf. Gen. vii. 24, not cited by Philo, " and the waters 
were high upon the earth a hundred and fifty days." Aucher, 
construing and interpreting differently, renders, " an distincti 
sint isti centum quinquaginta dies minuendae aquae per 
quinque menses." 

108 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

former (period) " when the flood was unsubsiding,*' that is, 
was still increasing. 



31. (Gen. viii. 4) Why does (Scripture) say, " The ark 
rested " in the seventh month '^ on the twenty-seventh day 
of the month " ? 

It is fitting to consider how the beginning of the flood 
fell in the seventh month * on the twenty-seventh, and the 
diminution (of the flood), when the ark rested upon the 
summits of the mountains, also ^ (fell) in the seventh month 
on the twenty-seventh of the month. It must therefore 
be said that there is a homonymity " of months and days, 
for the beginning of the flood fell in the seventh month on 
the birthday '' of the righteous man * at the vernal equinox, 
but the diminution (of the flood began) in the seventh 
month, taking its beginning from the flood, at the autum- 
nal equinox.'' For the equinoxes are separated and divided 
from each other by seven months, having five (months) in 
the middle.*" For the seventh month of the equinox is 
potentially ^ also the first, since the creation of the world 
took place in this (month) because all things were full at 

" See the verse cited in the preceding note. 

* Arm. anznsteli, not found in the large Arm. dictionary, 
is composed of the privative particle an and a derivative of 
znestel " to subside " ; Aucher renders, " indesinens." 

" cKadiaev (as in lxx). ^ See notes on QG ii. 17. 

* Philo here means Nisan (March- April), the seventh 
month in the civil calendar beginning with Tishri (Sept.- 
Oct.). ^ Lit. " again." 

" oixoivvyLia. ^ ev rfj yevedXia. 

* Tov 8iKaioi; = Noah. Philo takes Gen. vii. 11 and viii. 4 
to mean that the beginning of the flood in Noah's 600th 
year and its subsidence in his 601st year coincided with his 
birthday. 

^ i.e. the flood subsided in Tishri, the seventh month in 
the festival calendar beginning with Nisan. 

* Or " an interval of five months," as Aucher renders. 
Actually there are five months between Tishri and Nisan in 
both calendars. ^ SvvdfieL. 

109 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

this time. Similarly the (month of the) autumnal equinox, 
(which) is the seventh in time,'' is the first in honour,* the 
seventh having its beginning from the air." Accordingly, 
the flood takes place in the seventh month, not in time 
but in nature,** having (as) its beginning the vernal equinox. 



32. (Gen. viii. 5) Why does (Scripture) say, " In the 
tenth * month, on the first (day of the month), the summits 
of the mountains appeared " ? 

Just as among numbers the decad is the limit of the 
ones ^ (and is) the complete and perfect number, being the 
cycle and end ^ of the ones and the beginning and cycle of 
the tens and of an infinity ^ of numbers, so the Creator 
thought it good* that when the flood had ceased, the 
summits of the mountains should appear through the 
perfect and complete number ten. 



33. (Gen. viii. 6) Why did the righteous man (Noah) 
open the window of the ark after forty days ? 

Note carefully that the theologian ^ uses the same num- 

* KUTO. xpovov. ^ Kara rifiijv. 

" Or " climate." The original probably was rov 4^86 fiov e^ 
depos €xovTos TTjv dpx'ijv. Three explanations of this puzzling 
statement occur to me : (1) The Arm. translator read depos 
for Philo's €apos (as in the last sentence of the section) ; 
(2) Philo is alluding to the etymology of the first Heb. month 
Nisan, as though from nissd' {niphal ptc. of ns') meaning 
" lifted up," " exalted " ; (3) Philo connects the seventh 
month Tishri with the beginning of the rainy season in 
Palestine. Aucher, construing less accurately, renders, 
" septimi ex acre habens principium." See my note in 
Classical Philology 39 (1945), 257-258. 

^ Kara <f>vaiv. 

* So Heb. ; Lxx and Arm. O.T. have " eleventh." 

^ Cf. De Congressu 90 wainp hiKas dpidfiwv rwv dTTo fxovdbos 
cCTTi TTepas TeXeiOTarov. 

' kvkXos Kal reXos. ^ aTTeiplaS' ' rj^icoae. 

i 6 d^oXoyo^ (Moses, cf. De Vita Mos. ii. 115). 

110 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

ber of the course of the flood <• as of its cessation and the 
complete remedying of the disaster.* And so, in the 
seventh month on the twenty-seventh (day) in the six 
hundredth year of Noah's life, that is, on his birthday, the 
flood began in the spring. Moreover, in the seventh month 
on the twenty-seventh (day) the ark rested upon the 
summits of the mountains at the autumnal equinox. And 
from three things it is clear that the flood became invisible " 
in the six hundred and first year, also in the seventh month 
on the twenty-seventh (day) ; for jusf^ a year afterwards 
it was to subside,* establishing the earth as it was at (the 
time of) destruction,^ blossoming and flourishing in the 
spring and being full of all (kinds of) fruit. Moreover, it 
was in forty days that the streams of the flood came, when 
the cataracts were opened in heaven and the fountains 
broke forth from beneath the earth. And again, the hope 
of stability returned ^ in forty days after a long cessation,'' 
when he (Noah) opened the window. Again, the duration 
of the remaining* of the flood was a hundred and fifty days, 
while its diminution was (also) a hundred and fifty days, 
so that one must wonder at the equality,^ for the disaster* 
increased and ceased in an equal number (of days), as 
(does) the moon. For in the same number (of days) it 
takes its increase from its conjunction ' until it becomes 
full, and its waning when it returns to its conjunction after 
first having been full. Similarly, in divine visitations'" the 

« Cf.QG ii. 14 on Gen. vii. 12. 

* KOTO. rr)v TTaaav depaTreiav rrjv tov KaKOV. 

" doparos or d<f)avijs. ** €v6vs (?). 

* Tqfi€pa)dt]a€Tai. 

^ i.e. restoring the earth to the condition it was in before 
the flood. 

" Syntax and meaning slightly uncertain. 
^ KaTdvavaiv. 

* Lit. = 77 Biafjiovri rj rod /xeWiv vel sim. Probably the 
original had merely 17 Sia/xovi/. 

' Or " exact correspondence " — r-qv laoTqra. 

* TO KaKOV, 

^ diTo auvoSou, i.e. the new moon. 
"• €V Tois dcrjXaTOis KKaKOis^. 

Ill 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Creator preserves due order ** and drives out disorder *• from 
the divine borders." 



■^34. (Gen. viii. 6) What is the " window of the ark " 
which the righteous man (Noah) opened ? 

The literal meaning ^ does not admit difficulty or doubt, 
for it is clear. But as for the deeper meaning,* the follow- 
ing is to be said. The several parts of the senses ^ are 
likened to the windows of the body." For through them 
as through a window there enters into the mind ^ the ap- 
prehension of sense-perceptible things,* and, again, the 
mind stretches out to seize these through them. And a 
part of the windows, by which I mean the senses, is sight,^' 
because it is especially related to the soul * and also is 
familiar ' with light, the most beautiful of existing things, 
and a ministrant of things divine."* And this same (sense) 
first cut and made" the road to philosophy." For when 
it sees the movements of the sun and moon, and the wander- 
ings of the other planets,** and the inerrant revolution of 
the entire heaven, '^ and the order which is above all descrip- 
.tion,*" and the harmony," and the one true certain Creator 

" TOL^lV. 

* Probably ara^iav, cf. Be Plantations 3 etV ra^ir e| dra- 
^ias . . . dycov 6 KoafioTrXdcrrrjS' 

" eV TCOV dcLCOV opoiv. 
^ TO pTJTOV. 

* TO Trpos Bidvoiav. 

^ TO, TCOV alaOrjaeoiV fJ^eprj. 
" Tats Tov crc6/xaT0S dvpiaiv e^o/xoiouTat. 

^ els TOV vovv. * 17 ToDv aladrjTcov KaTaXrjipts. 

^ rj opaais. ^ ttjs ^vxVS p-dXiaTa avyyevrjs. 

' OLKeia. "* VTT-qpeTqs tcSv deicov. 

" TCfiovaa diTripydaaTo. Greek frag, has simply eTCfte. 
" ttI^v els ^lAooo^iav ohov. 

^ Tas Tojv dXKoiv irXamiTuiv 7r€pi<f>opds. Greek frag, has to? 
Tiov doTepoJv TTcpiohovs- 

'' T17V aTrAavi; 7r€pi(f>opdv ttjv tov avjXTiavTOS ovpavov. 
*■ TT}V TTavTos TOV Xoyov KpeiTTOva Td^iv. 

* TTjv dpfioviav. 
112 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

of the world,'* it reports to its only '' sovereign, reason," 
what it has seen. And this (reason), seeing with a sharp 
eye both these (celestial phenomena) and through them the 
higher paradigmatic forms "^ and the cause of all things, 
immediately apprehends " them and genesis and provi- 
dence,^ for it reasons " that visible nature ^ did not come 
into being by itself * ; for it would be impossible for har- 
mony and order ^ and measure * and proportions of truth ' 
and such concord "* and real prosperity " and happiness to 
come about by themselves." But it is necessary that there 
be some Creator and Father,^ a pilot and charioteer, « who 
both begat *" and wholly * preserves and guards ' the things 
begotten. 

" Tov Tov Koa^JLOV jjLovov dXTjOrj Kal dipevSi] KoafiOTTOiov. Greek 
frag, has tov . . . fxovov anpevbeaTarov koo^iottolov. 

* Aucher, taking Arm. miayn^yiovu) to refer to the sub- 
ject, renders, " retulit solus " ; the Greek frag, omits the 
word. , 

" Aucher, construing differently, renders, " uni principi 
consiliorum " ; the Greek frag, has i7ye/xovi Xoyicrfio), which is 
probably correct. 

'^ TO. dvu)T€pa irapahiiyiiariKd etSrj. This text is preferable 
to that of the Greek frag. TrapaSeiy/xari Kal etSei 8id tovtcov; 
Mangey correctly emended to TrapaSeiy/iart/cd etSry but 
wrongly deleted Sid. 

* /caroAa/x/Savei or perhaps els evvoiav i^A^e, as in Greek 
frag. ^ yiveaiv /cat -npovoiav. 

" Xoyiadfievos. Aucher here punctuates wrongly. 
'' ij oparrj (f)vais. Greek frag, has oXrj <f>vai,s. 

* Probably avrofjiaTiadelaa, as in Greek frag. 

' dpixoviav Kal rd^Lv. ^ Xoyovs- Greek frag, has Xoyov. 

^ dvaXoyiav dXrjOcias (or dKpi^eias). Greek frag, has only 
dvaXoyiav. "" avpL(f)a)viav. 

" T'i7v Tcp ovTi €vo8lav (?) €vSaip.ovtas . Greek frag, has tw 
ovTi euSai/Aoviav. " See note i. 

* TTOLrjTrjv Tiva Kal Trarepa. 

' Kv^epv^T-qv re Kal rjvioxov. 

^ iyevvrjae or yeyevvrjKe. The latter is found in Greek 
frag. p. 70 Harris ; Greek frag. p. 22 Harris has -neToi^Ke. 

* oXoKXr^pa ; Greek frag, omits. 

* aoit,oiv <f)vXdTT€t, ; Greek frag, has only aw^ei. 

113 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

35. (Gen. viii. 7) Why did (Noah) first send the raven ? 
As for the literal meaning," the raven is said to be a sort 

of heralding * and fulfilling " creature. Wherefore down 
to our own time many observantly attend to its flight and 
its voice when it caws ^ (as though) indicating something 
hidden.^ But as for the deeper meaning/ the raven is a 
blackish and reckless " and swift creature, which is a sym- 
bol of evil,'* for it brings night and darkness upon the soul, 
and it is very swift, going out to meet all things in the 
world at one time. In the second place, (it leads) * to the 
destruction of those who would seize it,' and is very reck- 
less, for it produces arrogance ^ and shameless impudence. 
And ^ to this is opposed virtue,"* (which is) luminous " and 
steady" and modest and reverent by nature. And so it 
was right to expel beyond the borders whatever residue of 
darkness there was in the mind which might have led to 
folly.*' 

36. (Gen. viii. 7) Why, after going out, did the raven 

" TO pTjTOV. ^ dyYeXiKov tl. 

" Arm. vdarem = crvvTiXeiv, irXrjpovv, nepaivetv, Aueiv, etc. ; 
Aucher renders, " functioni addictum." 
** Var. " calls." 

* Aucher, punctuating differently, renders, " volatum 
atque garritum suum (sic) multi expectant, dijudicantes 
aliquid significare de incognitis rebus." 

■^ TO rrpos Sidvoiav. 

* dpaov or ro\pL7]p6v. 

^ aVfJL^oXoV T'^S KaKLUS. 

* The Arm. is probably incomplete, and the Greek original 
can only be guessed. 

^ Meaning doubtful ; Arm. ounolacn is nomen agentis of 
verb ounini = €x^iv, lepaTetv, etc. ; Aucher renders, " in 
exitium aucupantium." 

* dXat,ovLav vel sim. ; Aucher's " superbia " should be 
" superbiam." 

' Arm. has a superfluous *' for " after " and." 

"* dperrj. " </»a>Toei8T79. 

" jScjSaios. 

** a^poavvqv or ** wickedness " — vovTjpiav or (f>avX6rr)Ta. 

114 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

not return again, for not yet was any part of the earth 
dried ? « 

The passage is to be interpreted allegorically,* for un- 
righteousness " is the adversary ^ of the light of righteous- 
ness * so that it considers being very merry ^ with its 
relative," the flood, more desirable than the good works of 
the virtuous man.'* For unrighteousness is a lover of 
confusion and corruption.* 

37. (Gen. viii. 7) Why has (Scripture) used enallage,^ 
saying, " until the water was dried from the earth," for 
water is not dried from the earth, but the earth is dried 
of water ? 

It allegorizes *= in these words, indicating by the instance 
of the water the immeasurableness of the passions.^ When 
stuffed and swollen with these, the soul is corrupted."* 
And it is saved ** when these (passions) are dried up." For 
then they are not able to injure the soul in any way, being 
in a certain sense ^ weakened and dead. 



38. (Gen. viii. 8) Why does (Noah) a second time send 
a dove both "from himself "" and to see whether the 

" Philo here slightly alters the lxx, which reads ovx 
UTTCCTTpei/rev ecu? rod ^rjpavdijvat to vBcop oltto t'^? yrjs, though in 
the next section he follows the lxx literally; Heb. has " and 
it went out, going and returning, until, etc." 

* dXXrjYopiav Se^eTat o tottos- " aSt/cta. 

** avTiTTaXos or dvTifiaxoS' * ttjs hiKaioavvT^s. 

^ TTepLxo-PV^- ^ ^^v TV ovyyevel. 

* TCI dyada epya rd rov aTTOvSaiov. 

* avyxvoeois Kol <f>dopds. ' evqXXa^e. 

* dXXrjyopel. ' ttjv tcov rradojv dp.e.Tpiav. 
"* Or " destroyed " — Bia<f>d€lp€TaL. « acoCerai,. 

" Arm. uses two synonyms for " dried." ^ rponov rivd. 

« LXX says that Noah sent the dove diriaa) avrov, i.e. after 
the raven ; so the Arm. O.T. Philo here seems to follow the 
Heb., which has meHtto " from him(self)." Less plausible is 
Aucher's suggestion that the reflexive pronoun is based on 
Gen. viii. 9 (see below, § 40), which says that Noah brought 
the dove " to himself " into the ark. 

115 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

water had ceased, which is not said in the case of the 



raven 



First of all, the dove is a clean creature," and then it is 
tame and manageable * and a fellow-inhabitant *= of man. 
Therefore it received the honour of being offered on the 
altar among the sacrifices.'' Therefore (Scripture) said in 
a definite and positive manner,* " he sent it from himself," 
making it appear (that it was) a fellow-inhabitant. But 
by seeing " whether the water had ceased," (he made it 
appear that it was) sociable and like-minded.^ And these 
(birds), the raven and the dove, are symbols of vice and 
virtue." For the one is homeless, hearthless, stateless,'' 
wild,* implacable ^ and unsociable.'' But virtue is a matter 
of humaneness"* and sociability, and it is helpful." This 
the virtuous man" sends (as) a messenger of healthful and 
salutary things,^ wishing to learn through this whence to 
know.« But this (dove) like a messenger renders a true 
service,*" in order that he may be careful of injurious things 
and may receive helpful things with great zeal and wil- 
lingness. 

" Kadapov ^<x)ov. * OLKcla koI x^f'PO'qOtjS. 

" avvoLKos. ^ iv TaXs dvaiais. 

* Lit. " sealing and affirming." 
^ KoivTjv Kal ofxoyviofxova vel sim. 
" avfjL^oXa KaKLas Kal dperrjs. 

'^ aoiKos Kal dvearios Kal aTroXis, cf. De Virtutibus 190 
doiKOS • . . Kal dvoXis 6 (f>avXos. 

* dvTJfxepos or dypLOS- 

* dKardXXaKTOs or danovSos. * dKOivcovr^ros. 
^ Aucher more freely renders, " colit." 

"* (fyiXavdpcoTTias. " <h<f>4Xiii.os or au/x^eptov. 

" o crTTOuSaio?. 

^ vyuiva)v Kal awTTjpicov. Aucher renders, " pro rebus sanis 
ac salutaribus." 

" This seems to be the literal meaning of the obscure and 
probably corrupt Arm. (unless the corruption lies in the lost 
Greek original). Aucher's rendering makes better sense but 
takes liberties with the Arm. text, " volens per ipsam edoceri 
condignum." 

*■ Lit. " reports a true favour " — dXrjdrj dvayyeXXei x^-P'-^' 

116 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

*39. (Gen. viii. 9) Why did the dove, not finding a 
resting-place " for its feet, return to him (Noah) ? 

Is not this, then, clear evidence that through the sym- 
bols * of the raven and the dove vice and virtue " are shown ? 
For, behold, the dove, after being sent out, does not find a 
resting-place. How, then, could the raven, which went 
out first while there was still an excessive flood,"* find a 
place to rest ? For the raven was neither an artawaza- 
hawd * nor an ibis nor yet one of those (birds) that dwell 
in the water. But it signifies ^ that vice, going out to the 
risen streams of passions and desires," which inundate and 
destroy both souls and (human) lives, welcomes ^ them and 
consorts with them as with intimates and relatives' with 
whom it dwells. But virtue, being vexed' at the first 
sight (of these things), immediately springs away without 
returning again, and does not find a resting-place for its 
feet, that is to say, it does not find any standing-place 
M'orthy of it. For what greater evil could there be than 
that virtue should not find any place in the soul, even the 
smallest, as a place to rest and remain ? 



40. (Gen. yiii. 9) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Stretching forth his hand, he took it and brought it in 
to himself " } 

The literal meaning * is plain. But the deeper meaning ' 
is to be exactly determined."* The wise man " uses virtue " 
as an inspector " and messenger « of affairs. And when 

" avaTTavaiv, as in LXX. 

** Sia TcDv crvfi.p6Xa}v. " KaKia Koi dpcTij. 

'' Arm. av)eli arkack'^ Jrhelelin almost certainly renders 
vTTcp^oXrj Tov KaTaKXvofjLov. Aucher less accurately renders, 
" aerumna diluvii," 

* Some sort of water-bird, according to the Arm. gloss ; 
Aucher renders, " cygnus." Procopius omits. 

^ atVtTT€Tat. " TTadatv Koi iindvixLcov. ^ daTTd^erai. 

' cos /xer' oiKeicov kol avyyevcov. ' Svax^palvovaa vel sim. 

'^ TO pT^TOV. '■ TO TTpOS bldvoiav. "* dKpl^iOTCOV. 

" o ao<f>6s or doTeto?. " dpeTjj. 

'' €(f>6pw. " dyyfXcp. 

117 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

he sees them to be natures worthy of himself," he remains 
and dwells with them, correcting them and making them 
better. For wisdom * is most common, most equal and 
most helpful." But when it sees them perversely increase 
in the opposite direction and being altogether uncontrolled 
and wilful, it returns to its own place. And virtue admits 
it, stretching forth its hand in word,*^ and in deed * opening 
the whole mind and unfolding ^ and expanding it through 
the perfect and even and full number^ with all willingness.'' 
Nor then when he sent it forth from himself did he separate 
it from himself in order to survey the natures of others * 
but in the manner in which the sun sends its rays to earth, 
making all things bright. For in the great strength of its 
light there is no separation or division.^ 



*41. (Gen. viii. 10) Why, after holding back*^ still another 
seven days, did he (Noah) again send out the dove ? 

(This was) an excellent manner of life. For although at 
first he sees that their natures are hard,' he does not give 
up *" hope of their changing for the better. But just as a 
good physician does not immediately apply treatment to 

" <f)va€is d^ias iavTov. ^ ao<f)ia. 

" KOLVOTOLTr] Kal laoTaTT) Koi o}<f>€XificoTdTT). ^ Xoyo). 

* epyo). ^ Or " resolving," " explaining." 

" 8ta Tov reXeiov Kal dprtov koX TrX-qpovs dpidfJioVf i.e. the 
decad. The same three adjectives are applied to human 
nature {(f>vms) in Be Ebrietate 135. 

'' fierd npoOvfiias Trdarjs. 

* KaTaoKOTrelv rds rcov dXXcov <f>va€is. 

' Text and meaning uncertain. Arm. sastkotWiun usually 
means " strength " but may also render d-noTopLrj ; in one 
MS. it is nominative, in another, genitive. Arm. yoyz, here 
translated " great," normally means " very " ; it may pos- 
sibly be an anomalous locative of the noun oyz " strength." 
Aucher renders, " quia universae ejus lucis est minime dis- 
jungi." 

^ Probably (tnaxiov, as in lxx. ' <f>va€is oKXrjpds. 

^ Lit. "cut off"; cf. Greek parallel Trpoavaretivr) rrjv 
oSov. 

118 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

reach the disease all at once but allows nature first to open 
the way to recovery," and then uses health-giving and 
salutary drugs (as) a physician, so the virtuous man ^ uses 
principles " which are in accordance with the laws '^ of 
philosophy/ And the hebdomad ^ is holy and sacred " ; 
and it was in accordance with this '' that the Father of the 
universe, when He created the world, is said to have seen 
His work. But the seeing of the world and the things in it 
is nothing else than philosophy, a most glorious and choice 
part,* which is attained by scientific wisdom,^ which con- 
tains in itself an activity most necessary for seeing. 



42. (Gen. viii. 11) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The dove returned again to him at evening, holding an 
olive-leaf, a dry branch* in its mouth " ? 

All (these) are chosen symbols and tests ^ — the " return- 
ing again," the " at evening," the " holding an olive-leaf," 
the " dry branch," the " oil""* and the " in its mouth." 
But the several symbols must be studied in detail." Now 
the return is distinguished" from the earlier (flight). For 

" els aa)TT]pLav. * o aTTOv8alos> 

" Or " words " — Xoyois. 

** vofjLOLs or " doctrines " — Sdy^aai. 

* TT]s <f>t,Xoao(f)ias. The Greek parallel has XoyoLS Kara 
(f>i,Xoao(f>Lav Kal hoy^xaaiv. 

^ Here meaning both the number seven and the week. 

" tepa Kol ayla. 

'^ Or " at this (interval of time) " — /car' avr-qv. 

* evKXeiararov Kal boKifxcoTaTov fidpos- 

' The Arm. literally = e7rioT'j//xT7 ao(j)Las \ Aucher renders, 
" sapientia." 

* Lxx has 0uAAov iXaias Kap^os translating Heb. " olive- 
leaf freshly plucked " ; Arm. O.T. has HI " dry-stick " 
(=:lxx Kdp<f)os) ; Aucher's rendering " ramum gracilem " 
somewhat obscures the point. 

^ Perhaps the original had " approved symbols," as 
Aucher conjectures. 

"* Implied by the olive-leaf. " aKpi^wrea. 

" 8ia<f>€p€i. 

119 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the latter brought " the report ** of a nature altogether 
corrupt and rebellious, and one destroyed by the flood, 
(that is) by great ignorance and lack of education. <* But 
the other ^ repents of its beginning. And to find repen- 
tance * is not easy but is a very difficult and laborious task. 
For these reasons it comes at evening, having passed the 
whole day from early morning until evening in inspection,'' 
in word " by passing over various places but in deed '^ by 
looking over and inspecting the parts of its nature * and in 
seeing them clearly from beginning to end,^ for the evening 
is a symbol of the end.*^ And the third symbol is the 
" bearing a leaf." The leaf is a small part of the plant. 
And similar to this is the beginning to repent.' For the 
beginning of improvement"* gives a slight indication, as if 
it were a leaf, that it is to be guarded and also can be 
shaken off. But" there is great hope withal that it will 
attain correction of its ways." The fourth symbol is that 
the leaf was of no other tree than the olive. And oil is the 
material " of light. For evil, as I have said, is profound 
darkness, but virtue « is a most radiant splendour ; and 
repentance *" is the beginning of light. But do not think 
that the beginning of repentance is already in blossoming 
and growing things ; only while they are still dry and arid 
do they have a seminal principle." Wherefore the fifth 
symbol is that when it (the dove) came it bore a " dry 
branch." And the sixth symbol is that the dry branch 

** Lit. " held." ^ Or " announcement." 

" viTO jxeydXirjs afiadias Kal aTraihevaias. 

^ i.e. the returning dove. * fiirdvoiav. 

^ iTTiaKOTTTJ or €7naK€ip€i. " Xoyw fx€v. '* epyo) be. 

* TO. rrjs eKcLvov <j)va€u)s f^'^p'r]. What Arm. aynorik = eKeivov 
refers to is not clear. ' an dpx'rjs els reXos. 

* Arm. here uses a different word for " end " which 
also = T€Ao?. ' fieravoetv. 

"^ Lit. " becoming good " (or " better "). 
" Why Aucher here renders the adversative conjunction 
bayc as " quominus " I do not understand. 

° Karopdoiaiv tcDv e-mrrjheviia.Twv, ^ vXr). 

' ap€T7y. *" Tj ixerdvota. ^ OTrepfjiaTiKOV Xoyov. 

120 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

was " in its mouth," since six is the first perfect number <* ; 
for virtue bears in its mouth, that is, in its speech,'' the 
seeds of wisdom and justice " and generally of goodness of 
soul.*^ And not only does it bear these but it also gives a 
share in them * to outsiders,^ offering water to their souls 
and watering with repentance their desire for sin. 



43. (Gen. viii. 11) Why (does Scripture say that) Noah 
knew that the water had ceased from the earth ? 

The literal meaning » is clear. For if the leaf had been 
taken from the water, it would have been still damp and 
moist. But now it was dry ; and (Scripture) says that it 
was a " dry stick,"'' as though it had been dried above a 
dried earth. But as for the deeper meaning *' — the wise 
man ' takes it as a symbol of repentance,*' and the bringing 
of the leaf as preventing the occurrence ' of great ignor- 
ance,"" even though it was no longer flourishing and blossom- 
ing but, on the contrary, was a " dry stick," for the reasons 
previously stated. And at the same time one must admire 
the Father for His great goodness and kindness.^ For 
though destruction had overtaken earthly creatures through 
their excess of injustice and impiety," nevertheless there 
remained a residue of antiquity ^ and of that which had 
been in the beginning " and a small and light seed of 
ancient virtues. *" And no less is it a symbol of the fact 

" TcAetos dptOfjLos (in the Pythagorean sense). 

'' iv TO) Xoyco. '^ ao<f)Las (or (f>povq(r€(jt}s) Kal BiKaioavv-qs . 

** dyadorrjTOS rrjs ^VXV^' * KOtvcjviav. 

^ Or " laymen "— rois iSicoTat?. " to p-qrov. 

^ Kdp(f)os, see note A; on p. 119. 

* TO TTpos Stavotav. ^ o ao<pos or ao'Tetos'. 

'^ avpL^oXov TTJs fiCTavoias. 

' Or " blows " — jSoAa?. '" dfiaOias. 

" TTJs At'av dyadoTTjTOS Kal xP'^^^TOT-qros. 

" dhLKLa<s /cat aae/Seta?. 

^ VTToXeijJLixa Tov dpxaiov. '' ev t^ ^PXV' 

*" p,iKp6v Kal AcTTTov oTTcpfia dpxalcjv dpercov ; Aucher renders, 
" virtutum majorum semen exile," omitting azazoun=X€iTT6v, 
which refers to the "dry stick." 

121 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

that the memory of the good persons " who were created 
in the beginning is not altogether destroyed. Wherefore 
the following statement was given as law ^ by some prophet " 
who was a disciple and friend of Moses : "If Almighty 
God "* had not left us a seed, we should have become like 
the blind and barren," * so as not to know the good and 
not be able to beget offspring. And blindness and barren- 
ness are called in the ancestral language ^ of the Chal- 
daeans " Sodom " and " Gomorrah." " 



44. (Gen. viii. 12) Why did he (Noah) a third time send 
out the dove after another seven days, and why did it not 
again return to him ? 

The not returning to him applies in word to the dove 
but in deed ^ to virtue.' This is not a symbol of aliena- 
tion,' for it did not at that time,* as I have said, separate 
itself, but in the manner of a ray of light it was sent to see 
the natures of others. But at that time, not finding any 
who were receiving discipline,* it again returned and 
hastened straight to him alone. But now it is no longer 
the possession"* of one alone but is the common good of 
all those who wish to take the outpouring of wisdom as if 
from the earth and from a very early time have thirsted 
for the knowledge of wisdom. 

" Or " good things " — tcDv ayadiov. 

^ oSc o Adyos ivofioderedr). " Isaiah 1.9. 

** Heb., Lxx and Arm. O.T. have " Lord of hosts." 

* Heb., LXX and Arm. O.T. have " like Sodom and Go- 
morrah." 

^ Tjj TTarpia yXaiTTrf. 

^ Cf. T>e Somniis ii. 192, where " Sodom" alone is ety- 
mologized as Tv<f>Xa)aLS or areipcoais, and " Gomorrah " as 

(JLiTpOV. 

^ Xoycp (xiv . . . €pyio 8e. * t'^S' dpeTrjs. 

^ avfi^o'Xov T^? dXXoTpLcoaecJS- 

* i.e. the second flight, cf. § 4>^ . 

' Arm. xrat= TraiSeia, vovderrjaiSt cmaTijfMrj, etc. 
"* KTrjfia. 

J 22 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

45. (Gen. viii. 13) Why did the water cease ** from the 
earth in the six hundred and first year of Noah's life * in 
the first (month) on the first " of the month .'' 

This "first " in connexion with cessation <* can be said 
either of the month or of man, and it takes account * of 
both. For though the cessation of the water is to be 
understood ^ (as taking place) in the first month, we are 
to suppose that the seventh month is to be understood as 
meant, namely that (which is first) in respect of the equi- 
nox, for the same month is both the first and the seventh " ; 
this amounts to saying that the first in nature and power '^ 
is the seventh in time. Accordingly, in another place* 
(Scripture) says, " This month ' is for you the beginning of 
months ; it is first in the months of the year." Thus it 
calls " first " that (month) which is first in nature and 
power but is seventh in temporal number, for the equinox 
has first and highest rank among the annual seasons.* But 
if " first " is said of the man it will be said most properly,' 
for the righteous man "" is truly and particularly first, as 
the skipper " is first in the ship, and the ruler" is first in the 
state. ^ But he'' is first not only in virtue *" but also in 
order,* for he himself was the beginning and first in the 
regeneration * of the second human seed. Moreover, it is 

" So Lxx, e^e'AiTrev. Heb. has " dried up." 

* " Of Noah's life " is in lxx but not in Heb. 
" Lit. " on the one," as in lxx and Heb. 

•* Kara €kX€u/jlv. * Aoyov. ^ aKovariov. 

^ Depending on whether one uses the vernal or autumnal 
calendar, cf. above, § 17 on Gen. vii. 11 and § 31 on Gen. 
viii. 4. 

'' Or " rank " — SuWjliiv. * Ex. xii. 2. 

' i.e. Nisan (March- April). 

* The Greek original seems to be T-qv ttpwttjv kol a.picm]v 
Tct^iv 8i' €Tous eV Tot? xP°^°''^f ^ut the meaning is not quite 
clear. ' Kvpiwrara. "* o St/catoj. 

" o Kv^epvTJTT]9' ° o apxuiv or hvva.ary\<s or ijye/u.cov. 

^ ev r% TToAei. ' i.e. Noah. 

*■ dperfj. " Ttt^ci. 

* Kara rrjv TraXiy^'eveaiav, i.e. of the human race after the 
flood. 

128 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

excellently stated in this passage that the flood came in 
the lifetime of the righteous man and again subsided and 
returned to its former state. Wherefore, when the flood 
came, he alone was destined to live with all his household, 
and when the evil had passed, he alone was destined to be 
found on earth before the regeneration — his later life." 
And both then and now this has been not inaptly ** attested. 
For whereas he desires only true life, one that is in accord 
with virtue, others eagerly pursue death because of deathly 
evils. Accordingly, it was necessarily *= in the six hundred 
and first year that the evil ceased, for in the number six 
there was corruption ** and in the number one there was 
salvation,* for the number one is most soul-begetting ^ and 
most able to form life.' Wherefore the receding of the 
water took place at the new moon in order that the monad 
might have pre-eminence in being honoured above both 
months and years,'' when God would save those who were 
upon the earth. For one who is outstanding in character * 
the Hebrews call " Noah " in their ancestral tongue, while 
the Greeks say "righteous."^ But he is not removed 
from and freed of bodily necessities,''' for although he is 
not under (another's) authority ^ and has authority "• 
himself, nevertheless he is obliged to die," and so the num- 
ber six is associated with the monad. For the flood re- 

" Variant " their later life " ; as Aucher observes, both 
readings are obscure ; " life " is in apposition with " re- 
generation," but seems to have the force of a genitive. 

^ OVK aiTO OKOTTOV. '^ dvdyKTj. 

'^ Or " destruction." * acorrjpia. 

^ ipvxoyovifiwTaTos, cf. Be Vita Mos. i. 97. 
' ^ojOTrAaaretv. 

'' Aucher renders, " in mensibus et annis," but Arm. k'an 
has comparative force. 

* €kX€kt6v ^dos vel sitn. 

' StVatov, cf. Be Ahrahamo 27. Philo professes to ety- 
mologize the Hebrew name " Noah " but really renders the 
adjective applied to Noah in Scripture. 

* OVK e^aipeirat ot58' iXevdepovrai acofiariKwv avayKojv. 

' dpxij or i^ovaia. ^ Lit. " is a ruler." 

*• Lit. " mixed with dying." 
124 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

ceded not in one (year) viewed separately by itself, but in 
six, that (number) proper to the body and inequality,** 
since the number six is the first oblong number.* For this 
reason (Scripture) says " in the six hundred and first 
(year) " and " righteous in his generation." '^ Not in that 
(generation) which is universal'* nor in that which was to 
be destroyed was he righteous, but in respect of a certain 
one. For the comparison is with his own generation. 
But praiseworthy also is that (generation) which God 
singled out and deemed worthy of life above every genera- 
tion, setting a limit * to it by which it was to be as the end ^ 
of generations and ages," that is, of those which must 
perish, and as the beginning of those which were to come 
afterward. Most of all, however, is it proper to praise 
him who stretched up with his whole body and looked 
(upward) because of his kinship '' with God. 



46. (Gen. viii. 13) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Noah opened the covering * of the ark " ? 

The literal meaning^ needs no ex])osition. But as for 
the deeper meaning,*^ since the ark is symbolically ' the 
body, the covering of the body must be thought of as 
whatever protects "* and preserves it and closely guards " 
its power," (namely) pleasure.'' For by pleasure it is truly « 
preserved and sustained in measure *■ and in accordance 

" rfi i^dSi T7J Tco acu/xart oiVcta fcal ttj dviaoTTjTi, cf. Leg. 
All. i. 4 on the six movements of animals. 

* cTepofjLrJKTjs, i.e. produced by the multiplying of unequal 
factors, see above, § 12 notes, and below, QG iii. 38. 

'^ On this phrase, occurring in Gen. vi. 9, Philo does not 
comment above. ** KaOoXiKrj. * opov. 

' TO reXos. " yevecov /cat alwvcDV. 

^ oiKeicoaeaiS. * ttjv aTeyrjv (so Lxx). 

^ TO prjTOV. * TO npos bidvoiav. 

' avjjL^oXLKws. ™ or/ceTra^ei or KaXvTTTCi,. 

" Lit. " long guards " but Arm. yerkar here probably 
reflects the preverbal particle Bia- in hia^vXaTrei ; Aucher 
renders more literally, " diu conservat." 

" Tiyv hvvapLLV. ^ rj -qSovrj. ' ovtojs. *" [XiTpois. 

125 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

with nature,** just as it is disintegrated * by pain." Ac- 
cordingly, when the mind ^ is smitten by heavenly 
pleasure,* it desires to leap upward and cut off all forms of 
(sensual) pleasure, in order that it may remove from its 
midst that which covers it with a veil and darkens it like 
a shadow, and that it may be able to bring sense-percep- 
tion ^ to naked and incorporeal natures." 



*47. (Gen. viii. 14) Why was the earth dried up in the 
seventh month,'' on the twenty-seventh (day) } 

Do you see that a little before * (Scripture) spoke of the 
first month, and now of the seventh ? For the seventh is 
the same in time, as I have said,^ but in nature * is first in 
so far as it is connected with the equinox. Moreover, 
excellently ^ did the advent of the flood fall in the seventh 
month, on the twenty-seventh (day), and the letting up 
and subsiding of the flood a year later in the same seventh 
month and on the same day.*" For it was at the equinox 
that the flood came, and at the very same time ^ (came) 
the return of life. Concerning the causes of this we have 
already written. But the seventh month is homonymous " 
with such months and days. And again it was on the 
twenty-seventh day that the ark rested upon the moun- 
tains. This is the month which is seventh in nature but 
first in time, which is at the equinox. So that it is at the 
equinoxes that distinctions ** (are made) through the 
seventh months and twenty-seventh days.* For the flood 

* Kara <f)vaiv. ^ Xverai. " utt' dXyT^Sovcov. 

'^ 6 vovs. ' vn ovpavlas riSovfjs. ^ atadrjaiv. 



yvuvais Kai aaco/xarois (pvaeai. 



9 

^ Heb. and most lxx mss. " second.' 
* See § 45 on Gen. viii. 13. 



' See above, §§ 17, 45. '' ^uctci. ' TrayKaXois. 

"* See § 17 on Gen. vii. 11. 

" Arm. andren u&\x. = €vdvs or auriVa but here seems to 

have the meaning given above. " oficowfxos. 

p Siaipeaets or Sio/cptaet.?, or perhaps " choices " — alpeaeis 
or eVAoyai. 

« Meaning not quite clear to me. 

126 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

(occurred) in the seventh month, in which the vernal 
equinox falls, and which is the seventh in time and the 
first in nature.** But with the same number '' was the 
return and retreat (of the water) when the ark came to rest 
on the summits of the mountains ; this, again, was in the 
seventh month, not in the same one, but in that which 
falls at the autumnal equinox, which is seventh in nature 
but first in time." Moreover, the complete remedying of 
the evil,** when the evil was dried up, similarly (took place) 
in the seventh month, on the twenty-seventh (day), at the 
vernal equinox. For both the beginning of the flood and 
its end had previously * received a limit-fixing ^ at the same 
time, but the middle of his later life was the middle time." 
And more exactly ^ is to be explained what is said (in 
Scripture) : the flood together with its remedying was a 

* year. For its beginning was in the six hundredth 

year, in the seventh month, on the twenty-seventh day, 
so that the interval of time was a complete year, taking its 
beginning from the vernal equinox and similarly ending 
at the same time, at the vernal equinox. For, as I have 
said, as they had corrupted earthly things when filled with 
fruits, so, when those who had used these fruits had 
perished, and (the survivors) were released and delivered 
from evil, the earth was again found to be full of seed- 
bearing things and trees which bore such fruit as spring 
calls forth. For He thought it right that just as the earth 
was when it was flooded, so, when it was dried, it should 

« When the calendar year begins in Tishri (Sept.-Oct.). 

" Lit. " measure." " See note a. 

** i.e. the flood. * Trporepov. 

' Arm. sahmanadrout'iun — opodeaia, but this word seems 
not to be used elsewhere in Philo's works. 

' Arm. text is obscure to me ; Aucher renders, " medietas 
autem vitae reparatae, medii temporis." The Arm. glossator 
explains that " in this interval a year of Noah's life was 
completed." * aKpL^iarepov. 

* Arm. orabanak " sojourning a day " may possibly reflect 
Gr. itf}' rjijJpav " to a day," i.e. " exact," as Prof. L. A. Post 
suggests. 

127 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

again show itself and yield (its produce). And do not 
wonder that the earth, given one day, grew all things 
through the power of God," (such as) seeds, trees, an 
abundance of grass, ears, plants and fruits, and was un- 
expectedly full of all kinds. For also in the creation of the 
world, in one day out of the six He completed the produc- 
tion of plants. But these (later plants) were complete 
in themselves to start with and bore such fruits as were 
appropriate to the fertility of the spring season. For all 
things are possible ** to God, who does not need time at 
all " in order to create.'* 

■^48. (Gen. viii. 15-16). Why, after the drying up of the 
earth, did Noah not go out of the ark before hearing the 
word * (of God), for " The Lord God f said to Noah, Go 
out, thou and thy wife and thy sons " and the wives of thy 
sons and the other living creatures " '^ ? 

Righteousness* is reverent ^ just as, on the other hand, 
injustice,*' which is its opposite, is boastful and self-satis- 
fied.^ And it is an evidence of reverence not to acquiesce 
and believe in reason"* more than in God. And especially 
for him who saw the whole earth suddenly become a bound- 
less sea was it natural and proper to think that, as was 
natural and possible, the evil might return again. And he 
also believed what was consistent " with this, (namely) that 
as he had entered the ark at God's command, so also he 

" 0€ia 8vvd(j,€i. 

^ Lit. " a power " — BvvafjLis or e^ovaia. 

" TTavTios. ^ TTOirjaai. 

* Tov Adyov {sc. Tov deov). 

f So Lxx ; Heb. has only " God." Aucher omits " Lord " 
in his rendering. 

" So Heb. and most mss. of lxx ; some lxx mss. and the 
Hohairic version have " thy sons " before " thy wife." See 
§49. 

^ Here Scripture specifies beasts, birds and reptiles. 

* BiKaioavvTj. ' evXa^ris, * dSiKi'a. 
' a\at,o)v KoX avrdpeoKos. 

"» avyxoip^^v Koi neideadai rco Xoyw. " to aKoXovdov. 

128 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

should go out at God's command, for one cannot have 
complete power over anything if God does not guide him 
and first give him a command. 



49. (Gen. viii. 18) Why, when they entered the ark, was 
the order (of words) " he and his sons " and then " and his 
sons' wives,"* but when they went out, was it changed ? 
For (Scripture) says, " Noah went out and his wife " and 
then " his sons and his sons' wives." ^ 

In the literal sense," by " going in " (Scripture) indicates 
the non-begetting '^ of seed, but by " going out " it indi- 
cates generation.* For when they went in, the sons are 
mentioned together with their father, and the daughters- 
in-law together with their mother-in-law. But when they 
went out, it was as married couples, the father together 
with his wife, and then the several sons, each with his wife. 
For He ^ wishes through deeds rather than through words 
to teach His disciples " what is right for them to do. Ac- 
cordingly, He said nothing by way of vocal explanation ^ 
to the effect that those who went in should abstain from 
intercourse with their wives, and that when they went out, 
they should sow seed in accordance with nature. This 
(He indicated) by the order (of words) * but not ' by ex- 
claiming and crying aloud, " After so great a destruction 

" So Heb. and lxx in Gen. vii. 7 (not separately discussed 
by Philo). 

^ Here Philo's text agrees with lxx against Heb. in making 
Noah'« wife precede his sons. 

* TO prfTov. '^ dyoviav. 

* Lit. " begetting of generation " ; both Arm. words 

USU.=:y€V€aiS' 

^ Perhaps not God but Moses is meant. Philo, like the 
Palestinian rabbis, sometimes treats Scripture as the word 
of God, sometimes as the word of Moses, God's spokesman. 

" Tovs yvajplfjiovs. ^ <f>iovTJ 8iacra(f)6jv vel sim. 

' i.e. by pairing off Noah with his wife, Noah's sons with 
their wives. 

' Lit. " not only " ; what the Greek construction was is 
not clear from the Arm. 

SUPPL. I F 129 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of all those who were on earth, do not indulge in luxury, 
for this is not fitting or lawful. It is enough for you to 
receive the honour of life."* But to go to bed with your 
wives ^ is the part of those seeking and desiring sensual 
satisfaction." " For these it was fitting to sympathize 
with wretched humanity, as being kin to it. And at the 
same time they were watching for something unseen that 
might be impending, lest evil might overtake '^ them at 
some time. But in addition to this it would have been 
inept * for them now, while the living were perishing, to 
beget those who were not (yet) in existence and to be 
snared and surfeited at an unseasonable hour with sensual 
pleasure.^ But after (the flood) had ceased and come to 
an end, and they had been saved from the evil, He again 
instructed them through the order (of their leaving the 
ark) to hasten to procreate, by specifying " not that men 
(should go out) with men nor women with women but 
females with males. But as for the deeper meaning,'' this 
must be said. When the soul* is about to wash off and 
cleanse its sins, man should join with man, (that is) the 
sovereign mind ^ like a father should join with its particular 
thoughts * as with its sons, but (not join) any of the female 
sex, (that is) what belongs to sense. ^ For it is a time of 
war, in which one must separate one's ranks "* and watch 
out lest they be mixed up and bring about defeat instead 
of victory. But when just the right time has come for the 



" So lit., perhaps meaning "to be thought worthy of life." 

^ i.e. while in the ark. 

" TjBovrjs. '^ <f>ddvT^. 

* dvoiKeiov. ^ rjdovrjs. 

" Lit. " writing," as though God's command were a 
written order, or as if Moses were here acting God's role. 
'' TO TTpos Stavoiav. 

* 17 tj/vx-q or, less probably, " spirit " — to Trvevixa ; Aucher 
has " animus." 

^ Tov rjyefiova vovv. 

* Tols KaTO. fMCpT] XoyiafjLOtS' 

^ TTpos atad-qaiv. 

"* Ta? Ta^et? Siat-peiv vel sim. 

130 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

cleansing," and there is a drying up of all ignorance '' and 
of all that which is able to do harm, then it is fitting and 
proper for it " to bring together ^ those (elements) which 
have been divided and separated, not that the masculine 
thoughts may be made womanish * and relaxed by softness, 
but that the female element, the senses, may be made 
manly ^ by following masculine thoughts and by receiving 
from them seed for procreation, that it may perceive 
(things) with wisdom, prudence, justice and courage," in 
sum, with virtue.'' But in the second place, in addition to 
this, it is proper to note also that when confusion comes 
upon the mind, and, like a flood, in the life of the world 
mounds of affairs are erected at one time,' it is impossible 
to sow or conceive or give birth to anything good. But 
when discords and attacks and the gradual invasions of 
monstrous' thoughts are kept off, then being dried, like 
the fertile and productive places of the earth, it produces 
virtues and excellent things.*' 

50. (Gen. viii. 20) Why did he build an altar, not having 
been ordered (to do so) ? 

It was proper that acts of gratitude ' to God should be 
(performed) without an order and without deliberate delay, 
to show a soul free of passions. For it was fitting that he 

** Tr\s KaOdpaeojs. Because of the double meaning of Arm. 
hamoren { = avinTas and a/na) and dep linel { = av^^aiv€L and 
€TTLT-q8ei6v ecrri), one may also accept Aucher's rendering, 
" quando vero Integra fiat purgatio.'' 

" d/ia^tas. « The soul. 

^ avvayayeiv. ^ eKdrjXvvcovrai ol dppeves XoyiayLoL. 

^ dppeviKal yiyvcovrai at aloBrjoeiS' 

" ao<f)Ca Kal ao}<f>poavvrj /cat SiKaioavvrj /cat dvbpeia. 

^ dperfj. 

^ Meaning not quite clear to me ; Aucher renders, more 
freely, " quando confusio pervaserit intellectum ad simili- 
tudinem diluvii atque negotiis hujus mundi tamquam aggeri- 
bus contra erectis altercari inter se coeperint " ; he omits the 
words " in life " and adds " altercari inter se coeperint." 

^ Or " arrogant." *= Lit. " works " — epya. 

131 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

who had received good by the grace of God should give 
thanks with a wiUing disposition. But one who waits for 
a command " is ungrateful,* being compelled by necessity " 
to honour his benefactor. 

51. (Gen. viii. 20) Why is he said to build an altar to 
" God," not to " the Lord " «* ? 

Because in benefactions and on the occasion * of re- 
generation,^ as at the creation of the world," He assumes 
only His beneficent power,* by which He makes all things, 
and causes His kingly power * to be put aside, preferring 
(the former).^ Similarly, also now there is the beginning 
of a regeneration ^ and He changes to His beneficent power, 
which is called " God." For He had set up ^ His kingly 
and sovereign power, which is called " Lord," when he 
brought down retribution in the form of water. 

52. (Gen. viii. 20) What is the meaning of the words, 
" He took of the clean beasts and birds and offered whole 
burnt-offerings " "" ? 

** Arm. ar karg = rrp6s Ta|iv, an obvious error for ■npoara^t.vx 
Aucher, not seeing this, renders, " ordinem." 

^ avdpiaTOS. " avdyKrj. 

'^ Most uncial mss. of lxx have Ocut " God " (so also Arm. 
O.T.), but a good many cursives and the Coptic versions 
have Kvpitp " Lord," rendering YHWH, as the Heb. here 
reads. * Lit. " place." ^ TraXiyyeveaias. 

" iv TJI KOafJLOTTOUa. 

'^ rfj evepyeriSi Suva/iei, one of the two chief divine attributes 
(also called iroLr^TiKi]), symbolized by the name Oeos. 

* T17V ^amXLKrjv Suva/xiv, the other chief divine attribute 
(also called KoXaar-qpios), symbolized by the name Kvpios. 

^ Meaning not quite clear to me ; Aucher renders, less 
accurately, I think, " facit autem nomine regio dissimilato 
tamquam sum mam auctoritatem praeferente." 

* Lit. " second genesis." 

* Lit. " ordered " — Ira^e vel sim. 

"• Arm. bolorartoul= both oXoKapircDpia (or oXoKapTTCoais) 
and oAo/cavTcu/Lia, both of which words elsewhere in lxx render 
Heb. *6Idh, used here ; most lxx mss. here have oXoKaprrutaiv. 

132 



\ 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

All this is said in a deeper meaning," both because he 
had received everything from God as a kindness and gift 
and that that which was of the genus of clean (animals) 
and unblemished in kind, and of the tame ones the most 
"gentle and unblemished he might completely burn as whole 
burnt-offerings. For they are sacrifices * of good things 
and are whole and full of wholeness," and they have the 
status ** of fruit ; and the fruit is the end * for the sake of 
which the plant exists. This is the literal meaning.' But 
as for the deeper meaning,'' the clean beasts and birds are 
the senses and the mind of the wise man,'' (for) in the mind 
the thoughts * rove about. And it is proper to bring all 
these, when they have altogether become fruits, as a thank- 
offering ^ to the Father, and to offer them as immaculate 
and unblemished offerings * for sacrifices.^ 

53. (Gen. viii. 21) Why does he sacrifice to the beneficent 
power *" of God, when the reception (of the sacrifice) is 
through both powers, (namely those of) Lord and God, for 
(Scripture) says, " the Lord God ^ smelled a sweet odour " } 

(This is) because we who, when hope wavers, are un- 
expectedly saved from the evil that comes upon us, con- 
sider only the benefactions (of God), and in our joy ascribe 
this to the Benefactor " rather than to the Lord. But the 

" npos Sidvoiav. ^ dvaiai or TTpoa<f>opai. 

* Meaning uncertain ; Aucher renders, " integritate 
plenae." 

'^ Tov Xoyov. * TO reXos. 

' TO pt)t6v ; but which is the literal, and which the deeper 
meaning is not clear. " to -npos hidvotav. 

^ rod ao(f>ov (or daT6iou) ai alad-qaeis Koi 6 vovs. Philo 
apparently means that the beasts symbolize the senses, and 
the birds, the mind. 

* ol XoyiafioL ' evxaptOTiav. 
^ 7rpo(T(f>opds. ' TTpos dvalas. 
"* Tjj euepyeVtSt Svvdfiei ; see above, % 51. 
« So Lxx and Arm. O.T. ; Heb. has only " The Lord " 

{YHWH). 

* Symbolized by the name " God." 

133 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Benefactor inclines to us" with either power, Himself 
accepting (our sacrifice) and honouring the gratitude of 
the good man ^ lest He seem to make a halting return." 
But it greatly pleases the Eternal ^ (to make use) of both 
His powers.* 

*54. (Gen. viii. 21) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And the Lord God said, reflecting,^ Never again will I 
curse " the earth because of the deeds of men, for the 
thought of man is resolutely turned toward evils from 
his youth. Therefore never again will I smite all living 
flesh as I did on another occasion " '' .^ 

The proposition ' indicates repentance,' which is a 
passion alien to the divine power. For the dispositions of 
men are weak and unstable, just as their affairs are full of 
great imcertainty. But to God nothing is uncertain and 
nothing is unattainable,* for He is most firm of opinion 
and most stable. How then (did it happen) that with the 
same cause present and with His knowing from the be- 
ginning that the thought of man is resolutely turned 
toward evils from his youth. He first destroyed the human 

" Karavevei vel sim. 

^ The Arm. construction is not clear ; the above rendering 
is probably closer to the original than Aucher's rendering, 
" honorabiliter acceptans grates animos." 

" XcoXr/v OLTToSoaiv. *^ to) "Ovtl. 

* Aucher renders, " sed utrique virtuti Entis gratissimum 
esse declarabit," and in his footnote, " vel, per utramque 
virtutem age re Enti valde placet." 

^ Biavo-ndeis, as in lxx ; Heb. " said to his heart (= mind)." 
" Lit. ^' not again will I add to curse," a Hebrew idiom 

taken over by the lxx. 

^ en, found in some lxx mss. and Syr. and Arm. O.T., 

is joined to the following verse in our biblical texts. 

* Or " premiss"; Arm. patcar (ehewhere= TTp6(f>aaLs, oltiov, 
opfiTJ, etc.) here prob. = 7r/)OTaCTis as in the Greek frag. 

' Or " regret " — ju-eravoiav or /Ltera/LteAeiav ; the latter is 
found in the Greek frag. 

*= Or " incomprehensible " ; the Greek frag, has oLKaTa- 

XrjTTTOV. 

134 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

race through the flood, but after this said that He would 
not again destroy (them), even though the same evils 
remained in their souls ? Now it should be said that all 
such forms of words (in Scripture) are generally used " in 
the Law rather for learning and aid in teaching than for 
the nature of truth. For as there are two texts ^ which 
are found in the Legislation, one in which it is said, " Not 
like man (is God)," " and another in which the Eternal ^ 
is said to chastise as a man (chastises) his son,* the former 
(text) is the truth. For in reality God is not like man nor 
yet like the sun nor like heaven nor like the sense-per- 
ceptible world but (only) like God, if it is right to say even 
this. For that blessed and most happy One ^ does not 
admit any likeness or comparison or parable " ; nay, rather 
He is beyond blessedness itself and happiness and whatever 
is more excellent and better than these.* But the second 
(text pertains) to teaching and exposition,* (namely) " like 
a man (He chastises)," for the sake of chastising us earth- 
born creatures in order that we may not be eternally 
requited with His wrath and retribution through His implac- 
able enmity without peace. For it is enough to be resent- 
ful ^ and embittered this one time and to exact punish- 

" So rendered on the basis of irepUxeTat in the Greek 
frag. ; Arm. amhrneal p'akin means " are circumscribed " or 
" confined." 

'' Lit. " heads " ; Greek frag. K€<f>aXai<ov. 

" Arm. omits " is God," found in Greek frag. The quota- 
tion is from Num. xxiii. 19. 

'^ 6 "Civ, omitted in Greek frag. 

* Deut. viii. 5. 

^ The Greek frag, has only fxaKapiov eKelvo. 
^ irapa^oXtjv as in the Greek frag. 

'^ The Greek frag, has only fidXXov be fiaKapiOTTjros avrrjs 
VTTepdvo). 

• Arm. arajnordotiVean patmout'ean lit. = " guidance- 
narration " prob. renders v(f)i]y7faiv as in the Greek frag. 

^ This appears to be the meaning of Arm. anazdakel in this 
context, with God as implied subject ; usu. the verb means 
" be stubborn " or " disobedient " ; Aucher renders, " com- 
moveri." 

185 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

ment of sinners. But (to punish others) many times for 
the same cause is the act of a savage and bestial spirit. 
" For in requiting one who is to be punished as is possible, 
I will make a fitting recollection of each proposition." * 

And so, " reflecting " is properly * used of God, since 
(His) mind and intention are most firm, whereas our wills " 
are unsettled and inconstant and vacillating. Wherefore 
we do not properly reflect in thinking,** for reflection is the 
issue of the mind.* But it is impossible for the human 
mind to be extended and disseminated ' as it is too weak o 
to pass very completely and effortlessly among all things. 

But the words " not again will I curse the earth " are 
most excellently used. For it is not proper to add new 
curses to those already given, inasmuch as it is filled with 
evils. Nevertheless, though they ^ are endless,* inasmuch 
as the Father is good and kind and a lover of mankind,^ He 

" The literal retranslation in Greek of this obscure sentence 
would be something like the following : dvraTroSoy? yap rots 
€^€Tat,ofjL€vois, COS bwuTOV ioTLV, e/caCTTT^s TTpodeaeoJS ttoit^ctco r-qv 
TTpeTTOvoav ixvqfiTjv (or dvdfjLVTjmv) ; the Arm. glossator para- 
phrases it as follows : " God says, whatever my judgment 
exacted of the several sinners, this they paid, and so now, in 
accordance with my first proposal, I consider mercy fitting." 
Possibly the original Greek read Kad^ oaov Bwarov eariv e*ca- 
CTTO) TTpodeaiv TTOL-qaoj rijs vpeTTOvarjs dpLvrjaTeias. 

^ The Greek frag, has ov KvpioXoyelrai ; either this is a 
rhetorical question or the ov is a dittography of the case- 
ending of deov or ov was interpolated by a scribe who mis- 
understood Philo's meaning, which is that God's " reflecting " 
indicates His sureness of purpose. 

" Trpoaipeaeis or ^ovXai. 

^ ov KvpicDS Siavoowre? Aoyi^d/nc^a. 

* 17 yap hiavo-qois rj rod vov Sie^oSd? cctti, cf. Quod Deus 
hnmut. 34. Without this parallel it would be difficult to 
render the obscure Arm. clause. 

^ €KT€LV€adai /cat StaaTreipea^ai. 

" daOevovvTi, or " unable " — dSwarovvTi. 

^ i.e. the evils of earth. 

* Prob. dreXi} ; Aucher renders, " imperfecta." 
^ <f)iXdv6pa)7ros. 

136 



GENESIS, BOOK TI 

lightens these evils rather than adds to their misfortunes. 
But, as the proverb says, it is the same as " washing brick " 
or " carrying water in a net " to remove evil from the .soul 
of man, which is stamped with its mark. 

For if (the evil) exists from the beginning," says (Scrip- 
ture), it does not exist incidentally ^ but is engraved in (the 
soul) and closely fitted " to it. Moreover, since the mind ^ 
is the sovereign and ruling part of the soul,* (Scripture) 
adds " resolutely," •'' and that which is reflected upon with 
resolution and care ' is investigated * with accuracy.* But 
resolution is (turned) not toward one evil (only) but, as is 
clear, toward all " evils," and this (state) exists not momen- 
tarily^ but " from his youth," which is all but from his 
very swaddling bands, as if he were to a certain extent 
united, and at the same time, nourished and grown, with 
gins. 

However, He says, " Not again will I smite all living 
flesh," showing that He will not again destroy the whole 
of mankind in common * but (only) the greater part of 
those individuals who commit indescribable wrongs. For 
He does not leave evil unpunished nor does He grant it 
unrestraint or security,^ but while showing consideration"* 



" Lit. " first " ; the Arm. diff"ers considerably from the 
Greek frag, in this sentence. 

* TTapcpycjs ; the Arm. words gore ar gorcou (lit. = €pyov 
TTpos '^py<i>) are prob. a gloss to explain varkaparazi = Trapepyous, 
or an alternate rendering. 

" Prob. TTpoa-qpiJioarai as in the Greek frag. 
** d vovS' 

* TO lyye/xoviKov koX Kvpuorarov /xepos rrjs 4'^XV^- 
^ eVt/xeAcos. 

^ avv iTTifMcXela kol (f>povri8it as in the Greek frag. 
^ 8l7]P€vvt]ijl€vov ; the Greek frag, has Si-qyopevfievov. 

* ei's (XK'pijSeiav, as in the Greek frag., or possibly els 
dX-jdei,av. 

' Lit. " not barely " ; prob. the original was ovk oif/e Kai 
fxoXis as in the Greek frag. 

* Kara kolvov. ^ da^aAeiav. 

"• <f>€l86fJL€VOS. 

137 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

for the (human) race because of His purpose," He specifies * 
punishment by necessity " for those who sin. 



55. (Gen. viii. 22) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Seed and harvest, cold and heat, summer and spring, by 
day and night '^ they shall not cease " ? 

In the literal meaning * this indicates the permanent 
recurrence ^ of the annual seasons (and that) no longer is 
there to be a destruction of the earthly climates ' of animals 
and plants, for when the seasons are destroyed,'^ they 
destroy these (creatures) also, and when they are safely 
preserved, they keep them safe. For in accordance with 
each of these (seasons) they are kept sound and are not 
weakened, but are wont to be produced, each in a 
wonderful way, and to grow with it. But nature was 
constituted like a harmony of contrary sounds, of low ones 
and high ones, just as the world (was composed) of con- 
traries. When mortal temperaments* fully ^ preserve 
unmixed the natural order ^ of cold and warmth and of 
moisture and dryness, they are responsible ^ for the fact 
that destruction does not fall upon all earthly things. But 
as for the deeper meaning,"* seed is the beginning, and harvest 
is the end.^ And both " the end and the beginning are the 

** 8ta TTjv iTpodeaiV avrov. * opi^ei. " avdyKrj. 

* Philo folloM'^s the lxx in making " day and night " 
adverbial rather than part of the compound subject of the 
verb " cease " as in the Heb. and some ancient versions. 

* TO prjTOV. 

^ The Arm. lit. =avdoTriaiv (or eyepaiv) rrjs SiaiMovrjs ; Aucher 
renders, " continuationem durationis." 

" Lit. "mixtures," prob. Kpdaecov; Aucher renders, " tem- 
perationem." 

^ Or " corrupted " — ^delpovrai. 

* Kpdacts. 

^ Lit. "abundantly " or " superfluously " : Aucher " ap- 
prime." 

* Ti7y Kara (f>vaiv rd^iv. ^ cuTiai. 

"* TO TTpos Bidvoiav. " rj dpx^] • • • xal to tcXos. 

" Aucher, amplifying, renders, " ambo concurrentes." 

138 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

causes of salvation." For each by itself is imperfect,* since 
the beginning requires an end, and the end looks toward 
the beginning. But cold and heat motivate " winter and 
autumn. For autumn marks an interval,** coming after 
the annual (crop),' and chilling the fiery (summer).-' But 
symbolically," in connexion with the soul, cold indicates 
fear," which causes trembling and shuddering,* but heat 
(indicates) anger, for anger and wrath ' are flamelike and 
fiery. For it is necessary for these too to come into being 
and to endure always with things that come into being 
and are destroyed.* For summer and spring are set apart 
for fruits ; spring is for the ripening ' of seeds, while 
summer is for (the ripening) of fruits and foliage.*" And 
these are symbolically regarded as pertaining to the mind, 
as they bear fruits of two kinds, those which are necessary, 
(such as) those of the vernal season, and those which are 
by way of superfluity," as in the summer. Thus, necessary 
are the foods which (are produced) throughout the spring 
from seeds as for the body," and for the mind_ (what is 
produced) through the virtues. But those (which are) in 
superfluity, such as the corporeal fruits of the trees of 

** aarr-qpias. ^ dreXcs. 

" Or " announce " or " reveal " ; Arm. azdel = ivcpyclv and 
avayyeXXeiv, SrjXovv, etc. 

"* For Arm. bocagoyn " flamelike " (^AoycoST;?) we should 
almost certainly read bacaffoyn^SidaT-qiia excov ; cf. Quis 
Heres 165, where Philo speaks of the divider (toixcvs) of the 
seasons. 

* " crop " is supplied from De Virtntibus 6, where Philo 
speaks of tcl? irrjalas oncLpas. 

^ depos is to be supplied, cf. Aucher " igneum (aestum)." 

" avfi^oXiKios. 

'' Arm. uses two words both usu. =j>6^os. 

'■ rpofiov Kal (f>piKrjv. ' opyrf Koi dvfjios. 

^ i.e. living creatures. 

^ Lit. " perfecting." 

"' Or " buds " — ^aAAttSi'. " Kara nepiovaiav. 

" The Arm. construction is not clear to me ; Aucher 
renders, " cibus itaque necessarius fere est pro corpore quid- 
quid producitur in vere ex seminibus." 

139 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

summer, (bring) corporeal and external goods to souls,<» 
for the external ones are serviceable to the body. But 
(the goods) of the body (are serviceable) to the soul, while 
those of the mind (are serviceable) to God.^ Moreover,'' 
day and night are measures of times and numbers ; and 
time and number endure long •* ; and (so) day is a symbol 
of lucid reason," and night of shadowy folly/ 



56. (Gen. ix. 1-2) Why does (God) bless Noah and his sons 
by saying, " Increase and multiply and fill the earth and 
dominate it." And let the terror and fear of you be upon 
the beasts and the birds and the reptiles and the fish, which 
I have given into your hands " ^ ? 

This prayer * was granted to the man (made) in the 
image (of God) ' even at the beginning of creation * on the 
sixth day. For (Scripture) says,' " And God made man, in 
the image of God He made him, male and female He made 

" This rendering, while literal, is of doubtful correctness, 
as is the less literal rendering of Aucher, " quotquot autem 
per excessum veniunt ex arboribus fructus aestate, praeter 
corpus animo quoque ferunt bona corporalia ut externa." 

^ The distinction between Arm. ogi^ipvx-^ (sometimes 
TTvevixa) and mitk' =vovs is obscured in Aucher's rendering, 
" haec enim externa serviunt corpori, corpus autem animo, 
animus Deo." 

" Arm. bac is prob. a printer's error for bayc. 

^ Prob. Siafievovai. * (fxDroeiSovs Xoyiajxov. 

f oKoraias d(f)poavvr]s ; for the same combination see De 
Plantatione 40. 

" Prob. KaraKvpievaaTc as in lxx ; Heb. omits the last verb, 
but see below, where Philo quotes Gen. i. 28. 

^ Philo abbreviates the latter part of the biblical verse, 
which reads, " upon all the beasts of the earth and upon all 
the birds of heaven and upon all that creeps upon the earth 
and upon all the fish of the sea, which I have given (Heb. 
" which have been given ") into your hands." 

* Or " request " ; Arm. alotk' = evxrjt Se-qais, iKeria, etc. 
^ Ta> KaT* elKova dvdpioTru). 

* iv Tji TTJs yeveaecos d.pxf}' ^ Gen. i. 28. 
140 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

them. And God blessed them, saying. Increase and mul- 
tiply and fill the earth and dominate it, and rule over the 
fish and the birds and the reptiles of the earth." " But 
has it not indeed been clearly shown through these words 
that He considers Noah, who became, as it were, the 
beginning of a second genesis of man, of equal honour 
with him who was first made in (His) image ? And so He 
granted rule over earthly creatures in equal measure ^ to 
the former and the latter. And it should be carefully 
noted that (Scripture) shows him who in the flood was 
made righteous king " of earthly creatures to have been 
equal in honour not with the moulded and earthy man ^ 
but with him who Avas (made) in the form and likeness of 
the truly incorporeal Being * ; and to him (Noah) He also 
gives authority, appointing as king not the moulded man 
but him who was (made) in the likeness and form (of God), 
Who •'' is incorporeal. Wherefore the genesis of him who 
was incorporeal in form, was shown to be on the sixth 
day, in accordance with the perfect number " six. But the 
moulded man (was created) after the completion of the 
world and after the days '' of the genesis of all creatures, on 
the seventh day,* for then at the very last he was moulded 
into an earthly statue.^ And so, after the days of genesis, 

<» Here again Philo slightly abbreviates Scripture. 

** Kar* laorriTa. " os KaQicrraro 6 SiVaios ^amXevs. 

** TO) TrXaaro) koI yTjLvw, cf. QG i. 4, Leg. All. i. 31 et al. 

* Kara Tr)v iSeav koL T-qv etVdva tov ovtcos aaoiyidTOV "Ovtos. 

f The antecedent of " who " is grammatically " him who 
was made," but ought rather to be " God." 
" Kara tov xeAeiov dpLdfiov. 
^ Aucher omits " the days of. 

* Cf. Louis Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, vol. v. p. 79, 
" This does not harmonize with his general view of creation, 
according to which the former [the ideal man] is of a timeless 
state {cf. e.g. Legum Alleg. 2. 4), and it appears that he tried 
to fit a Haggadah [homiletic interpretation] into his system 
but did not succeed." 

' €1? ycioBrf dvSpiavra, cf. e.g. De Virtutibus 203 x^pcrt /xev 
delais els dvhpidvra tov acofiaToeibrj rimiodeis. 

141 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

on the seventh day of the world, (Scripture) says," " For 
God * had not caused it to rain on the earth, and there 
was no man who should cultivate the earth " ; then (it 
says)," " God moulded man, dust from the earth, and 
breathed into his face the breath of life, and the man 
became a living soul." And so, by the literal bearing (of 
Scripture) it has been shown how the beginning of the 
second genesis of the human race was worthy of the same 
kingship as the man (made) in the likeness and form (of 
God).** But as for the deeper meaning,* it is to be inter- 
preted as follows. He desires that the souls of intelligent 
men increase in greatness" and multitude (and) in the 
form •'' of virtues, and fill the mind with its form, as though 
it were the earth, leaving no part empty and void for 
follies " ; and that they should dominate and rule over the 
earthy body and its senses, and strike * terror and fear into 
beasts, which is the exercise - of the will against evil, for 
evil is untamed and savage.' And (he wishes that they 
should rule) over the birds, (that is) those who are lightly 
lifted up in thought, those who are (filled) with vain and 
empty arrogance, (and) having been previously armed,* 
cause great harm, not being restrained by fear. More- 
over, (He wishes that they should rule over) the reptiles, 
which are a symbol of poisonous passions ^ ; for through 

" Gen. ii. 5. Philo comments upon the first part of the 
verse above in QG i. 2. 

* So most Mss. of Lxx ; Heb. and Arm. O.T. have " the 
Lord God." ' Gen. ii. 7. 

** Aucher's rendering is less intelligible to me than the 
Arm. ; he gives " quomodo ergo eidem regno dignus ef- 
ficitur secundum imaginem formati hominis istud principium 
secundae facturae hominum indicatum fuit juxta litteram 
referentem." * to npos Sidvoiav. ^ etBei. 

" a<l>poavvu)v. 

'' Lit. " make " or " effect." 

* Prob. eTrtTTySeuaij. ^ dvoLKela Kal dypia. 

* nporepov wirXiaficvoi ; Aucher connects the participle with 
the preceding phrase, " et inani superbia iam armata." 
There are syntactical difficulties in both renderings. 

' avfi^oXov TcDv lo^oXwv naduiv. 
142 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

every soul sense-pleasures and desires and grief and fear " 
cree]), stabbing and piercing and wounding. And by the 
fish I understand '' those who eagerly welcome a moist and 
fluid life <* but not one that is continent, healthy and 
lasting.** 

57. (Gen. ix. 3) Why does (Scripture) say, " Every 
reptile * that lives shall be to you for food " ? 

The nature of reptiles is twofold. One is poisonous, and 
the other is tame.^ Poisonous are those serpents which in 
place of feet use the belly and breast to crawl along ; and 
tame are those which have legs " above their feet. This 
is the literal meaning.'' But as for the deeper meaning,* 
the passions ^ resemble unclean reptiles, while joy *= (re- 
sembles) clean (reptiles). For alongside sensual pleasures 
there is the passion of joy.* And alongside the desire for 
sensual pleasure there is reflection.*" And alongside grief 
there is remorse and constraint." And alongside desire" 
there is caution. ** Thus, these passions threaten souls with 
death and murder, whereas joys are truly living, as He 
Himself has shown in allegorizing, " and are the causes *■ of 
life for those who possess them. 

" TjSovai Kol Ifxepoi /cat XvTrr) /cat (fto^os- 

^ Xiyoi. 

" vypov KoX pooihr) ^Lov. 

^ eyKparrj koX vyieivov Koi 8iap,€vovra. 

* iprrcTOv. 

^ lo^oXos . . . -fjfjLepos (or oIkclos). 

" oKeXos or Kvrjp.rjv. * to prjTov. 

* TO iTpos Siavotav. ^ ra Trddr]. 

* Xo^po. or €V(f>poavinj. 

' In each case a good passion is contrasted with an evil 
one ; Arm. ar here=7rapa ; Aucher's rendering " apud " here 
and below is misleading. 

"* Possibly Philo here contrasts ivdvp.7]p,a and imOvpLia. 

« Lit. " biting " (or " striking ") and contraction " ; 
Aucher renders, " punctio et compunctio." 

" TTodov. ^ euAa/Seia. 

" dXXfjyopwv. *■ at atrial. 

143 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

58. (Gen. ix. 3) What is the meaning of the words, " As 
the herbs of fodder * I have given you all things " ? 

Some say that through this (statement) " as the herbs 
of fodder I have given you all things " the eating of meat 
is enjoined. '' But though this (interpretation) also is 
admissible, I myself believe that the legislation " indicates 
that above all the use of herbs is necessary, and that it 
implies other additions ** in the form of herbs without 
legislating. But now they * are customary not (only) 
among a chosen race of men nor among those who are 
desirous of wisdom,^ by whom continence of habit " is 
honoured, but among all men, all of whom at once '^ it is 
impossible to keep from eating meat. But perhaps the 
passage * is not about food but about authority ^ ; for 
not everything that is an herb is edible nor is the food of 
all living creatures * sure and safe. For He saw the poison- 
ous and death-bringing (creatures) which are also (found) 
among all of them. And so it may be that what (Scrip- 
ture) means is the following, that irrational creatures ' 
are to be given over to, and made obedient to man, just as 
we sow herbs and tend them by agriculture. 



*59. (Gen. ix. 4) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Flesh in the blood of the life you shall not eat " "» ? 
(Scripture) seems to indicate through these (words) that 

" cus Xdxava xoprov, as in Lxx ; Heb. " as herbs of grass." 

^ Prob. xpiy/^aTt'^eTat, i.e. " oracularly spoken." 

' TO vo/xo^eretv. 

** Apparently meaning other kinds of food. 

* i.e. herbs. ^ ao^i'a?. 

" iyKpareia tcov iOwv. ^ ofiov or kolvws. 

* 6 Xoyos. 

' TTcpl dpxrjs or i^ovaias ; this is explained in the last sen- 
tence of the section. 

* i.e. food derived from living creatures. 
" dXoya ^(pa. 

"* LXX Kpeas ev alfxari t/jvxrjs ov ^dyeade ; Heb. " flesh with 
its soul (= life), its blood you shall not eat." 
144 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

the blood is the substance of the soul," but of the sense- 
perceptive and vital soul,* not of that which is called (soul) 
katexochen, (namely) that which is rational and intelligent." 
For there are three parts of the soul : one is nutritive, 
another is sense-perceptive, and the third is rational.** 
Now the divine spirit * is the substance of the rational 
(part), according to the theologian,^ for in (the account of) 
the creation of the world, he says," " He breathed the 
breath of life into his face " (as) his cause.'' But blood is 
the substance of the sense-perceptive and vital (soul), for 
he says in another place,* " The soul ^ of all flesh is its 
blood." Very properly does (Scripture) say that the blood 
is the soul of flesh. And in the flesh are sense-perception 
and passion but not mind or reflection.*^ Moreover, (the 
expression) " in the blood of the life " ^ indicates that soul 
is one thing, and blood another, so that the substance of the 
soul is truly and infallibly "* spirit." The spirit," however, 

** 17 rrjg tjjvx'fjs ovaia^ as in Greek frag. 

'' Tiy? aladrjTiK-fjs Kal I^cotlktjs ^vxi^ '•> ^he second adjective is 
omitted in the Greek frag. 

'^ XoyLKT] Kox voepd^ as in the Greek frag. 

^ dpeiTTLKov . . . alodrjTCKov . . . XoyiKov, as in the Greek 
frag. 

* TO delov TTvevfia ; with the Greek frag, we must emend 
Arm. ogouy = TTvevfiaros to o^i = TrveiJ/xa. 

^ i.e. Moses. 

" Gen. ii. 7, cf. QG i. 5. 

^ The last phrase (one word in Arm.) precedes the words 
" the breath of life," as though it were part of the biblical text. 

' Lev. xvii. 14. ^ i.e. life. 

^ T) aiadrjais koL to irddos, ovx o vovs Kai 6 Xoyiafjuos, as in 
Greek frag. 

' iv ai/xari ipvxvSi as in Greek frag, (after lxx) ; Aucher 
ineptly renders, " per spiritum sanguinis." 

*" dX-qdcos Koi difjevBcos ; the Greek frag, has only di/t€v8a>s. 

" TTvevfj-a, as the Greek frag, shows. Arm. ogi and hogi 
are phonetic alternants, each of which renders both ipvxTJ 
and TTvevfjia ; here apparently the Arm. translator artificially 
equates ogi with i/'yx'? ^^^ ^^9^ with -rrvevfia. 

" The Greek frag, does not repeat the word jTvevjxa. 

145 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

does not occupy any place by itself alone without the blood 
but is carried along <* and mixed together ^ with the blood. 
For the arteries," the vessels of breath, contain not only air 
by itself, unmixed and pure, but also blood, though perhaps 
a small amount. For there are two kinds of vessels, veins 
and arteries ^ ; the veins have more blood than breath 
whereas the arteries have more breath than blood, but 
the mixture in both kinds of vessel is differentiated by the 
greater or less (amount of blood and breath). This is the 
literal meaning.* But as for the deeper meaning,^ (Scrip- 
ture) calls " blood of the life " its hot and fiery virtue " (or) 
uprightness.'' And he who is filled with this wisdom 
despises all food and all sensual pleasure,* which are of the 
belly and of the parts below the belly.' For one who is 
dissolute and sportive*^ like the wind, or hide-bound' by 
sloth and a soft life,*" does nothing but fall on his belly like 
a reptile on the ground, and gives himself up to licking 
what is on the ground, and ends his life without tasting 
the heavenly food which wisdom-loving souls obtain. 

" Lit. " woven in and carried," probably a double render- 
ing of efj,(f)€p€a6ai, found in the Greek frag. 

^ Two Arm. synonyms prob. render the single Greek verb 
avyK€Kpdadai, found in the Greek frag, (which ends at this 
point). 

" at dprrjpiai,, here used in the sense of respiratory vessels, 
cf. De Praemiis 144 rov fxev iv (f>X€i/jlv atpLaros . . . rov 8' iv 
dpTTjpiai.s TTvevpLaros. 

^ <f)X€p€S /cat dprrjpiai. * to frqrov. 

^ TO TTpos Sidvoiav. ' dperrjv. 

^ Or "rising"; Arm. kangnout*iun = dv6p9wcFis, eyepais, 
dvaarams ; Aucher renders, " fortitudinem " and adds, in a 
footnote, " vox anceps, fortitudo a nobis exposita, poterat 
etiam verti vigor ye\ in vigore aut rectitudinem.''^ 

* rihovr\s. 

i Cf. QG i. 12 (above, p. 8). 

* Lit. " enjoying himself " — prob. iJ8o/ievoj. 
' Lit. " hardened " or " frozen." 

*" vypto jSioj, cf. De Vita Cont. 47 vypos . . . koX daioros ^ios 
aTtaaiv erri^ovXos ; Aucher's " vitamque humidam " misses 
the metaphorical sense of the adjective. 
146 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

60. (Gen. ix. 5) What is the meaning of the words, " I 
will require your blood of your souls, of all living creatures, 
and from the hand of man of his brother " " ? 

There are two classes * of preyers," one (consisting) of 
beasts, and the other of men. But beasts do rather little 
harm because they have no familiarity ** with those whom 
they seek to prey on, and especially because they are not 
in authority but prey upon those who have authority." 
And (Scripture) calls " brothers " those men who plot 
mischief,' demonstrating three things. One, that all we 
men are kinsmen and brothers," being related by the 
possession of an ancient kinship,'' since we receive the lot * 
of the rational nature ^ from * one mother. The second is 
that nearly all great quarrels and plots occur between 
those who are blood-relatives, especially brothers, whether 

" The above is a literal translation of Philo's abbreviated 
citation of the biblical verse, which is awkwardly phrased 
both in Heb. and lxx. The Heb. reads, " and also your 
blood as to your souls {i.e. your life-blood) I will require from 
the hand of every living creature, I will require it (sic), and 
from the hand of man, from the hand of man his brother (i.e. 
every man's brother) I will require the soul (i.e. life) of the 
man " ; lxx has Kal yap to v^iircpov atfMa tcDv ijjvxiov v^cov e/c- 
t,r)Trjaco' eK x^'-P^^ ttolvtcdv tojv 6-qpicov iK^rjTijaio avro, Kal €K 
X^tpos avdpoiTTOv d8eX(f)ov iK^rjT-qaco ttjv tpvxrjv rod dvOpcoTTOv. 

^ rd^eis or rdyfiara. " im^ovXiov. 

'* OlKeiOTTJTa. 

* The two verbs are in the sing, but probably reflect Greek 
usage of sing, verb with neut. pi. subject (d-qpia or ^a)a) ; 
Aucher renders, " maxime quod non sub principatu cadunt 
sed principes demoliuntur," and remarks in a footnote, " ubi 
subintelligitur natura hestiarum, quamquam Gloss, voluerit 
intelligi hominem." The Arm. glossator paraphrases, 
"Man is not under the power (of others ?) but the beasts fear 
him as their ruler." 

' Lit. " plotters " or " cheaters " ; Aucher renders, " oc- 
cisores." " avyyevels Kal dh€X(f>oi. 

^ Kara dvco axryyeveias ax^aiv coKeioiiievot. 

* KXrjpov. * rijs XoyiKTJs (ftvaecos. 

* Lit. *' of " (gen. case). 

147 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

because of inheritance or because of family honour." For 
family strife is even worse than that of strangers,^ since (in 
the former) they quarrel with great knowledge." In truth 
those are (like ?) genuine brothers ^ who are skilled in 
knowledge * of what attack ' is to be used in battle." 

And third, it seems to me, (Scripture) applies the name of 
" brothers " to the unrelenting and implacable punishment 
of homicides in order that they may suffer without mercy 
for what they have done, for they have slain, not strangers 
but their own true brothers.'^ And most excellently * does 
(Scripture) say that God is the inspector ^ and overseer ^ of 
those who are slain by men. For even if (some) men 
despise and belittle the carrying out of justice,' let these 
men not be carefree and think to escape and be safe though 
they are impure and savage, but let them know that they 
have already been apprehended in a great assize,"* in the 
divine court of justice set up for the retributive punish- 
ment " of savage men on behalf of those who have suffered 
unjust and undeserving attacks." This is the literal mean- 
ing.*' But as for the deeper meaning,*' (Scripture) says 
that the beneficent, good, philanthropic and only Saviour ♦■ 

" Or " rights of birth " (i.e. primogeniture and the like). 

^ ^e'vcov or aXXorpiojv. 

" i.e. of the weaknesses of their opponents. 

'^ yv-qmoL dSeA^oi (or dSeA^oyv ?). 

* e/LtTTCtpot. ^ opfxfj. 

" The construction of this sentence is not clear to me ; a 
demonstrative pron. is used as the subject, and the word 
" brothers " is in the gen.-abl.-dat. case for a reason that 
escapes me ; Aucher renders, more smoothly but with ques- 
tionable accuracy, " fratres vere ex natura genuini, satis 
conscii," etc. 

'' rovs yvrjOLOVS d8€X<f>ovs. * TrayKaXios. 

^ Arm. aycelmi and verakacou are prob. a d»uble rendering 

of eTTLOKOTTOS. 

* €(f)opos ; the meaning is, of course, that God is the 
observer of the crime. '■ hUiqv. 

"» ZiKaaT-qpLov. " eKBiK-qoLv. ° Lit. " experiences." 

" TO prjTov. ' TO vpos Sidvoiav. 

*" d evfievrjs Kal dyados /cat (fnXdvdpcu'nos Koi fiovos acoTrjp. 
148 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

does not overlook * the worth of the purity of the soul 
which can be saved from unending and unbearable corrup- 
tion, but drives off and scatters all the enemies that surround 
it, (namely) the beasts and the men (called) brothers. For 
symbolically those are beasts who act savagely and threaten 
(others) with wicked murder. But men and brothers 
(Scripture symbolically calls) the various thoughts ** and 
words " which are heard when expressed ^ by the tongue 
and mouth, for they are related ' ; and therefore they bring 
insurmountable misfortune, omitting no word or deed that 
results in misery. 



61. (Gen. ix. 6) What is the meaning of the words, " He 
who sheds the blood of a man, in return for his blood he 
shall be shed " ^ ? 

There is no error in this text ' but rather a sign of em- 
phasis,^ for, says (Scripture), he himself shall be shed like 
blood who sheds blood ; for that which is shed flows out 
and is absorbed and does not have the power of consis- 
tency.* And by this (Scripture) indicates ^ that the souls 
of those who act impiously * imitate the mortal body in 
being corrupted, in so far as each of them is wont to seem 

" ov Ttapopa. ^ Tovs XoyiafMovs. 

" TOVS Xoyovs. ^ Kara 7rpo<f>opav aKovovrai. 

* auyyeveis. 

^ Philo follows the lxx, which reads 6 eKxeojv al/xa dvdpu)- 
TTov dvTi Tov atfiaros avrov cKxvd'qcreTai. The Heb. reads 
more intelligibly " He who sheds the blood of a man, by a 
man his blood shall be shed." The Arm. O.T. combines the 
two texts, reading " He who sheds the blood of a man, in 
return for his blood, his {i.e. the slayer's) blood shall be shed." 

' Prob. e^Tjyijaei, though Arm. meknout'iun also renders 
€pfir)V€ia. 

^ Arm. erewoyt* usu. =€m^aveia or <f>avTaaia, neither of 
which fits the context ; prob. the original had €ij.<f)da€a}s, cf. 
the Ambrosian paraphrase (cited by Aucher), " sed emphasis 
est." Aucher himself I'enders, " majoris declarationis." 

* Suva/iiv avardasios (or ovatas). 



^ aiviTT€Tai. * TcDv dvoatovpycov. 



149 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

to suffer corniptioii." For the body is dissolved '' into those 
(parts) out of which it was mixed and compounded," and 
is again resolved into its original elements/ But the cruel * 
and labouring ^ soul is tossed about and overwhelmed by 
its intemperate way of life " and by the evils with which it 
has grown up/ (which are) 
and grow together with it.^ 



*62. (Gen. ix. 6) Why does (Scripture) say, as if (speak- 
ing) of another God, " in the image of God He made man " 
and not " in His own image " * ? 

Most excellently and veraciously * this oracle was given 
by God."* For nothing mortal can be made in the likeness 
of the most high One and Father of the universe but (only) 
in that of the second God, who is His Logos." For it was 

** 7T€(f)VK€ 8oK€Lv {oT opdodai) (f)dopav ivhix^aOai ; Aucher 
renders more freely and with omission of one infinitive, 
" quatenus singulis soleat corruptia supervenire." 

^ Karakv€Tai. " Frob. avyx^o^ievov 7T€<f>vpr(u. 

^ dvaoTOLX^LOVTai. 

* Or " terrible " ; Arm. dzndak — beivos, xaAcTrds, etc. 

^ Apparently the Arm. translator took fxoxdrjpd or Trovrjpd 
in the sense of " labouring " rather than " wicked." 

' The Arm. v.ll. do not affect the sense. 

^ avvrp6<f>ojv KaKO)v, cf. De Virtutibus 26 SeiAt'a . . . ly 8' 
iarl KaKov avvTpo(f>ov. 

* KrovTOjvy rpoTTov rivd fieXcbv avrrjs ovtojv ; i.e. the evils are 
parts of the soul somewhat as limbs are parts of the body. 

^ Aucher's rendering of this clause is unnecessarily ob- 
scure, " una cum ilia et ipsa mala connutrita idem pati solita 
simt ad modum partium membrorum." 

* Philo asks the natural question, why does God refer to 
Himself in the third person ? The Arm. here differs from the 
Lxx and the Greek frag, (preserved by Eusebius) as well as 
from the Arm. O.T. in having the verb " made " in the 3rd 
pers. instead of the 1 st. 

' TTayKaXws kol oupcvBcbs ; the Greek frag, has TrayKaXcos kuI 
oo(f)U)s. "' Frob. K€Xpr)opi,u)hrirai, as in Greek frag. 

" irpos Tov ScuTcpov diov, OS doTiv eKcivov XoyoSi as in Greek 
frag. 

150 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

right that the rational (part) of the human soul should be 
formed as an impression" by the divine Logos, since the 
pre-Logos God * is superior to every rational nature." But 
He who is above the Logos (and) exists in the best and in 
a special form — what thing that comes into being can 
rightfully bear His likeness ? ^ Moreover, Scripture wishes 
also to show that God most justly avenges the virtuous 
and decent men because they have a certain kinship * with 
His Logos, of which the human mind^ is a likeness and 
image." 

63. (Gen, ix. 11) * What is the meaning of the words, 
" There shall not again * be a flood to destroy the whole 
earth " ? 

Through this last (statement Scripture) shows us clearly ' 
that there may be ^ many floods but not such a one as will 
be able to inundate the whole earth. This is the literal 
meaning.^ But as for the deeper meaning,*" it is the divine 
grace " which, though it does not aid all the parts of the 
soul in all the virtues," nevertheless does adorn " some (of 
them) in some respects. For so too, though one may not 
be able to be vigorous " in all his body, nevertheless that 
which he can do to achieve vigour he should practise with 

" Prob. CTXT7ftaTi^€CT0ai (or ^apax^^vat, as in Greek frag.) 

TVTTOV. 

* o Trpo Tov Xoyov deos, as in Greek frag. 

" One Arm. ms. reads navXayiK-q <f>vais for Trdaa XoyiKrj 
(f)vms ; the latter is found in Greek frag. 

"^ The Greek frag, (which ends with this sentence) reads 
slightly diff'erently, having the conclusion in a negative rather 
than interrogative form. * otVetoTT^ra. 

^ o TOV dv6pu)TT0v vovS' " ofxoCcoais Kol cIkcov. 

'' Philo prob. omits comment on Gen. ix. 7-10, because 
these verses are largely repetitions of earlier ones. 

* Lit. " no longer," as in lxx ovk larai In. 

i Ut *' face to face.'' ^ ^ * Or " will be." 

' TO prjTOv. "• TO Trpos Stdvoiav. " ly dcla X^P^^- 

° OVK OK^eAct Travra rijs ^vxrjs li^pf} Kara, irdaas dperds. 
^ Koafiel. " ddXXuv. 

151 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

all care (and) diligence. Nor, if one is too weak to correct 
his way of life completely, should he despair of those things 
of which he is capable and which he can achieve. For in 
so far as one does not work in accordance with the power * 
which every one has, he is a slacker ^ and, at the same time, 
an ingrate. He is a slacker in being sluggish, and an 
ingrate in that, having received an excellent start," he 
opposes Being," 

*64. (Gen. ix. 13-17) Why, as a sign that there will not 
be a flood on all the earth, does He speak of placing His 
bow * in the clouds ? 

Some suppose that this means that bow which by some 
is called the rainbow,^ since from its form they take it 
to be a reliable " symbol for the rainbow. I, however, do 
not find this soundly '^ argued. In the first place, this bow 
should have its own special nature and substance,* since it 
is called the bow of God, for He says, " my bow I will 
place." And to belong to God and to be placed (means) 
that it is not non-existent.^ But the rainbow does not 
have a special separate nature by itself but is an appear- 
ance * of the sun's rays in moist clouds, and all appearances 

" T17V Bvvafxiv. 

* SeiAd? or voidrjs. 

" Arm. patcar (here used in pi.) usu.= aiVta, sometimes = 
irpoTaais or Trpo^aaij. In the present passage it seems to 
mean a man's natural endowment from God ; Aucher renders 
" mediis." 

^ Apparently God, 6 "Dv, is meant. 

* To^ov, as in Lxx. 

^ Lit. " girdle of Aramazd ( = Zeus) " ; the Greek probably 
had Ipiv ; the following word for " rainljow " also = fpis. 

*' Or "accurate" or "true"; Arm. hastatoun=^€^aios, 
dX-qd-qSi oLKptpT^s, etc. ; Aucher renders, " constantem." 

* Trjv iSiav <f>v(nv Koi ovaiav. 

^ Arm. ane and angoy are prob. a double rendering of 
avvnapHTOV. 

* <f>avTaaia or ^aivoiievov. 

152 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

are non-existent and immaterial. And evidence " (of this 
is that) the rainbow never appears at night, although there 
are clouds (then). In the second place, moreover, it must 
be said that even by day, when the clouds are overshadowed, 
the rainbow never appears earlier.'' But it is necessary to 
speak without falsehood also of the other things which the 
legislator " (says, namely), " my bow I will place in the 
clouds." '^ For, behold, while there are clouds there is no 
appearance of a rainbow. And (Scripture) says that upon 
the gathering of the clouds the bow will appear in the 
clouds. For many times when there is a gathering of the 
clouds, and the air is overshadowed and dense, there is 
nowhere an appearance of a rainbow. But perhaps the 
theologian * indicates something else by the bow, (namely 
that) in the laxness and force of earthly things ^ there will 
not take place a dissolution by their being completely 
loos.ened to (the point of) incongruity ' nor (will there be) 
force up to (the point of) reaching a break.'' But either 
])Ower is determined by fixed measures.* For the great 
flood came about through a break ^ as (Scripture) itself 

" TTioTis. ^ i-e. before the sun comes out. 

" d voixoder-qs. 

** In this section the Arm. uses indifferently the sing, and 
pi. forms of " cloud." 

* d d€oX6yos, i.e. Moses. 

^ The Greek frag, reads more intelligibly toutccttiv avcaiv 
Kal emraaLv twv eTTiyeicjv ; Aucher takes the nouns in a 
moral sense, rendering, " in ipsa videlicet turn indulgentia 
turn acerbitate erga terrestres." 

» This is reasonably close to the text of the Greek frag. 
IJ-tJt€ TTJs dv€a€U)S €LS (kXvolv v<f)L€fji.4vr]S TTavreXrj Kal dvapixoariav ; 
Aucher renders the Arm. somewhat freely, " nee ultimam 
dissolutionem futuram esse ad modum (arcus) nimis mollis et 
inepti." 

'* This again is close to the text of the Greek frag. fn^€ 
rrjs eTTiTaaews o.xpL prj^^ws eViTeivo/LteVi;?. 

* The Arm. closely agrees with the Greek frag. aAAa 
fierpois <x)piafi€VOis eKarepas Svvdfxews aTadfirjOeicrrjg. 

' Arm. paxmamb patarmamb is a double rendering of 
pri^€i. 

153 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

confesses, saying," " the fountains of the abyss broke 
forth," * but not with any particular (degree of) violence." 
Second, the bow is not a weapon but an instrument of a 
weapon, an arrow which pierces ; and the arrow released 
by the bow reaches a long way from a distance,"* while there 
is no eifect on that whi(^ is close-by and remains near/ 
This is a sign that never again will the whole earth be 
flooded, for no arrow reaches every place but only the place 
at a distance/ Thus the bow is symbolically the invisible 
power of God,^ which is in the air. And this (air) is thinned 
out when it is separated in good weather,^ and is condensed 
when there are clouds. It * does not permit the clouds to 
turn wholly into water, taking care that a flood shall not 
again . . J the earth, for it manages and directs * the den- 
sity of the air, which is likely at that time to be especially 

*• Arm. lit. =o/xoAoyer, Xdycov ; Greek frag, has only ^ryaiV. 

* Gen. vii. 11, see above, QG ii. 18. 

" The Arm. corresponds pretty closely with the Greek frag. 
ovK eTTLTaaei TTocrfj tlvi, ; Wendland was perhaps influenced by 
Aucher's rendering " non tamen vehementia sine mensura " 
in conjecturing iinTdaei TrepiTTfj. 

•* " A long way " (lit. " part ") has no parallel in the 
Greek frag. ; Aucher omits " from a distance," which corre- 
sponds to Tov TToppo) in the Greek frag. ; probably the Arm. 
is merely a double rendering of the latter. 

* i.e. on the bow and the person who uses it. 

^ This diff'ers from the Greek frag., which has ovtcos ovv, 
<f)r)aiv, ov TTOLvres KaTaKXvaOijaovTaL, kov tovto rivas VTTOfxeveiv 
avfji^fj. For some of the remainder of this section there are 
two Greek parallels, one from Catena Lipsiensis, the other 
from Procopius. 

" Ocov SuVa/u.iS' doparos. 

" This is probably an awkward rendering of some such 
text as that of Cat. Lips. dvei/LteVoj Kara rds aWpias- 

* i.e. the divine power. 

^ The Arm. verb yizdil {v.l. yezdil) is unknown to the Arm. 
lexicons ; the Arm. translator, however, must have had before 
him a text much like that of Cat. Lips. ru> fi-q yeveadai KadoXov 
KaTaKXvapLOV. 

* Prob. Kv^cpva Koi -qviox^t as in Cat. Lips. 

154 



GENESIS, BOOK II 



refractory and insolent because of a repletion of satiety,** 
since when there are clouds, it shows itself to be full, 
dripping and sated. 



*65. (Gen. ix. 18-19) Why does (Scripture) in mention- 
ing the sons of the righteous man,''Shem, Ham and Japheth, 
tell of the genealogy of the middle one only, saying, " Ham 
was the father of Canaan," and after this add, " these 
(were) the three sons of Noah " ? 

After first mentioning four (persons), Noah and his sons, 
it says that three were . . .* Since the offspring * was 
similar in character to the father who begot him, it 
reckoned both as one (person), so that they are four in 
number but three in power.* But he ^ now speaks of only 
the middle generation in Scripture because later on the 
righteous man will speak of his case.*' For though he was 
indeed his father,'^ he did not rebuke the father and did not 

« The Arm. agrees closely with Cat. Lips, (which ends 
here), dTravxevi^eiv koI ivvBpl^cw 8ia TrXTjofxovijs Kopov. 

" Noah. 

" The word bnaxratakan is not found in the Arm. lexicons. 
It is a compound of boun " nature " and xratakan " moral," 
"instructive" from xrat = TraiSela, vovOervais, eTnarT^firj (also 
rd^Ls). What Greek compound it renders is difficult to 
say. Possibly it means something like " in a natural moral 
order." Aucher renders, " morigeratos " and in a footnote 
adds, " vel, pro admonendis morigeratis, vel, eos qui morum 
indicio fuere " : he then quotes the Arm. glossator, who 
writes, " the three sons were bnaxrat, since it [Scripture] has 
already called Shem good, Ham evil, and Japheth neither 
good nor evil." 

^ Canaan. 

* Or " potentially " — Suva^iei ; Aucher has " virtute." 

^ Moses. 

" i.e. Noah will later on (in Gen. ix. 25, cf. below, § 75) 
curse Ham's son Canaan because of Ham's disrespect for 
him (Noah). 

^ MeaningthatHam was father of Canaan. 

155 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

give the progenitor a share of that which he thought it 
right for the son to share." In the second place, it may 
be that (Scripture) foretells to those who are able to see 
from afar what is distant with the sharp-sighted eyes of 
the mind that He will take away the land of the Canaanites 
after many generations and give it to the chosen and god- 
beloved race.* And so (Scripture) wishes to show that 
Canaan, the ruler and inhabitant of that country, practised 
peculiar evils of his own, as well as those of his father, so 
that from both sides his ignobility and low-born alienness * 
are shown. This is the literal meaning.** But as for the 
deeper meaning,* (Scripture) does not say that Canaan was 
son to Ham but uses a special expression,^ saying that 
" Ham was the father of Canaan," for such a character is 
always the father of such thoughts." This is shown by the 
interpretations of their names, for when they are rendered 
from one (language) into the other,'' " Ham " is " heat " 
or " hot," ' while " Canaan " is " merchant " ' or " media- 



" Apparently this means that Noah did not curse Ham as 
he did curse Ham's son Canaan. The Greek frag, from 
Procopius has a different sense (the text is given in Appen- 
dix A), namely that he (Ham) did not respect {ovk irifXTiaev ; 
Arm. oc sasteac = ovK eireTi^-qaev) his father (Noah), and did 
not give him that portion of respect which he (Noah) thought 
it right to receive from his son. 

* Tw eVAcKTo) Koi d€o<f>iXel yevei. 

" The Arm. lit. =dv€X€vd€pia /cat dTraXXorpiwais (or iTpoypa(f>r)) 
TTJs bvayeveias ; this last word is perhaps an error for evye- 
veias, which seems to be required by the context ; Aucher 
renders, " mancipatio ac proscriptio ignobilis." 

** TO prjTOV. 

* TO Trpos Sidvoiav. 
^ Ibla 7rpo(f)opa. 

" Xoyianwv. 

^ i.e. from Hebrew into Greek. 

* Philo gives the same etymology of ham " to be hot " in 
Be Sohrietate 44. 

^ " Canaanite " is sometimes used typologically in the 
sense of " merchant " in the Old Testament, 

156 



I 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

tor." " But now it is evidently not ^ a matter of kinship " 
or that one is the father or son of the other, but it is now 
evidently the (kinship of) thought with thought that 
(Scripture) shows, because of (Canaan's) remoteness from 
kinship with virtue.'' 



*66. (Gen. ix. 20) What * is the meaning of the words, 
" Noah began to be a husbandman of the earth " ^ ? 

(Scripture) likens Noah to that first moulded earthy 
man," for it uses the same expression '* of him, when he 
came out of the ark, as of the other,' for there was a be- 
ginning of agriculture both then and now,^ both times after 
a flood. For at the creation of the world the earth was, in 
a sense,* flooded. For (God) would not have said, " Let 
the waters ' be gathered into one gathering, and let the dry 
land appear," if there had not been an inundation in some 
abyss of the earth. But not ineptly does (Scripture) say 
" he began to be a husbandman," since in the second 
genesis of mankind he was the beginning of both seed and 
agriculture and other (forms of) life. This is the literal 

" Arm. arW =^ fieaiTTjs or Trpo^evos, also d^op/xT;, vrroOecns; 
Aucher renders " caussa." What Greek word Philo used it 
is hard to say. In Be Sobrietate 44, 48 Philo etymologizes 
" Canaan " as aaXos " tossing " (seemingly connecting it with 
Heb. n«*= " to move (constantly) "). 

* Lit. " not evidently." " auyyeveia?. 
^ 8ia T17V aXKorpidioiv ttjv rfjs npos dpcTrjv olKeiorrjTOS. 

* We should prob. follow Arm. ms. C in omitting the words 
" On agriculture " before " what." 

' Philo closely follows lxx kou rfpiaro NcDe dvdpcoTros 
yecopyos yijs. 

" Tw irpuiTcp SiaTrXaadevTi, <Kal> yeatBei (or yrjyivet) dvdpatTTw. 
The Greek frag, from Procopius omits yecoSet (or yrfycvel) ; 
perhaps it is a doublet in Arm. 

'' Xoyu). 

* i.e. Adam when driven from Eden, of Gen. iii. 23. 
^ Both in Adam's time and in Noah's. 

* rpoTTOv rivd. 

' LXX and Heb. have " waters under the heavens." 

157 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

meaning.* But as for the deeper meaning,* there is a 
difference between being a husbandman <^ and a worker of 
the earth, ** wherefore, when the fratricide * is introduced, 
it is said of him that he shall work the earth but not that 
he shall cultivate it. For symbolically the body is called 
" earth " (since) by nature our ^ (body) is earthy, and it 
works basely and badly like an unskilled hireling.*' But 
the virtuous man cultivates like a skilled and experienced 
caretaker of plants, and the husbandman is an overseer of 
the good. For the worker-mind of the body, in accor- 
dance with its bodily (nature), pursues bodily pleasures, 
but the husbandman-mind strives to obtain useful fruits, 
those which (come) through continence and moderation * ; 
and it cuts off the superfluous weaknesses (that grow) 
around our characters like the branches of wide-spreading 
trees. 



67. (Gen. ix. 20) Why did the righteous man * first plant 
a vineyard ? 

It was proper (for him) to fall into perplexity ' where 
he should find a plant after the flood, since all those things 
which were on the earth had wasted away and perished. 
But what was said a little earlier *^ seemed to be true, 
(namely) that the earth was dried up at the spring season, 
for the spring produced a growth of plants ; accordingly, 

" TO pTjTov. ' TO irpos Sidvoiav. 

'^ yccjpyos. 

<* €pydTT]s rrjs yrjs ; on this distinction see De Agricultura 
5ff. 

* Cain ; see De Agricultura 21 ff. on Gen. iv. 2. 

' In the Arm. text the pronoun " our " is unaccountably 
separated by the relative clause from the word " body " in 
the main clause. 

" o)? oLTexfos fiiaOcoTos (or epLynados as in De Agricultura 5). 

^ hi iyKparelas kol aa)(f>poavv7}s (the latter noun has a 
double rendering in Arm.). 

* i.e. Noah. 

' The two Arm. verbs both = dnopiiv. 

* In QG ii. 47 on Gen. viii. 14. 

158 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

it was natural that both vines and vine-shoots were found 
that could flourish, « and that they were gathered by the 
righteous man. But it must be shown why he first planted 
a vineyard and not wheat and barley, since some fruits are 
necessary and it is impossible to live without them, while 
others are the material of superfluous luxury.^ Now those 
which are necessary to life he consecrated and set apart for 
God « as being useful (to man), not having any co-opera- 
tion ^ in their production ; but superfluous things were 
assigned to man, for the use of wine is superfluous and not 
necessary. And so, in the same way that God Himself 
with His own hand caused fountains of potable water to 
flow out without the co-operation of men, so also He gave 
wheat and barley. For both forms of nourishment, food 
as well as drink, He alone by Himself bestowed (on man). 
But those (foods) which are for a life of luxury He did not 
keep for Himself* nor grudge that they should fall to 
man's possession.^ 



*68. (Gen. ix. 21) What is the meaning of the words, 
" he drank of the wine ' and became drunken " ? 

In the first place, the righteous man ^ did not drink the 
wine but a portion of wine * and not all of it. For the 
incontinent and self-indulgent man * does not give up going 
to drinking-bouts before he has put away inside himself all 

" Prob. fiXaarovs d/LtTre'Aou ^oio^irrouvra?. 

^ vXt) TrXeova^ovar^s Tpv(f>rjs. 

" i.e. man should not presume to claim credit for producing 
the necessities of life, for which God alone is responsible. 

'^ avvepyiav. 

* OVK €voa(f>iaaTO. 

f Construction of Arm. uncertain ; Aucher renders, " quin 
homines assequerentur per industriam propriam." 

" eiTLiv €K Tov otvov, as in lxx. 

^ Noah. 

*' Philo stresses the scriptural wording " drank of the 
wine." 

^ o dKparrjs kcu daeXyqs vel sim. 

159 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the unmixed (wine).'* But the continent and abstemious 
man measures the things necessary for use. And " becom- 
ing drunken" is used in the sense of * " making use of 
wine." For there is a twofold and double way of becoming 
drunken : one is to drink wine to excess," which is a sin 
peculiar to the vicious and evil man ; the other is to par- 
take of wine, which always happens to the wise man.*^ 
Accordingly, it is in the second signification that the 
virtuous and wise man is said to be drunken, not by drink- 
ing wine to excess,' but merely by partaking of wine.^ 



69. (Gen. ix. 21) What is the meaning of the words, " he 
was uncovered in his house '' } " 

It is a matter of praise for the wise man both literally and 
in a deeper sense ^ that his nakedness does not (take place) 
somewhere outside but that he was in his house, concealed 
by the screen of his house. For the nakedness of his body 
was concealed by his house, which was built of stone and 
wood. But the covering and screen of the soul is know- 
ledge.* Now there are two kinds of nakedness. One is by 
chance ^ and comes through involuntary transgressions,* 

" Tov aKparov (oivov). 

^ Lit. " instead of." 

" Lit. "to be excessive in being senseless in drinking 
wine," probably an awkward rendering of a text like that 
of the Greek frag, to Trap' olvov XrjpiXv. 

^ TO otvovadai oTrep els ao(f>6v TrtTTTci, as in the Greek frag. 

* See note c above. 

^ On the theme of " sober drunkenness " (vT^^aAto? fiedrj) in 
Philo and other Hellenistic writers, see Hans Lewy, Sobria 
Ehrietas, Giessen, 1929. 

" iyvfjLvwdT) €v Toi oiKO) avTov, as in Lxx; for " house " Heb. 
has " tent." On the theme of Noah's nakedness cf. Leg. 
AIL ii. 60 ff. 

^ K(U TO pTjTOV KoX TO TT/OOJ hlOVOiaV. 

* The compound xrat hanjaroy elsewhere in the Arm. 
translation of VhWo = emarrjix-q -^ Aucher here renders, " dis- 
ciplina sapientiae," which is a perfectly justifiable rendering. 

^ €K TVXqS. ^ hC CLKOVaicJV dfiapTrfflOLTCOV. 

160 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

for in a certain sense " he who practises rectitude * is 
clothed, and if he stumbles, it is not by his own free will • 
but as is the case of those who are drunken or shakily 
stagger from one side to the other or fall asleep or are 
seized by madness. For those who transgress in these 
ways do not do so with malice aforethought.'' But it is an 
obligation * to put on, like a covering, good instruction and 
good training.^ And there is another nakedness, that of 
the soul, (which) can very nobly " escape the entire burden- 
some weight ^ of the body, as from a tomb, as if it had 
been buried in it a long time, as in a tomb,* and sense- 
pleasures and innumerable miseries of other passions and 
the perturbations of anxieties about evil, and the troubles 
caused by each of these. For he who has the power to 
come through ^ so many deeds and wounds, and strip him- 
self of all of them, has obtained a fortunate and blessed 
lot * without false show * and deformity. For this I should 
say is beauty and adornment"* in those who have proved 
worthy of living incorporeally." 



70. (Gen. ix. 22) Why does (Scripture) not simply say, 
" Ham saw the nakedness " instead of" " Ham, the father 
of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father " ? 

" TpOTTOV TLvd. 

^ Prob. KaTopdoioLv ; Aucher suggests opdcDocv. 

" eKOvaia yvuifirj. 

^ Prob. TTpofn]d€ia Kui ^ovXfj. 

* Lit. " service " — Aeiroupyia or vTrrjpcaia. 
^ ei5/xa^eiav Kal euTraiSetav. 

" irdw yevvaiws vel sim. ; Aucher " per summam vir- 
tutem." 

* oyKov hvcrx^pT]. 

* The awkward repetition in the Arm. suggests a scribal 
error. 

^ Si^/ceiv. ^ evSainova koI fiaKapiov KXrjpov. 

' This rendering is based on the Arm. glossator's explana- 
tion of kmayeak which is not found in the large Arm. lexicon ; 
Aucher renders, " sine labe." 

"* KoXKos KoX Koapios. " dacjfmTOJS. ° Lit. " but." 

SUPPL. I G 161 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

It convicts " both the son through the father and the 
father through the son, for in common and as one they 
have committed an act of folly, wickedness and impiety ^ 
and other evils. This is the literal meaning." But as for 
the deeper meaning,'* (it is) what has been said before 
about these things.* 



■^71. (Gen. ix. 22) What is the meaning of the words, 
" He related it to his two brothers outside " ^? 

(Scripture) increasingly magnifies the accusation.* First 
of all,'' it was not to one brother alone that he told his 
father's involuntary transgression but to both. And if 
there had been many, he would have told them all rather 
than only those whom he could. And this he did de- 
risively * when he spoke to them (of a matter) deserving 
not of derision and jest^ but of modesty, awe and rever- 
ence.* And second, (Scripture) says that he related it 
not within but outside, which shows clearly that he betrayed 
it ^ not only to his brothers but also to those who were 
standing around them outside,"' men and women alike. 
This is the literal meaning." But as for the deeper mean- 

^ eXeyx^i- ^ d(f)poavvris kol aSiKias /cat doe^^Las. 

** TO prjTov. '^ TO rrpos Starotav. 

« In § 65 on Gen. ix. 18-19. 

^ Lxx Koi i^eXdcov dv^yyeiAev tols 8valv dSeA^ois' avrov efco; 
Heb. has no word corresponding to eieXdwv. 

" Lit. " complaint (or " penalty ") of accusation," probably 
an expanded rendering of eyKX-qfxa, as in the Greek frag. 

* The Greek frag, has rrpwrov fxkv €k rod vvepiSelv, Bctrrepov 
8' e'/c Tov etVeiv Krai ovx evt fxovo) ktX. ; thus the second charge 
in the y\rm. corresponds to the third charge in the Greek 
frag., €LTa ovk evSov ktX. 

» Prob. hiaxXevdlwv as in Greek frag. 

^ The Greek frag, has only xAeu'i??. 

^ The Greek frag, has only alhovs koX evXa^elas. 

^ Both Greek fragments (the second ends with this sen- 
tence) have aKrjKoevai . . . tovs dSeA^ous. 

"* Aucher's translation omits the last word. 

" TO p'qrov. 

162 



GENESIS, BOOK II > 

ing,° the wicked and malevolent character was glad and 
rejoiced and evilly regarded the misfortunes of others, 
judging them peculiarly by himself as though (they were) 
right.'' Because of this he even now exults at the in- 
voluntary behaviour" of the lover of wisdom,** and cele- 
brates and proclaims * his misfortunes, and becomes an 
adversary and accuser,^ though it would have been fitting 
to show tolerance and forgiveness rather than (bring) blame 
and accusation. And so, because, as I have said before,' 
these three — the good, the bad and the indifferent '^ — are 
brothers of one another (and) the offspring of one reason,* 
they watch over ' various things ; some praise the virtues,* 
and some, evils, ^ and others, wealth and honours and other 
goods which are around the body and outside the body. 
These watchers and zealots'" of evil rejoice at the fall" of 
the wise man, and mock, accuse and slander " him on the 

" TO vpos Siavotav. 

^ Text and meaning somewhat uncertain (from " and evilly 
regarded ") ; Aucher renders, " malum est autem (in note, 
" i^el, et male accusat ") aliorum miserias vel apud se solum 
judicare, ut judex corrigens " (in note, " vel, sicut correctio "). 

" Arm. bark', translated above as " character " {^^■^Oos 
or rpoTTos), also renders dycoyi^, the meaning seemingly re- 
quired by the context here ; Aucher here renders, " casum." 

** rov TTJs ao(f>Las epaarov, i.e. Noah. 

* Lit. " becoming a singer and announcer." 

/ The Arm. synonyms are probably a double rendering of 
KaTTJyopos. 

In ^(r i. 88 on Gen. v. 32. " to d8id<f>opov. 

* €v6s €KyovoL Aoyia/xou. 

' Arm. t'^rateowA;' lit. = " overseers," "superintendents" 
and the like, and usu. renders emoraTat, eTriaKonoL, etc. ; 
below it is used as a parallel of naxanzawork' = ^rjXojraL, 
which suggests that its Greek original here had the meaning 
of " jealous observers " or the like ; Aucher renders, " prae- 
sides." 

^ TOLS dperds. ^ ra Ka/ca. 

"* See note^. " roi TrTaiafxaTi. 

° The two Arm. verbs are prob. a double rendering of 
StajSaAAouai. 

163 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

ground that somehow " he does not profit * from those 
parts " of which he consists ^ and of which he is zealous, 
which are good for the soul, nor from those which (are 
good) for the body and are external — neither in the internal 
virtues nor in those things which are bodily and external 
goods.* But (they argue) that he alone can achieve his 
purpose ^ who is practised in wrongdoing," which alone is 
wont to be of profit to human life. These and similar 
things are stated by those who are watchers of wicked 
folly '' and mock the lovers of virtue * and those things by 
which virtue comes into being and is formed, just as some 
think that which is bodily and external has the status' of 
instruments of service.* 



*72. (Gen. ix. 23) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it upon both 
their shoulders and went backward and covered the naked- 
ness of their father and did not see it " ' .^ 

The literal meaning'" is clear. But as for the deeper 
meaning," this must be said. The light and hasty man is 

" rpoTTOV TLvd. ^ ovK oi^eAetTai. 

* Ttt fjLepr] : the sense of the phrase is not clear to me. 



avvLararai. 



* The construction of the Arm. is obscure, as is Aucher's 
somewhat less literal rendering, " praesides malitiam aemu- 
lantes gaudent de sapientis lapsu, irrident et detrahunt, quasi 
vero ille per partes, quas praefert ac prosequitur sicut meliores 
pro animo, vel corpore aut externis suis, nihil profeeerit nee 
internis, neque externis virtutibus, quominus et bonis circa et 
extra corpus," etc. 

^ TT7V TTpodeatv. " dBiKiav. 

^ d^poavvr}s or TTOvrjpias. ' tovs rrjs dperrjs ipaards. 

^ rov Xoyov. 

^ opydvoiv BiaKovias (or vTrqpeaias or Xcirovpytas) ; the con- 
nexion of ideas is far from clear. 

^ Philo abbreviates the biblical verse, which in both lxx 
and Heb., after " the nakedness of their father," reads " and 
their faces were backward, and the nakedness of their father 
they did not see." 

"" TO prjrov. " TO irpos Stavoiav. 

164 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

satisfied to see only what is straight ahead and before his 
eyes." But the wise man (sees that which is) behind, that 
is, the future.^ For just as the things behind come after 
the things ahead, so the future (comes after) the present,* 
and the constant and wise man ^ obtains sight of this, like 
the mythical Lynceus,* having eyes on all sides. But every 
wise one, not man but mind,' goes backward, that is, looks 
behind as at a very radiant light " ; and seeing everything 
clearly from all sides,'^ and looking around, is found to be 
hedged about and fortified, so that no part of the soul shall 
remain naked and unseemly before the blows and attacks 
that overtake it.* 



73. (Gen. ix. 24) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Noah sobered up from the wine " ' ? 

" The Greek frag, is slightly different : o cvxep-^s Kal 6 
aTTepiaKCTTTOs TO eV evdelas kol irpos 6(f)daXfjLa)v fiovov opa. 

^ TO. fxeXXovra. " tcov ivearcoTcov. 

^ Arm. astin and imastoun are a double rendering of Greek 
daT€Los, as the Greek frag, shows — astin " constant " being 
chosen here as elsewhere in Philo for its phonetic resemblance 
to dareloS' 

* For the words " like the mythical Lynceus " the Greek 
frag, has only avyalcos, prob. a corruption of AvyKccos <8ikt7v>, 
as Harris suggests. 

' The Greek frag, agrees almost literally with the Arm., 
TTdg ovv ao(f)6s ovk dvdpcoTTos dXXd vovs ; Aucher, rightly 
puzzled, somewhat freely renders, " omnis ergo sapiens, qui 
non ita homo est, quantum intellectus." 

^ The clause " goes backward . . . light " is not found 
in the Greek frag. 

'' The Greek frag, has only /cara^eco/xevos. 

* The Greek frag, reads more briefly irepnTe^paKTai irpos 
TCI ivcGTcoTa Kal Ttt dBoK-qrios KaTao7nXd£,ovTa. Apparently the 
" naked " and " unseemly " are due to the Arm. translator's 
misunderstanding of to. dSoKT^rats KaTaaTnXd^ovra " the things 
that swoop down unexpectedly "as if aSo^ov /cat KaTaipiXovv 
or the like. 

^ So most Lxx Mss., €^€VT)ifj€v Sc NcDe ttTTo rod otvov ; Heb. 
has " And Noah awakened from his wine." 

165 



k 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

The literal meaning is very comprehensible." But the 
deeper meaning ^ must be rendered. When the mind " is 
strong, it is able to see clearly with soberness** both the 
things before and those behind, that is, the present * and 
the future.^ But blindness comes upon him who is not 
able to see clearly either the present or the future." And 
to him who sees the present and does not guard himself by 
foreseeing the future, wine-bibbing and drunkenness are 
(ascribed). But in him who is capable of looking around 
and comprehending the different natures of things present 
and future, there are soberness and sobriety.'* 



74. (Gen. ix. 24) Why, after reckoning Ham as the 
middle child of the three brothers,* does (Scripture) call 
him "the youngest,"' saying, "what his youngest son 
had done to him " .'' 

(Scripture) clearly allegorizes. *^ It takes the youngest 
to be, not the one who is so in age and time, but the one 
who is more youthful,* for wickedness is unable to receive 
an aged and elder teaching,*" and elder are the thoughts of 

" TO prjTOV yvajpifiwrarov ecrrt. 

'' TO npos Bidvoiav. 

" 6 vovs. '^ vri<f>wv. 

* Ttt eveCTTcoTa ; the Ambrosian paraphrase has " prae- 
terita." ^ to. fjLeXXovra, 

» The Arm. words for " present " and " future " are dif- 
ferent from those used in the preceding sentence. 

^ Lit. " soberness of sobriety," prob. rendering to ttjs 
uu)<f>poavvri^ vny^aAiov. 

* Cf. QG i. 88 on Gen. v. 32 ; Aucher renders less literally, 
" in medietate prolium, sive medium inter fratres." 

' vecoTepov, used as superlative, as in lxx ; Heb. has " his 
small son," also indicating the youngest of three. 

'' dXXTjyopet. 

' v€u)T€pov ; here the Arm. uses a different word from that 
rendered " yovmgest " above. 

"* The Arm. lit. = claSexeadai yepovriKTjv kol Trpea^vripav fj.d- 
d-qaiv ; Aucher renders more freely, " percipere doctrinam 
seniori propriam." 

166 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

wills " that are truly hoary ^ — this, moreover, not in body 
but in mind." 



75. (Gen. ix. 26) Why, in praying for Shem, does (Noah) 
say, " Blessed be the Lord God, God of Shem,** and Canaan 
shall be his servant " ? 

" Lord " and " God " is an apposition * of the two chief 
powers, the beneficent and the kingly,^ through which the 
world ^ came into being. Now the king made the world 
in accordance witli His beneficence, while after its comple- 
tion it was put in order '' by His sovereignty. Accordingly, 
He deemed the wise man Morthy of the common honour * 
which the whole world received in common, for the parts 
of the w^orld were joined with him by the powers of the 
Lord and God,^ and He gave His beneficent grace and 
largess with peculiarly abundant magnificence. Therefore 
the name of the beneficent power, " God " is twice used ; 
once, as has been said, in apposition with the kingly power, 
and a second time without visible connexion,*^ in order that 
the wise man may become worthy of both the common 
and the special gift ' (of God), being loved both by the 
world and by God — by the world, because of the common 
grace ; by God, because of the special (grace)."* 

" ol TcDv jSouAcuv XoyiaixoL. 

^ TToXtat. ; for the metaphor see De Sacr. Abelis 79 coy Seov 
ttoXlov [xev fiddrjfia XP°^V H'V^^^ dpveladat. 

'^ ov Kara acD/xa dAAa /caret, vovv. 

'^ So Arm. O.T. ; lxx and Heb. have " The Lord, the God 
of Shem " (lxx Kvpios " Lord " renders Heb. YHWH). 

* Or " harmonization." 

^ TcDv Sfetv TTpcoTcov 8vvdfjL€cov Trjs evepyenbos /cat rrjs ^aai- 
XiKTJs ; see QG ii. 51. 

" o Koafios. ^ iraxOrf vel sim. 

* TT7? Koiv^s TLixrjs, cf. De Sohrietate 51-55. 

' Aucher renders, " junctis itidem partibus quoque mundi 
cum virtutibus Domini et Dei," but the Arm. requires "junctis 
cum eo," not " junctis . . . cum virtutibus." 

^ dvev oparrjs avfMTrXoKrjs. 

^ /cat TTJs KOLVTJs /cat TTJs tStas Sojpeds. 
"' bid T-rjv e^atperov <;!^aptv>. 

167 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

76. (Gen. ix. 27) Why, in praying for Japheth, does 
(Noah) say, ** God shall enlarge Japheth, and he shall dwell 
in the house " of Shem, and Canaan shall be their * 
servant " ? 

Leaving aside the literal meaning," since it is clear, the 
deeper meaning ^ must be examined ; according to this, 
the secondary and tertiary goods ' receive an enlargement, 
(such as) health and keenness of perception and beauty and 
power and wealth, glory, nobility, friends and offices-^ and 
many other such things. ITierefore he says, " shall en- 
large." For the full possession of so many things separ- 
ately and by themselves works harm to many who do not 
live in accordance with righteousness and wisdom and the 
other virtues," of which the full possession controls * bodily 
and external things. But the inaccessibility and remote- 
ness (of virtue) leaves it* without management and use. 
And when it is abandoned and left alone by good over- 
seers,^ it brings harm instead of the profit which it might 
have brought. Wherefore he prays for him who possesses 
bodily and external things that " he shall dwell in the 
houses ^ of the wise man," ^ in order that he may look 
toward the example of all good, and seeing this, may set 
straight his own way.*" 

" So Arm. O.T. ; lxx has oikois, Heb. " tents " ; below the 
Arm. has " houses " (plural). 

* Some LXX mss. and ancient versions have " his." 
" TO prjTov. "^ TO Trpos Stdvoiav. 

* As the Ambrosian paraphrase explains, Japheth is a 
symbol of " the indifferent " (to dSia^opov) ; see above, QG 
i. 88. 

^ vyUiav KoX evaiodrjaiav Kai koXXos Kal Suva/niv koI ttXovtov 
/cat 86$av Kal euyeVeiav Kal (f)LXovs Kal dpxas. 

" Kara. biKaioavvrjv Kal <f)p6v7)OLV kol rds dXXas dperds. 
^ oLKovofxel vel sim. ; Aucher " optime dispensat." 

* i.e. the possession of worldly goods. 

^ These " overseers " have prob. no connexion with those 
mentioned above in QG ii. 71. 

^ See above, note a. 
Shem is here the symbol of the wise man, see the 
preceding section. "• evdvvj) rrjv iaxnov ohov. 

168 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

■^77. (Gen. ix. 27) Why, when Ham sins, does (Scripture) 
present his son Canaan as the servant of Shem and Japheth? 

In the first place, because both father and son practised 
the same wickedness, both being mingled without distinc- 
tion, as if using one body and one souh^ And in the 
second place, because the father too was to be greatly 
saddened by the cursing of his son, knowing that it was 
not so much for his own sake as for his father's that he '' 
was punished, for the punishment (fell) on the prime mover 
and teacher of evil thoughts, words and deeds." This is 
the literal meaning.'* But as for the deeper meaning,* 
potentially ^ they are two — not so much men as charac- 
ters." And this is shown by the giving of names, which 
also clearly indicates the nature of things.'' For " Ham " 
is to be interpreted as " heat " or " hot," while " Canaan " 
means " merchants " or " middle-men." * 



78. (Gen. ix. 28) Why did Noah, after the flood, live three 
hundred and fifty years ? 

The form of the world ' was represented as founded at 
the beginning in two heptads of years,* and the wise man ^ 

* cos evt acofiari Kal [mlS, ^vxfj XP^f^^^^'" 
^ Canaan. 

" Tov -qycfiova (or dpxTjycTrjv) koI SiSdoKaXov KaKuiv Xoyiaficov 
Kal Xoycov Kal cpycov. 

^ TO prjTov. * TO vpos Bidvotav. 

^ Sfva/tei. ^ "qdr] or rpoTroi. 

^ i.e. the etymology of their names is indicative of their 
characters. 

* See notes to QG ii. 65 near end. 
^ TO TofJ KoapLov efSos. 

^ This appears to be the literal meaning of the obscure 
Arm. sentence which Aucher more freely renders, " bis 
septenis annis declaratur jam ex principio condita atque 
renovata (sub Noe) forma mundi " ; he adds in a footnote 
that, as the Arm. glossator reminds us, the world was created 
in seven days, and Noah waited seven days before sending 
out the dove. 

' 6 ao(f>6s (or dariios), i.e. Noah. 

169 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

lived the same number times twenty-five, for fourteen times 
twenty-five is seventy times five years, and fifty times 
seven. Now the reckoning « of the seventh and fiftieth 
year has a special order ^ which is Levitical, for there it is 
established." 



79. (Gen. x. 1) Why, among the three sons of Noah, does 
Ham always appear in the middle, while the extremes <* 
vary ? When they are born, Shem is mentioned first, as 
follows, " Shem, Ham, Japheth," * but when they beget 
children, Japheth is put first in order, and the family 
begins to be reckoned from Japheth ^ ? 

Those who investigate the literal nature of Holy Scrip- 
ture ' pretend to believe '' concerning the order of sons that 
he who is mentioned first, Shem, is the youngest, while the 
last, Japheth, is the eldest. But such persons may think as 
they severally please and hold whatever belief they happen 
to find suitable.'- By us, hov/ever, who investigate the 
intelligible nature of others ^ it must be said that of these 
three, the good, the bad and the indifferent, which are called 
secondary goods,* the bad always appears ' in the middle, 
in order that it may be caught in the middle and overcome 

« Or " principle " — Xoyos. 

* iSt'av TCt^tv. 

* This is probably a reference to the passages in the book 
of Leviticus on the Sabbath and Jubilee year ; c/. Be Spec. 
Leg. ii. 176. 

<* TO. a/cpa, i.e. the eldest and youngest sons. 

« In Gen. x. 1 ; see also QG ii. 65 on Gen. ix. 18-19. 

f In Gen. x. 2. 

* rrjv rcov iepcov ypafiixdrcov pr]Tr)v (f>vaiv. 

^ Lit. " make pretences (or " excuses "), believing " ; 
Aucher " ratum habent . . . putantes." 

* Aucher renders more freely, " opinionis suae ratione 
ducti." 

^ T7]v vocpav Tcbv aXXcov (f)voiv : Aucher " mentalem in his 
sensum.'' 

^ See above, QG ii. 76 and QG i. 88. 

' Or " is always reckoned (by Scripture)," 

170 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

from either side, so that either may seize it, press it closely 
and crush it. But the good and the indifferent or secondary 
good exchange their order. So long as the bad is present 
only virtually but not actually," the good is first and has 
the rank * of governor and ruler." But when an act results 
from will and intention,'* and injustice does not merely 
remain in the mind * but is realized in unjust acts, (then) 
the good, which is first, changes its place to another one in 
the order, as do the good traits with which it is adorned, 
and it takes leave of instruction and management,^ as if 
not able to understand them, like a physician when he sees 
an illness that is incurable. However, the eldest good 
ministers to that virtue " which is bodily and external,'' and 
carefully watches the extreme ends,* confining the beast ^ 
in a net and showing that it no longer has power to bite 
and do harm. But when it perceives that this has not 
been done, it changes to a more secure and stable place, 
and leaves its former place for ^ a more powerful one, and 
having obtained one easy to capture ^ lower down, holds it ; 
the barrier "* and guarding of this is held by a more powerful 
guard," for there is nothing more powerful than virtue. 

" Swaftei (xovov dAA' ovk evreXex^io-- ^ T-qv rd^iv. 

" oLKovofxov Kal dpxovTos vel sim. 

** €pyov €K rrjs ^ovXrjs kol tov XoyLafxov yiverai. 

* €V TO) va». ^ hibaoKaXiav Kai oiKovofiiav, 
" TT] a.p€T7J Sta/covei. 

'^ i^e. wShem, the symbol of good, looks after Japheth, the 
symbol of " the indifferent " ; cf. QG ii. 76. 

* lyit. " the ends of the extremes." ^ to drjplov. 

* Or " to " ? As Aucher observes, the whole passage 
" obscurus est textus." 

' The Arm. lit. = euaAcurov ; Aucher renders, " servatu 
facilem." The original of the obscure passage (which seems 
to have no parallel in Philo) would not be easy to reconstruct. 

"* Arm. cank means both " barrier " and " always " ; 
Aucher chooses the latter meaning here and renders, " sem- 
per." 

" This rendering is admittedly obscure but is closer to the 
Arm. than is Aucher's, " faciliter enim observare semper 
accidit ei fortiori custodis vi." 

171 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

80. (Gen. x. 4-5) Why do " the Kittians and Rhodians " 
and the islands of the Gentiles " (spring) from Japheth ? 

Because (his name) is to be interpreted as " breadth," * 
for he is broadened in growth and progress," and is no 
longer contained by the other part of those regions which 
have been granted by Nature for the use of man, (namely) 
the earth, but he passes over to still another (part), the sea, 
and to the islands which are in it. This is the literal 
meaning.'' But as for the deeper meaning,* those things 
which by nature ^ are external goods, (such as) wealth, 
honour and authority, are everywhere poured out and 
extended both to those in whose hands they are, and, at a 
distance, to those in whose hands they are not. And even 
more — or not less — do they fence them in round about and 
keep them close because of those who are filled with desire 
and are lovers of money and glory, and, since they love 
authority, nothing is enough for them because of their 
insatiable desire. 



81. (Gen. x. 6) Why is Ham's eldest son Cush ? 

The theologian » has expressed a most natural principle * 
in calling Cush the eldest offspring of evil,* (since he is) the 
sparse ^ nature of earth.* For earth that is fertile, well- 
stocked, well- watered, rich in herbage and in grain, and 
well-forested is distributed and divided into the products of 
fruit. But sparse and dusty earth is dry, unfruitful, barren 
and sterile, and is carried off and lifted up by the wind, and 

** Lxx has Ki^Tioi and 'PdSiot ; Heb. has Kittim and 
Doddnim (prob. a scribal error for Rodanim). 
* TrXdros ; see above, QG ii. 76 on Gen. ix. 27. 
" Kar* av$r)aiv kol Kara TTpOKonrjv rrXaTwofxevos. 
'^ TO prjTov. * TO TTpos Stttvotav. 

^ (f>va€t. " o deoXoyos (Moses). 



h 



WaiKCOTUTOV 



Xoyov. 



* Or " of the evil one." 

^ Lit. " scattered " or " sporadic." 

*^ Philo here etymologizes the name " Cush," not as a 
Hebrew name, but as if from Greek xov? " heap of earth," 
" dust." 

172 



GENESIS, BOOK II 

causes the salubrious air * to suflFer from dust. Such are 
the first buds of evil, for they are barren and unproductive 
of good practices,^ and are the causes of barrenness in all 
the parts of the soul/ 

82. (Gen. x. 8-9) Why did Cush beget Nimrod ** who 
began to be " a giant hunter " « before the Lord, wherefore 
they said, " like Nimrod a giant hunter before God "^ ? 

It is proper that one having a sparse " nature, which a 
spiritual bond does not bring together and hold firmly, and 
not being the father of constancy either of soul or nature 
or character, but like a giant valuing and honouring earthly 
things more than heavenly, should show forth the truth of 
the story " about the giants and Titans. For in truth * he 
who is zealous for earthly and corruptible things always 
fights against and makes war on heavenly things and 
praiseworthy and wonderful natures, and builds walls and 
towers ' on earth against heaven. But those things which 
are here ^ are against those things which are there.' For 
this reason it is not ineptly "* said, " a giant before " God," 
which clearly is opposition to the Deity. For the impious 
man " is none other than the enemy and foe who stands 
against * God. Wherefore it is proverbial that everyone 

" Tov l^uyriKov depa ; for the same expression see Leg. ad 
Gaium 125. 

** dyadoiv iTnTijhevfxdTOJv. 

" Aucher more freely renders, " causae sterilitatis animae 
partiumque ejus omnium." 

** LXX NejSpo; or Nej3pc6^. 

* LXX yCyas KW7jyds = Heb. gihhor-sayid "champion in 
hunting." 

•'' Most LXX Mss. have " before the Lord God " ; Heb. has 
" before YHWH" ( = " the Lord"). 

» See above, QG ii. 81, note k. 

^ TOV iMvdov dXrideveiv. , * 6vtcos> 

*■ Or " heaps and mounds." * i.e. on earth. 

^ i.e. in heaven. "* ovk oltto okottov. 

" ivavTLov in the biblical sense of " before " is inter- 
preted by Philo in the usual sense of " against." 

" d dCT€j8^s. * Lit. " around." 

173 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

who is a great sinner should be compared with " him as tlie 
chief head and fount,'' as when they say, " like Nimrod." 
Thus the name is a clear indication of the thing (signified), 
for it is to be translated as " Ethiopian," '^ and his skill ^ is 
that of the hunter. Both of these are to be condemned 
and reprehended, the Ethiopian because pure evil has no 
participation in light,* but follows night and darkness, 
while hunting is as far removed as possible from the rational 
nature/ But he who is among beasts seeks to equal the 
bestial habits of animals through evil passions. 

« Meaning doubtful ; lit. " should be exchanged (or 
" completed "), being brought back " ; Aucher renders, 
" referri." 

* Lit. " ruler and leader." 

" Philo confuses the etymology of " Nimrod " with that 
of his father Cush, elsewhere interpreted as " Ethiopian " 
(though not above in QG ii. 81). In De Gigantibus 66 Philo 
etymologizes " Nimrod " as if from Heb. mrd " to rebel " 
and interprets it as avTOfMoXijais " desertion." 

* aKparos KaKia ovhefxiav e;(€i kolvcoviov tov (fxDTOS, 
' TTJS XoyLKTJs <f>va€cos. 



174 



BOOK III 

1. (Gen. XV. 7) What is the meaning of the words, " I 
am the Lord God *• who led thee out of the land of the 
Chaldaeans * to give thee this land to inherit " ? 

The literal meaning <= is clear. That which must be 
rendered as the deeper meaning ^ is as follows. The " land 
of the Chaldaeans " is symbolically mathematical theory,* 
of which astronomy ^ is part. And in this (field) the 
Chaldaeans labour not unsuccessfully or slothfully. Thus 
He honours the wise man with two gifts. For one thing 
He takes him away " from Chaldaean doctrine,'^ which in 
addition to being difficult to seize and grasp, is the cause 
of great evils and impiety in attributing to that which is 
created the powers of the Creator, and persuades men to 
honour and worship the works of the world instead of the 

<* Lxx has merely " God," Heb. has merely " Lord " 
( YHWH). In the parallel passage, Quis Rer. Div. Heres 96, 
Philo follows the lxx in reading " God." Possibly the Arm. 
translator has here inserted " Lord " on the basis of Arm. 
O.T. which reads, " Lord God." 

^ So lxx; Heb. has " Ur Kasdim " ( = Ur of the 
Chaldaeans). 

" TO prjTov. 

^ Lit. " to the understanding of its nature " ; Aucher more 
freely renders " ad sensus essentiam." In the Quaestiones 
the usual antithesis to to prjrov is to Trpos SidvoLav. 

* avfi^oXiKws fiaOrjfiaTLKrj dewpla iari. 

^ darpovofjLta in the sense of astrology. 

^ Or " saves him." 

'' Lit. "doctrine (or "school" — Sdy/xaTo?) of opinions"; 
Aucher renders ad hoc, " de secta astro logorum videlicet de 
Chaldaeismi hallucinatione." 

175 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Creator of the world." And again, He grants him fruitful 
wisdom which He symbolically calls " land." And the 
Father shows that wisdom and virtue ^ are immutable and 
without change or turning, for it is not proper for God to 
reveal " that which is able to admit turning or change, 
because that which is revealed should be and remain un- 
changeable and constant. But that which is subject to 
change and is wont to be always fluid does not admit of 
true and proper ^ revelation. 



2. (Gen. xv. 8) Why does (Abraham) say, " Lord,* by 
what shall I be informed ^ that I shall inherit it " .'' 

He seeks an indication " of knowing (His) agreement.* 
But two things worthy of admiration * are described. 
(One), which is an affection of the mind,^" is to trust in God 
in accordance with the word which He has earlier spoken. 
And (the other) is to have an immense * desire ' not to be 
without a share in certain signs through which one may be 
sense-perceptibly informed that a promise has been con- 
firmed. And to Him who made the promise (he shows) 
reverential awe by using the expression " Lord " ; " for," 
he says, " I know that Thou art lord and ruler of all things 
and that Thou canst do all things and that there is nothing 
impossible for thee. And though I myself have faith in 
what Thou hast promised, I now ♦" desire and long to 

** ra rod Koaixov epya dvrl rov KoafiorroLov. 

* ao(f>La Koi aperrj. " Lit. " to show." 

^ The Arm. translator seems to have taken Kvpio? in the 
sense of " divine." 

' Lxx " Lord God," Heb. " Lord YHWTJ'' (traditionally 
read as " Lord God " since YHWH by itself is convention- 
ally read " Lord " ('Adonay)). 

^ LXX and Heb. " know." ^ arjp.eZov. 

^ Or " promise." » Lit. " zeal " — a-novhris. 

^ TTaOos Tov vov. ^ Or " inexpressible." 

' Lit. " desire of yearning." 

"» Aucher may be right in connecting the adverb " now " 
with the infinitive " to obtain " and in rendering, " citius 
assequi." 

176 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

obtain, if not the fulfilment, at least some clear sign by 
which the fulfilment will be revealed. For I am a mortal,* 
and even though I have attained ^ the highest degree of 
integrity,' I am not always able to contain the impulses of 
desire,"* so that when I see or hear something good 1 go to 
it slowly and not immediately. \^'herefore I pray that 
Thou wilt show me a way of knowing,* so that I may 
comprehend the future." 



*3. (Gen. xv. 9) Why does (God) say, " Take for me a 
heifer three years old and a she-goat three years old and 
a ram three years old and a turtle-dove and a dove " ^ ? 

He mentions five animals which are offered on the sacred 
altar. And they are divided among these (kinds of) offer- 
ings : of terrestrial creatures ' three — ox, goat and bull,'' 
and of birds two — turtle-dove and dove. For (Scripture) 
celebrates * the fact that the eternal offerings take their 
origin from the patriarch,' who was also the founder of the 
race* But instead of "bring' to me" it is said most 
excellently, " take for me," for to a mortal creature'" there 
is nothing properly his own," but all things are the gift and 
grace" of God, to whom it is pleasing that one who has 
received something should show gratitude with all eager- 
ness." And He commands him to take a three-year old 

" ycvT/To?. * Or " should attain " (?). 

" Arm. k'ajabarout'iun usu. = KoXoKayadia or €vrjd€t,a ; the 
Arm. variant k'ajaberout'iun=€vcf>opia. 

'^ TCLS TTJS eTTLdvfjLLaS Opt-LCLS. 

* yvc6/3tCT/xa or yvataiv. 

^ Lxx 7T€piaT€pdv : Heb. gozdl " young pigeon." 

' Tcov x^paaioiv. 

^ Philo here uses the generic names, but the last name, 
"bull" (Arm. dowar usu. =Taujoo?), is puzzling; one ex- 
pects Arm. olxar " sheep," as below. Possibly the Arm. 
translator read fiovv for oiv. 

* Lit. " sings." ^ rov Trarpidpxov. 
^ Tov yevovs. ' Or " offer." 
*" Tw yevriTcu. " KvpiiDS Xhiov. 

" Scopov Kol X^ptS- ** ^e^''"" Trpodvfxtas Trdcrqs. 

177 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

one of each animal, since the number three is full and 
perfect, consisting of beginning, middle and end. How- 
ever, it is proper to be in doubt why He adduces two 
females among the three animals — the heifer and the she- 
goat, and one male — the ram. May it not be because the 
ox " and goat are offered for sins, and the sheep is not f 
Sinning comes from weakness,* and the female is weak. 

So much was it fitting and proper * to say first. But I 
am not unaware that all such things give occasion to idle 
calumniators ^ to reject the Sacred Writings and to talk 
nonsense about them. Thus they say that in the present 
instance nothing else but the sacrificial victim is described 
and indicated by the dismembering and dividing of the 
animals and by the inspection of the entrails. And as for 
what happens to them,* they say that this is an indication 
of chance ^ and of opportunely visible likenesses. But such 
people, it seems to me, are (in the class) of those who judge 
and evaluate " the whole by only one part, and do not,^ on 
the contrary, (judge) the part by the whole. For this is 
the best test of anything, whether name * or object.^ 

Accordingly, the Legislation ^ is in some sense a unified 
creature,' which one should view from all sides in its 
entirety with open eyes »" and examine the intention of the 

** Here again Philo uses the generic name {^ovs). 
^ €^ dadeveias. 

" Lit. " harmonious and congruent " ; Aucher renders, 
" apposite." ** rots oltto okottov avKo^avrovoL. 

* Aucher renders, " quod autem adsederit eis " ; an 
ambiguity lies in Arm. nstim which means both " sit " and 
" happen " ; the latter meaning is favoured by the use of the 
noun anc " happening," which Aucher omits. 

^ Or " fitness " ; Aucher " convenientiae." 
^ The Greek frag., which begins with this sentence, has 
only one verb, Kpivovai. 

^ The Greek frag, inadvertently omits the negative. 

* Instead of ovoyia the Greek frag, has acofxa. 
' TTpdyfia. 

^ 7] voixodeaia (the Mosaic Law) ; the Greek frag, has 17 
dela vofxodeaia. 

* t,a>ov -qvoj fxevov, '" /teyaAots ofifxaai. 
178 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

entire writing exactly, truly and clearly," not cutting up 
its harmony or dividing its unity. ^ For when things are 
deprived of their common element, they appear to be of 
somewhat different form and species.* What, then, is the 
intention ^ of the Legislation ? It is gnostic * and describes 
the various forms of knowledge,^ since the sacrificial (act) 
is to be interpreted " as conjecture and opportune reason- 
ing ^ and all (kinds of) knowledge,* through which not only 
are the traces of the truth followed out but they are also 
hidden, as love (is hidden) by flattery, (and as) natural and 
genuine things are subjected to tests (by comparison with) 
foreign and untested things. 

And the natures of the aforementioned five *' animals are 
related to the parts of the universe. The ox (is related) to 
the earth, for it ploughs and tills the soil. The goat (is 
related) to water, the animal being so called from its rush- 
ing about or leaping,*" for water is impetuous ; this is 
attested by the currents of rivers and the effusions ' of the 
wide sea and the flowing sea. The ram (is related) to air, 

« The Greek frag, has only aKpi^cos Kal T-qXavyoJs. 

^ Arm. agrees closely with Greek frag., /^t) KaraKOTTTovras 
rrjv apfxoviav, fxrjbe ttjv evajaiv SLapTcovras. 

" €T€p6fiop(f>a /cat hepoeiBi], as in Greek frag., which ends 
with this sentence. ^ -q Trpoaipeais. 

* yvcooTiKT] ; this seems to be an allusion to the allegorical 
interpretation of the three animal sacrifices as states of the 
soul, as given in Quis Rer, Div. Ileres 125. 

■^ ra yvcooTLKa itSr). 



a 



Tobex 



aTTOOeyerai. 



^ aToxaafxos koI KaLpoXoyla (?)• 

^ If the above rendering is correct, Aucher's is far off the 
track, " quoniam convenientiam et coaptatum verbum 
opinionemque recipit immolatio ac omnis scientia." 

^ The word " five " is inadvertently omitted by Aucher. 

* Philo plays on the word ai^ " goat " and arreiv (aor. 
3.^ai) " to dart " ; c/. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 126 T17V arrovaav 
(Wendland's conj. for mss. BirTOvaav, Stayouaav) atadrjaiv . . . 
alya. 

^ Arm. taracovmn^hoth KaTaxvais and c/creWta ; Aucher 
here renders, " extensiones." 

179 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

since it is very violent and lively, whence the ram is a most 
useful soul" and the most helpful of animals to mankind 
because it provides them with clothing. For these reasons, 
it seems to me, He commands him to take the females first, 
(namely) the she-goat and the heifer, because the elements 
earth and water are material and, as it were, female, while 
the third animal, the ram, is male because the air or the 
wind in some sense * becomes male." For all nature is 
divided either into body or earth or water, and these are 
female by nature ; while the soul-like ** air (comes under 
the head) of the more vital spirit.* And this, as I have 
said, is male. It is therefore proper to call the moving and 
active cause ^ male, and female that which is moved and 
passive. 

But to the birds, such as the dove and the turtle-dove, 
the whole heaven is equally " appropriated,* being divided 
into the circuits of the planets and the fixed stars. And 
so (Scripture) assigns * the dove to the planets, for this is 
a tame and domesticated creature, and the planets also are 
rather familiar to us, as though contiguous to terrestrial 
places, and sympathetic.^ But the turtle-dove (is related) 
to the fixed stars, for this animal is something of a lover of 
solitude,*^ and avoids meeting and mixing with the multi- 
tude. (So too) is the inerrant sphere ^ distant (from us) and 
at the ends of the world,"* at the very extremes of nature." 

* So lit. ; Aucher renders, " animal." 

* rpoTTOV TLvd. " Prob. appcvovrai. 
^ ifjvxoeiS'qs. 

* ^coTiKwrepov TTVevfia (or ^(joriKiorepav iTVorjv). 

^ TO Kivovv Kal Spa)v atriov ; c/., €.g., De Fuga 133. 
" tao)? or " in common " — Koivrj ; Aucher omits the adverb 
in his rendering. 

" oLKeiovrai ; Aucher renders, " familiaris reperitur." 

* d(f>opi^€i vel sim. ' avfnradels. 

* <f)iX€pr)fios ; cf. Quis Rer. Biv. Heres 126-127. 
' rj (XTrXavrfs a^aipa. 

'" Arm. tiezerk' renders both oLKovpLevr) and to ndv. 
" Aucher renders somewhat differently, " sic longinquus 
et in ultimis orbis extremitatibus est globus inerrans." 

180 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

And both orders of the two birds " are likened to the 
heavenly forces, wherefore, as the Socratic Plato says," it 
is likely " that " Heaven is a flying chariot " because of its 
very swift revolution which surpasses in speed even the 
birds in their course. Moreover, the aforesaid birds are 
singers, and the prophet ^ is alluding to the music * which 
is perfected in heaven and is produced by the harmony ' 
of the movement of the stars. For it is an indication of 
human skill " that all harmonic melody is formed by the 
voices of animals and living * organs through the mechan- 
ism* of the intelligence. But the heavenly singing does 
not extend or reach as far as the Creator's earth, as do the 
rays of the sun, because of His providential care for the 
human race. For it ^ rouses to madness those who hear 
it, and produces in the soul an indescribable and unre- 
strained pleasure. It causes them to despise food and 
drink and to die an untimely death through hunger * in 
their desire for the song. For did not the singing of the 
Sirens, as Homer says,' so violently summon listeners that 
they forgot their country, their home, their friends and ne- 
cessary foods } And would not that most perfect and most 
harmonious and truly heavenly music, when it strikes 
the organ of hearing, compel them to go mad and to be 
frenzied ? *" 

Now concerning the fact that these several (animals) 
were three years old and three in number we have spoken 
above. But here something must be said in accordance 

" Sic ; the " two " is superfluous in English, of course. 

'' Phaedrus 24!6 e iv ovpavw Zevs, eXavvcov ttttjvov dpfia. 

" Or " fitting." ' ^ i.e. Moses. 

* T17V fiovaiK-qv. 

^ Lit. " is harmonized " (two Arm. verbs being used). 

'^ Or " respiratory " ; Aucher renders, " instrumentorum 
animantium." 

» Or " contrivance " or " method." 

^ i.e. the heavenly singing. 

*= Lit. " to die of early death-bringing hunger." 

' Od. xii. 39-45 (paraphrased). "* Kopvfiavridv. 

181 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

with another form of reasoning." For it appears that each 
of those things which are subkinar, (namely) earth and 
water and air are triads.* For the earth's divisions are 
vast continents and islands and peninsulas. And those 
of water are sea and rivers and lakes. And of the air the 
two equinoxes, the summer and winter solstices * are 
reckoned as one, for the equinoxes have one (and the same) 
interval of night and day and in the same manner are 
neither hot nor cold. And the summer and winter sol- 
stices . . .<* For the sun is borne through these three 
cycles,* those of summer, winter and the equinox.^ Now 
this interpretation is most natural.^ But a more ethical 
one ^ must be discussed. 

To every one of us there happen to belong * these things : 
body and sense-perception and reason.^ Accordingly, the 
heifer is related * to bodily substance, for our body is tamed 

** Or " of the mystery " ; Arm. xorhour d = hoth Xoyiafios 
and yLvarripLov ; Aucher here renders, " sub altera specie 
mysterii." 

* Aucher more freely renders, " trino gaudere ordine." 
In Quis Rer. Div. Heres 133-136 Philo speaks of the ttcofold 
division of natural elements to fit his allegory of Abraham's 
dividing of the sacrificial animals " in the middle " ; see 
below, QG iii. 5. 

" rpoTTai. The Arm. text adds in parentheses " like the 
vernal and autumnal " ; the Ambrosian paraphrase has 
" aer quoque habet divisiones temporum veris, aestatis, 
autumni, hyberni." Probably the Arm. text is here corrupt ; 
the context seems to require a reference only to the two 
solstices here ; see note /below. 

^ There is no verb in the Arm. text ; Aucher amplifies in 
rendering, " quibus adde conversiones aestivam et bru- 
malem." 

^ kvkXovs or arpo(f>ds. 

^ Ti]s La7]p,€pLas (sing.) ; Philo artificially preserves the 
threefold division of the climate by counting the two equi- 
noxes as one, and the two solstices separately. 

^ Or " physical " — ^vaiKcordrr]. 

^ -qdiKODTepa. * avp.^aivei VTrapx^iv vel Sim. 

^ achpa Koi atadrjais kql Xoyos. 

^ Or " likened '' qjKeicoTai. 
182 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

and driven and made to obey and is yoked to the service 
of life. And Nature is feminine in a material sense," and 
proves on investigation ^ to be solely suffering and passive 
rather than active." And the she-goat is to be likened to 
the community of senses,*^ whether because the various 
objects perceived are referred to their (appropriate) sense 
or because the impulse and movement of the soul come 
from the impressions made upon the senses.* And these 
are first followed by inclination and aversion/ which some 
call occasion," which is an impulse '' of any kind. Since 
sense-perception is feminine, for it is affected by the per- 
ceived object, (Scripture) couples it with a female animal, 
a she-goat. But the ram is kin to reason,* first of all, 
because this is masculine and because it is energetic,' and 
then * because it is the cause of the world and its founda- 
tion.' For the ram (is necessary) because of the clothing 
(which it yields),™ while reason (is necessary) in the order- 
ing of life. For whatever is not disordered and unruly, 
from that very fact " has reason. But there are two forms 
of reason : there is one in nature, by which things in the 
sense-perceptible world are analysed " ; and (the other is 

" Kad^ vXtjv. * efera^CTai. 

" <f>€p€LV Kal Trdax^LV fxdXXov iq ttoicIv. 
^ TTj Tci)v alad-qaecov Koivoivia. 

* Tj rfj? ipvxrjs opfXT] koI KLVqms yevovrai e'/c twv 8ia tcov 
ala6-qa€oov (f)avTaaiwv. For this formulation see, e.g.^ De Opif. 
Mundi 166 tols 8ia rtov alodi^aecov <f>avTaaias. 

^ oLKCLOJGis Koi dXXoTplcoais, cf. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 154. 

» Prob. d^opyoiv, see next note. 

'' 6pp.ri. It is not clear whether Philo here contrasts opfx-q 
with d(f>opijL-^, as the Stoics sometimes did, or considers d(j>oppLrj 
as a special kind of opix-q. 

* Tco Xoycp. ' ivepyos, or " efficient "—SpaarT^ptos'. 

^ Aucher's " secundo " and " tertio " are amplifications of 
the Arm. text. 

' TOV KOOfMOV Kol TTJS OVTOV l8pva€WS. 

"* Lit. " for the ram is through clothing.'* 
« evOvs (?). 

" Cf. the parallel passage in Q^^,is Rer. Div. Heres 125 
AajSe /i.oi Kptov, Xoyov , . . iKavov fiev to, ao<l>iafMaTa . . . Xvaai. 

183 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

found) in those forms which are called incorporeal, by 
which the things of the intelligible world are analysed. 
With these are compared the dove and the turtle-dove. 
For the dove (is a symbol) of physical theory," for it is a 
very tame bird, and sense-perceptible things are familiar 
to sight. And the soul of the physicist and physiologist * 
leaps up and grows wings and is borne aloft and travels 
round the heavens, viewing all its parts and their several 
causes. But the turtle-dove is likened to the intelligible 
and incorporeal form (of reason) ; for just as this creature 
is fond of solitude, " so (the reason) by an effort surpasses 
the forms of sense-perception ^ and is united in essence 
with the invisible." 

4. (Gen. xv. 10) Why does (Scripture) say, " And he took 
for Him ^ all these things " ? 

Most excellently does it add the expression, " he took 
for Him," for it is the act of a god-loving soul " which has 
received any good and precious theories and doctrines, to 
attribute them not to itself but to God, who gives favours.* 

5. (Gen. xv. 10) What is the meaning of the words 
" And he divided them in the middle and placed them one 
opposite the other " * ? 

** (f>vaiKrjs decopias. 

* Tov <f}vai,KOV Kal tov <j)vaLoX6yov. " <f)i\4piqii,os . 

^ Aucher, wrongly, I think, renders, " excellit violentas 
sensus species." 

" For the symbolism of dove and turtle-dove as human 
and divine reason see Quis Rer. Div. Heres 126-127. 

^ Lxx eAajSev avrih renders Heb. wayyiqah 16, " he (Abra- 
ham) took for himself." In Heb. the reflexive pron. is iden- 
tical in form with the personal pron. Philo artificially presses 
the use of avrai (=God) where lxx should have used eavrw 
( = Abraham). " (fnXoOeov 4'^xi^- ^ x^^pira?. 

* This phrase provides the text for an extended allegory in 
Quis Rer. Div. Heres 129-229, which is here greatly abridged, 
though the passage on the bilateral symmetry of the body 
in our text is longer than the corresponding passage (§ 151) 
in Qvis Rer. Div. Heres. 

184 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

The structure of the body also is somewhat of this sort 
in make-up. For the kindred * parts are as it were divided 
and separated in opposition, incUning and facing toward 
one another for the sake of natural co-operation ^ ; for the 
Creator of life " so divided it for the sake of use, in order 
that one (part) might be concerned with ** another and that 
they might mutually serve one another by exchanging 
necessary services. For example, that which is directly 
seen from the middle of the nose is divided between the 
two eyes, each of them moving round toward the other. 
For the pupils inclining toward one side, in a certain sense,* 
look toward each other, not wandering outward or straying 
from the position of the eyes/ but each looking toward the 
direction of the other, especially when they come across 
something to be seen. Again, hearing is divided between 
the two ears, and both of them are turned toward each 
other, tending to one place and to the same activity. 
Moreover, smell is divided between the two nostrils, going 
round to the tubes " of each nostril, for these are not turned 
or bent down to the cheeks '' or drawn up so that one of 
them faces toward the right and the other toward the left, 
but being gathered and brought together inwardly, they 
admit smells by a common act.* Moreover, the hands are 
made, not interchangeable,^ (but as) brothers and divided 
parts facing each other, and by nature prepared beforehand 
for their appropriate activity and deeds in taking and 
giving and working. Furthermore, the soles of the feet 
(co-operate), for each foot is so made that it yields to the 
other, and walking is achieved by the movement of both 
but cannot be completed by one alone. And not only the 

« Lit. " brother." 

* €ve/ca T-ijs (f>vaiK'fjs awepyeias. 
" 6 !l,<i)ovXdaT7]s . 

'^ TrepicpydCrjTac (?). * rponov rivd. 

^ p.7) e^to 7rXavovp,€vaL /xt^S' €k ttjs tcov 6(f>daXfxcov deaecos 
p€fx^6p.€vaL vel sim. 
" TTpos Tovs avXovs. 

* Or " jaws." 

' KoivoTTpayia. ' ovk evr^XXaypiivai. 

185 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

feet " and the legs but also the thighs and the backbone * 
and the ribs and the breasts and the right and left sides, 
being divided in the same way, indicate harmony and 
fitness and, as it were, the natural union of each of the 
forms considered. 

And in general whoever at one and the same time equally 
considers two divided parts which have been brought 
together in one place, will find that both constitute one 
nature.* When, for example, the hands are united with, 
and extended toward, the fingers, they appear to form ** 
a harmony with them. And when the feet are brought 
together, they adhere to the same place.* And the ears 
are gathered in the form of a theatre with circles, and are 
united across the cavity.^ So also in the case of each of 
the forms of those parts that belong to us, nature effects a 
division and separates the divided parts so that they are 
opposite and facing, whereby an ornamental effect » is 
obtained, and at the same time that which is of service (is 
put into) easy operation. And again it unites each of 
these several forms in one operation and in the same work, 
bringing together and assembling what is comprehensively 
viewed.'' 

Now it is not only the parts of the body that one sees 

« Lit. " steps." 

* Perhaps Philo means the vertebrae of the spine ; Aucher 
renders, apparently ad hoc, " scapulae." 

" /Mt'av (j>vaiv. ^ Lit. " to admit." 

* Meaning slightly uncertain ; Aucher renders, more 
freely, " et pedes recollecti in unionem tendere." 

^ Philo compares the ridges of the ear with the circular tiers 
of an amphitheatre, as in De Poster. Caini 104 Trpos yap to 
tUTtov ax'fJlJ'OL OLKpcos rj dearpoiv KaraaKevr) fxefiLfjLrjTai. The " ca- 
vity " seems to mean the hollow of the skull, represented as 
similar to the hollow space enclosed by the tiers of the theatre. 

" Lit. " ornament " — ko'ct/lio?. Aucher rightly remarks in 
his footnote that Arm. asxarh may be rendered either as 
" mundus," or " ornamentum." The latter meaning is 
called for here. 

^ Lit. " what it views moving in a circle " ; Aucher renders, 
" colligens omnia universim considerata." 

186 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

thus connected and paired, separated in union and united 
in division, but also those of the soul. For of this too 
the higher divisions are two, like public squares," that is 
the rational and irrational,* and the parts of either division 
have their own sections. Thus, for example, the rational 
(is divided) into mind and speech," while the sensible part •* 
(is divided) into the four senses, since the fifth (sense), 
touch, is common to the (other) four. Two of these, by 
which we see and hear, are philosophic,* and through them 
a good life is attained by us. But the others, being non- 
philosophic, (namely) smell and taste, are servants and 
have been created only for living. Smelling is for the sake 
of the smell,' for they continuously take up one another ^ ; 
and continuous breathing is the food of living beings. 
And taste is for the sake of ^ food and drink. Thus smell 
and taste strengthen the mortal body. But sight and 
hearing help the immortal mind. 

Accordingly, these divisions of our limbs in body and 
soul were made by the Creator. But one should recognize 
that the parts of the world also are divided into two and 
are set up one against the other. The earth (is divided) 
into mountains and plains, and water into sweet and salt ; 
the sweet or potable • is that which springs and streams 
yield, and the salt is from the sea. And the climate (is 
divided) into winter and summer, and again into spring 

" Or •' colonnades " (possibly double colonnades) ; Aucher 
renders " plateae." The point of the comparison escapes me. 

** XoyiKos Koi dXoyos. 

" els vovv Kai tov Trpo<f>optK6v Xoyov — Stoic terminology often 
used elsewhere in Philo. 

** TO aladjjTiKov. 

* <f>iX6ao(f>oi. 

^ 6a(f>p7]at.s 8ia ttjv oct/xt^v (?) ; perhaps Aucher is right in 
taking the Arm. prep, i zern in its usual sense of " through " 
( = hid with gen.), but, if so, the phrase becomes still more 
obscure. 

" Meaning uncertain ; Aucher renders, " plura continet 
se se excipientia." 

" See note / above. 

* Aucher's rendering omits the word " potable." 

187 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and autumn. And setting out from this fact, Heracleitus 
wrote books On Nature, getting his opinions on opposites 
from our theologian," and adding a great number of 
laborious arguments to them.** 



6. (Gen. xv. 10) Why does (Scripture) say, " But the 
birds he did not divide " * ? 

It indicates ^ the fifth and cyclic nature * of which the 
ancients said the heaven is made.^ For the four ele- 
ments,^ as they are called, are mixtures rather than 
elements, and by them they divide ^ those divided things 
into that of which they are mixed.* Thus, for example, 
the earth contains in itself also a watery (element) and an 
aerial one and what is called a fiery one more by com- 
prehension than by sight. And water is not so pure and 
unmixed that it does not have some share of wind and 
earth. And in each of the others there are mixtures. But 
the fifth substance ^ only is made unmixed and pure, for 
which reason it is not of a nature to be divided. Where- 
fore it is well said that " the birds he did not divide," since, 

" rod OeoXoyov (Moses). 

^ That Heracleitus was indebted to Moses for his theory 
of the harmony of opposites is stated by Philo also in Quis 
Rer. Div. Heres 214. 

" For another allegory of this half-verse see Quis Rer. Div. 
Heres 230-236. 

^ atviTreTai. 

* i.e. the quintessence, cf. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 283 TreixTTriq 
. . . ovoia KVKXo(f>oprjTLKij. Ultimately the term is based on 
Aristotle, Be Caelo i. 2 f. 

^ Lit. " is perfected." 
^ aroixela. 

^ The Arm. verb is 3rd pers. sing., but probably reflects 
Greek 3rd sing, with neuter pi. subject. 

* This rendering (like the elements spoken of) is rather 
mixed up, but so is the Arm. text, as well as Aucher's render- 
ing, " quibus subdividit jam divisa in id (vel, ex illo) ex quo 
commixta sunt." 

^ Or " quintessence," see note e. 
188 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

as in the case of birds, it is the nature of celestial bodies, 
the planets and fixed (stars), to be elevated and to re- 
semble both (kinds of) clean •* birds, the turtle-dove and 
the dove, which do not admit of cutting or division, since 
they belong to the simpler and unmixed fifth substance, *> 
and therefore this nature, more especially resembling unity, 
is indivisible. 



*7. (Gen. XV. 11) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And the birds came down upon the divided bodies " * ? 

Because the three divided animals, the heifer, the she- 
goat and the ram, are symbolically,'* as we have said, earth, 
water and air. But (we must) harmoniously fit the answer 
to the question by weighing the truth of the comparison in 
our reason.' May it not be that by the flight of the birds 
over the divided (bodies, Scripture) alludes to, and warns 
against, the attack of enemies ? For every sublunary 
nature is full of battles and domestic and foreign disasters.^ 
It is for the sake of food and gluttony that birds are seen 
to fly over divided bodies ; and by nature the more power- 
ful rush upon the weaker as if upon dead bodies, often 
coming at them unexpectedly. But they do not fly over 
the turtle-dove and dove, for heavenly (beings) are without 
passion and without guile. 

" i.e. ritually clean — KaOaptov. 

* Tjj dirXovarepa kol d/cparo) TrefXTTTrj ovaia. 

" Lxx (followed by Arm. O.T.) has Kari^-q hk opvea em ra 
aatfiara, to. hixoroixrjiJLara aurcDv, difi^ering slightly from Heb., 
which reads " And there came down the birds-of-prey upon 
the carcases." 

^ ovijl^oXlkcos. 

' By taking Arm. xndreceloyn (here = tpqrriaeiDg) to mean 
"reason," and xorhrdovk* (here Xoyiaficp) to mean "mystery," 
Aucher has given an inexact rendering, " opus est tamen 
coaptare redditionem rationis, perpensa veritate sub mys- 
terio similitudinis." 

^ e/A^uAiW Kai ^iv(xiv KaKcbv, as in the Greek frag, (which 
consists of only one sentence). 'ijjjs/uia ..*.,<. ,.4.1 ;i ,i 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

*8. (Gen. xv. 11) Why does (Scripture) say, " And 
Abraham stopped and sat over them " •* ? 

Now those who beheve that a (literal) sacrifice is signified 
by the present passage say that the virtuous man stops, 
as it were, and sits in an assembly,^ examining the entrails 
and taking them as a reliable indication " (and) as that 
which shows forth the truth. But we disciples '^ of Moses, 
clearly understanding the intention of our teacher, who 
turns his face away from every form of prognosis * and 
believes in God alone, say that by these now gathered birds 
that fly above he ^ represents the virtuous man," and 
symbolically indicates nothing else than that he restrains 
wrongdoing and greed, and is hostile to quarrels and 
fights, but loves stability and peace. And he is really, 
as it were, the true guardian of peace. For because of 
evil men no city has quiet and peace,'' but they remain 
unmoved * through the goodness of one or two inhabitants'' 
whose virtue heals these civic diseases,*^ for the virtue- 

" Philo's " stopped " (or " went over ") is an addition to 
Scripture ; his " sat over " is a slight variation of lxx aw~ 
€Ka.9i.o€v avTois, which, in turn, mistakes Heb. icayyasseh *othani 
" and he drove them off" for wayyeseh 'ittdm " and he sat 
with them." The half-verse is also allegorized in Quis Rer. 
Div. Jleres 243-248 where Philo concludes that the good man 
sits down in the company of unjust men to restrain them like 
a presiding officer or judge. 

* eV eKKXriaia. 

" Or " symbol." 

** yvoipiixoi. 

' aiTo travTos yvoiOTiKov (?) €i8ovs ; Aucher renders, " ab 
omni specie sophistica vel pronostica." 

' i.e. Moses. " tov aTrovBalov. 

^ The Greek frag., which begins with this sentence, has 
^p€fjL7)a€v dv. 

* The Greek frag, has daTaaiaoTot. 
' The Greek frag, from Cod. Rup. reads a little differently 



hC €v6s 1} BevTtpov SiKaioavvnv doKovvros ; the Arm. read oIkovv- 

ros (j 

k • 

Cod. 
190 



Tos (as in John Monachus) for doKovvros. 

* The Arm., like Anton Melissa, read TroAtrtKcij voaovs 
Cod. Rup. reads noXtinKas voaovs. 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

loving " God grants as an honour to excellent men,'' that 
they help not only Him " but also those who approach 
(Him)." 

9. (Gen. xv, 12) What is the meaning of the words, " At 
sunset an ecstasy ' fell upon Abram and behold a great 
dark fear ^ fell upon him " » .f* 

A certain divine tranquility '^ came suddenly upon the 
virtuous man. For ecstasy,* as its very name clearly shows, 
is nothing else than the departing and going out of the 
understanding.^ But the race of prophets *= is wont to 
suffer this. For when the mind is divinely possessed ' and 
becomes filled with God,*" it is no longer within itself, for 
it receives the divine spirit " to dwell within it. Nay rather, 
as he " himself has said, it fell upon (Abram), for it does not 
come upon one gently and. softly but makes a sudden 

" ^lAaperou, as in Anton Melissa ; Cod. Rup. has ^tAav- 

dpU)7TOV. 

* Lit. " to excellence " — KaXoKayadia. 

" God rather than the city seems to be referred to by the 
pronoun, which has no distinction of gender in Arm. ; the 
Greek frag, has rod firj fxovov avrov dXXa /cat tovs TrX-qaidlovras 
(L^eXeladai ; Aucher renders differently, " nee eis solum 
modo sed illis quoque qui {veU quibus) appropinquant ad 
utilitatem parandam." 

^ The pronoun is supplied from the context. 

* Lxx e/cCTTttCTi? ; Heb. tardemah " deep sleep." 
' LXX (f)6^os fieyas okotclvos. 

Philo expounds this verse at length in Quis JRer. Div. 
Heres 249-265, enumerating four kinds of ecstasy, of which 
the fourth is ivdovaicovTos Kal d€0(f>opiJTOv to irddo^. 

'*■ Arm. yapahovoumn usu. = aCT^aAeia but connotes freedom 
from anxiety. 

* Here the Arm. word for " ecstasy," artakacout'iun is 
different from that used above to render lxx eKoramg ; the 
latter, hiacoumn more properly means " astonishment." 

^ Xoyiaixov or Siavotas. * to TTpo<f)T)rLK6v yivos. 

^ €v6ovaid^€L. 
*" deoejwprjTOS yiverai. 
" TO Qelov TTvevfia. " Moses. 

191 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

attack.** Excellent, moreover, is that which is added, 
(namely) that " a great dark fear* fell upon him," for all 
these are ecstasies of the mind, since he who is in fear is 
not within himself. And darkness is an impediment to 
sight ; and the greater the fear is, so much duller does 
(the mind) become in seeing and understanding. These 
things, moreover, are not ineptly " spoken of but as evi- 
dence of the clear knowledge of prophecy, by which oracles 
and laws are legislated by God.*^ 



10. (Gen. XV. 13-14) Why (does Scripture say), " It was 
said to him,* Thou shalt surely know ^ that thy seed shall 
be a sojourner' in a land not its own, and they'^ will 
enslave them and oppress them and afflict them * for four 
hundred years " ^ ? 

Most excellently is it indicated that " it was said to 
him," for the prophet seems to say something but he does 
not give his own oracle * but is the interpreter ^ of another,*" 
who puts things into his mind. However, that which he 
utters and murmurs in words is all true and divine ; first 
of all, because the human race lives on another's earth, 
for all that which is under heaven is the possession of God, 
and those who live on it may properly and legitimately 

** opfi-qv vel sim. 

* The Arm. word for " fear " here is different from that 
used above to render lxx ^djSos. 

" OVK OLTTO OKOTTOV. 

'^ XPV^H'^'- '^^'- vofioi VTTO rov deov vofjiodeTOVvrai. 
« Most LXX Mss. and Heb. have " to Abram." 
^ Lit. " knowing thou shalt know." The Arm., like the 
LXX, reflects the Heb. idiom. 

" TrdpoLKos. '' i.e. the natives. 

* bovXu)aovai koi Taire^vwaovoi koX KaKwaovai auTouj, as in 
some LXX mss. 

^ The verse is discussed also in Quis Rer. Div. Ileres 
266-271. 

* Or " edict." 

' ipnTjvevs, here rendered by two Arm. words. 
"* i.e. of God ; cf. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 266. 

192 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

be said to be sojourners" rather than to inhabit their own 
territory, (which) they do not '' hold by nature. Second, 
because the whole race of mortals " is a slave. '^ And no 
one is free^ but (everyone) has many masters and gets 
beatings and ill-treatment both outside and inside himself ; 
outside there is winter, which chills him, and summer, 
which burns him, and hunger and thirst and many other 
afflictions ; and inside there are sense-pleasures, desires, 
sorrow and fear. But this slavery is limited to four 
hundred years after the above-mentioned passions come 
upon (them).^ For this reason it was earlier said " that 
" Abram stopped ^ and sat over them," (that is) he was 
hindering and driving off and turning away, in word * the 
flesh-eating birds which were flying over the divided 
animals, but in deed * the afflictions which come upon men. 
For he who is by nature zealous for virtue and by practice 
is a lover of man,' is a healer of our race and is a genuine 
and true apothecary * and dispeller of evils. Now all these 
are allegories of the soul.^ For the soul of the wise man, 
when it comes from above "* from the ether and enters into 
a mortal and is sown " in the field of the body, is truly a 
sojourner in a land not its own, for the earthy nature of 
the body is an alien " to the pure mind and subjects it to 
slavery and brings upon it all kinds of suffering until the 

■ irapoiKeiv. 

^ The negative seems intrusive here. 

" Aucher renders less literally, " mortalis quisque in 
genere." 

'* 8ovXos; cf. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 267-271. 

* iXevOcpos. 

^ The point is more clearly made in the parallel, Quis Rer. 
Div. Heres 269, " And the slavery is for 400 years, in accor- 
dance with the powers of the four passions." 

" See QG iii. 8 on Gen. xv. 11. 

'^ Or " went over." 

* Xoycp fiev . . . cpyo) 84. 

^ <f>lXdvdp(X)TTOS. 

^ (fyapnaKevTijs. 

' TTcpl TTJs 4'^XV^ dXX7)yop€LTai. 

"* dvcodev. " aneipiTai. " ^eVo?. 

SUPPL. I H 193 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Saviour « brings to judgment the race taken captive '' by 
passion, and condemns it ; for thus does it once more enter 
into freedom." Therefore (Scripture) adds '^ " But the 
nation whom they shall serve I will judge, and after this 
they shall go out with great possessions," * (that is) with 
the same measure and even better, inasmuch as the mind ^ 
is released from its evil bond," the body. It ^ goes forth 
and exchanges its state not only for salvation and freedom 
but also for possessions, that it may not leave behind for 
its enemies anything good or useful. For every rational 
soul * bears good fruit or is fruitful.^ And one who is 
thought to be very responsible ^ and virtuous ' in his 
thoughts is none the less unable to preserve them to the 
end."* Wherefore it is proper that the virtuous man** with 
resolution should attain to that which he has in mind, and 
for the sake of this it is fitting that he have thoughts of 
wisdom." For just as some trees enjoy fertility in the first 
growth of their fruit but are not able to keep nourishing ** 
them, so that for some slight cause their entire fruit may 

" o aoiT-qp (God). 

* Aucher accurately renders Arm. gerid by " captivantem " 
but the context requires a pass, participle in the Greek 
original. 

" €is iXevOepiav. ^ Gen. xv. 14. 

* LXX aTToa/ceu^?. ^ 6 vovs. 

" avvBeafiov or " bond-fellow " — avvBeaixiov. 

^ The Arm. pi. verbs undoubtedly refer to the gram- 
matical pi. mitJc' " mind " : Aucher correctly renders the 
verbs as sing. 

* Trdaa XoyiKT] ^vx^l' 

^ Text obscure and prob. corrupt, as Aucher notes. 

*= This is the best approximation I can give to Arm. parta- 
pan, which usu. renders evoxos, tnroxp^ios vel sim. ; Aucher 
renders, " onustum." 

^ avovSaios. 

"* els reXos. " Tov arrovSalov. 

" This difficult sentence is less literally rendered by Aucher, 
" id enim decet probum hominem, consequi ultro meditata, 
sicut etiam eis congruum sapientiae consilium." 

^ Tp€<f>€lV. 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

fall " or be shaken off before it reaches maturity, so also 
the souls of inconstant men ^ understand many things 
that lead to fertility but are unable to preserve them 
intact " until they are perfected, as is proper for a virtuous 
man who collects his own possessions. 

*11. (Gen. XV. 15) What is the meaning of the words, 
" But thou shalt go to thy fathers with peace,** nourished " 
in a good old age " ? 

Clearly this indicates the incorruptibility of the soul, 
which removes its habitation from the mortal body ^ and 
returns as if to the mother-city,*' from which it originally 
moved its habitation to this place.'' For when it is said 
to a dying person, " Thou shalt go to thy fathers," what 
else is this than to represent another life without the body, 
which only the soul of the wise man ought to live ? * And 
(Scripture) speaks of " the fathers " of Abraham, meaning 
not those who begot him, his grandfathers and forefathers, 
for they were not all worthy of praise ' so as to be a source 
of pride and glory to those who reach the same rank,* but 
in the opinion of many it seems that " the fathers " in- 
dicate all the elements ' into which the dissolution (of the 

« Lit. " flow away." * at tcDv dj8c/3ata>v i/rv^^i. 

* oXoKXrjpa. 

^ So Lxx, fier' elpT^vys ; Heb. " in peace." 

* So LXX, Tpa(f>eis; Heb. has " buried ^^^racfyeis. 

^ ivapyoJs d<f>dapaiav ipvx^s alvLTTeraL fieroiKi^oixdvTjs oltto tov 
OvrjTOv aconaros, as in the paraphrase of Procopius. 

" fnjTpOTToXlV. 

^ i.e. this world or the body. 

* Ti €T€pov ^ C^rjv irepav Trapiarrjai rrjv dvev acjpLaTos Ka6' 
rjv iffvx^v fiovrjv tov oo(f>ov cry/LijSaivei ^rjv, as in Procopius, 
except that the latter omits tov ao<f>ov. 

' eVaivcTot, as in Procopius (which omits the rest of the 
clause down to " rank "). 

^ TOL^iv. Meaning uncertain ; Aucher renders, " qui as- 
secutus est successionem ejusdem ordinis." 

^ Travra to. aToixfia. Perhaps the original was to. tov ttuvtos 
oTOLxela " the elements of the universe." 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

body) <* takes place. To me, however, it seems to indicate 
the incorporeal Logoi " of the divine world, whom else- 
where it is accustomed to call " angels." " Moreover, not 
ineptly does (Scripture) speak of " being nourished with 
peace " and " in a good old age." For the evil and sinful 
man is nourished and lives by strife, and ends and grows 
old in evil.'* But the virtuous man in both his lives — in 
that with the body and in that without the body — enjoys 
peace,* and alone is very good f while no one of the foolish " 
is (so), even though he should be longer-lived than an 
elephant. Wherefore (Scripture) has accurately said, 
" Thou shalt go to thy fathers," nourished not in a long'' 
old age but in a " good " * old age. For many foolish men 
linger on^' to a long life,* but to a good and virtuous life 
only he who is a lover of wisdom.* 

*12. (Gen. xv. 16) Why does (God) say, " In the fourth 
generation they shall return hither " } 

The number four is the most harmonious "* with all 
numbers, as it is the most perfect." And it is the root and 
base " of the most perfect decad. Now in accordance with 

" Lit. " loosing of the dissolution." 

" Aucher prefers the reading hnaks " inhabitants " to bans 
" Logoi." 

" The section from " worthy of praise " to " angels " is 
telescoped in the Greek paraphrase to dAA* loiicev atvirreadai 
TraTcpas ovs irepoidi xaAeiv ayyiXovs etcodev. 

^ Perhaps the original was reXevTa iv YVP9- ko-^V " ends 
in an evil old age." 

« €lprjvrj xp^Ttti. ^ Or " very brave." 

" TtSv d(f)p6vo}v or 7TOV7)pwv. '^ fiaKpio. * KaXa>. 

' reivovai, as in the Greek frag. 

* The Greek frag, has aicDva. 

' The Greek frag, has o <j>povrja€ois ipaaTTjs. 

"* TTavappLovws. This adj. is applied to the hebdomad in Be 
Vita Mosis ii. 210, cf. Be Opif. Mundi 48. 

" For other references to the perfection of the tetrad see 
Staehle, pp. 26-3 L 

" pit,a KoX defieXiov ; cf. De Spec. Leg. ii. 40 irpos rerpdha, ttjv 
8e/caSo9 dpx^v re Kal irqyrjv. 

196 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

the principle " of the number four all things being collected 
return hither, as He himself has said. And as it is perfect 
in itself,* it is filled with perfected beings. *= Now what do 
I mean by this ? In the generation of living beings the 
first (stage) is the sowing of seed. The second is when 
the various organs are modelled ** by something akin to 
nature.* The third, after the fashioning,^ is their growth. 
And the fourth, above all these, is the perfecting of their 
generation. The same principle " applies to plants. The 
seed is sown in the earth and then it is moved upward and 
downward, partly into roots, partly into stalks. Then it 
grows, and in the fourth (stage) bears fruit. Again, trees 
first of all bear fruit, which then grows. In the third (stage) 
it changes colour, having become ripe, and in the fourth 
(stage), which is the last, it becomes full and complete. 
And thereupon follow the use and enjoyment of it.'* 

13. (Gen. xv. 16) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Not yet full are the sins of the Amorites until now " ? 

Some say that by^ this expression Fate * was introduced 
by Moses into his narrative,^ as though all things were 
to be completed in accordance with this time, and times * 
were to be determined by periods.* 

** Kara tov Aoyov. * avroreXi^s. 

" Aucher renders somewhat diiFerently, " perfectos quoque 
generat plane." ^' TtmovaOai. 

* Apparently the Arm. = vtto tlvos rij (f>va€i avyyevovs- 
^ /i€Ta TO vXoLTTeiv. " Xoyos. 

* XPV'^''^ '^°-'' OLTToXavacs. 

* Arm. dakatagir renders €L[j.apfi€V7], fwlpa and tu^t;. 

^ Arm. patmouVeamb is the instr. case of the noun that 
usu. renders laropia or SnjyTjats, sometimes i^riyqaLS. Aucher 
renders, " explicite," and adds in a footnote " notat vox 
ilia . . . historice, id est enarrando explicite.'''' 

* The Arm. uses two different words for " time." 

' TTcpiohois. Probably, as Aucher suggests, this section 
was originally longer and contained Philo's own interpreta- 
tion in contrast to that of " some " who saw a reference to 
Fate in this verse. Such a contrasted interpretation is given 
in Quis Rer. Div. Heres 300-306. 

197 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

14. (Gen. xv. 17) What is the meaning of the words, 
" When the sun went down there came a flame " " ? 

Either the sun appeared flame-like in its setting, or 
another flame, not lightning but some kind of fire akin 
to it, fell ^ from above at evening. This is the plain inter- 
pretation of the oracle. But this is to be said by way of 
conjecture." 



15. (Gen. xv. 17) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Behold, a smoking furnace and torches <* of fire, which 
passed through the midst of the half-pieces " * ? 

The literal meaning ' is clear, for the fountain and root 
of the divine Logos " wishes the victims to be consumed, 
not by that fire which has been given to us for use,'^ but 
by that which comes down from above from the ether, in 
order that the purity of the substance * of heaven may be 
attested by the holiness which is in the victims. But as 
for the deeper meaning,^ all sublunary things are likened 
to the smoking furnace, because of th6 vapour from earth 
and water, in which are the divisions of nature. As has 
been shown above,*= the several things which are parts of 

" So LXX, CTTei Se kyLvi.ro o riXios irpos Svafjials, <f)X6$ iyd- 
v€To; Heb. reads "when the sun set and it was dark." 
Apparently lxx read Heb. lahat " flame " instead of 
'Hatah " darkness." 

* €CTTa^€. 

" hia ho^dv vel sim. Aucher renders, " verum illud quod 
sensum respicit dicendum est." Evidently the rest of the 
section is missing or is to be supplied from the following 
section on the second half of the biblical verse. 

** So LXX, Aa/x7raSej ; Heb. has sing., " torch." 

* dva /xeaov tcSv SLxorofx.'qixdTcov, as in Lxx. For a parallel 
allegory see Quis Rer. Div. Heres 308-312. 

■^ TO prjTOV. 

» i.e. God. 

* i.e. for profane use. 

* Tf\s ovatas. 

' TO vpos Bidvoiav. 
^ QG iii. 5. 

198 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

the world are divided into two. And by these," like torches 
of fire, are kindled the most swiftly moving and most 
effective powers,* the divine words," burning and aflame. 
Now they keep the universe intact, one with another 
together,'* and now they purify the superfluous fog. The 
most particular and proper cause * is to be explained in 
the following way. Human life is like a smoking furnace, 
not having a clear and pure fire and pure * light, but abun- 
dant smoke (coming) through a smoking and obscuring 
flame, which produces fog and darkness and veiling of 
the eyes, not of the body, but of the soul, which prevents 
them from seeing clearly outwards until the Saviour God " 
lights the heavenly torches. By these I mean the most 
pure and holy sparks,'^ which unite the two parts divided 
on the right side and on the left, and at the same time 
illuminate them and become the causes of harmony and 
splendour.* 

16. (Gen. xv. 18) Why does (Scripture) say, " On that 

" What " these " are is not wholly clear. To judge from 
the parallel in Quis Rer. Div. Heres 311-312 "these" are 
" the divided things," which are kindled by the divine powers. 
We should therefore correct the Arm. construction here to 
read " and these . . . are kindled by the . . . divine 
words." * 8vvdfx.€is. 

" oi deloL Xoyoi ; Aucher renders more freely, " ardentes 
sane velut ignei sermones divini." 

^ This is the literal meaning of the obscure Arm. text, 
which Aucher renders, " modo universum totum secum 
invicem integre servantes." The general idea is the same as 
that in Quis Rer. Div. Heres 312, " the divine powers, as they 
pass through the midst of objects and bodies, destroy nothing 
— for the half-pieces remain unharmed — but divide and 
distinguish very well the nature of each." 

* v^ Ibiwrdrr] /cai oiKeiordTT] atria. 

^ The Arm. uses two different words for " pure." 
" o Gcorrjp deos. 

^ Prob. (TTnvdijpas, as in Quis Rer. Div. Heres 309 ; the 
Arm. word can also mean " rays, beams." 

* alriai yevofMevoi, dpfiovlas Kal XafnrpoTiqros. 

199 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

day " He made a covenant with Abraham, saying, To thy 
seed will I give this land from the river of Egypt to the 
great river P^iiphrates " ^ ? 

The literal meaning " is that it describes the boundaries 
of the region between the two rivers, that of Egypt and 
the Euphrates, for anciently the land and the river were 
homonymously ** called " Egypt." A witness to this is 
the poet," who says, " At the river of Egypt stay the ships 
which you steer from both sides." But as for the deeper 
meaning,^ it indicates felicity," which is the fulfilment of 
three perfections,'^ of spiritual goods, of corporeal goods 
and of those which are external. This (doctrine) was 
praised by some of the philosophers who came afterward, 
(such as) Aristotle and the Peripatetics. Moreover this 
is said to have been also the legislation* of Pythagoras. 
For Egypt is the symbol of corporeal and external goods, 
while the Euphrates (is the symbol) of the spiritual, for 
through them veritable and true joy ^ comes into being, 
having as its source wisdom and every virtue. And the 
boundaries rightly take their beginning from Egypt and 
they end at the Euphrates. For in the end things happen 
to the soul which we manage to approach with difficulty, 
but first one must pass and run through the bodily and 

" Philo agrees with some lxx mss. which, like Heb. and 
the oriental versions, read eV ttj -qfjicpa eVeiVi? ; most lxx mss. 
read e/cei. 

" Arm. aracani= " Euphrates " ; the Arm. O.T. transcribes 
the Greek name. 

" TO prjTOV. "^ OfJMVVfJLLa. 

^ Homer, Od. xiv. 258 oTrjaa 8' ev AlyvnTCo TTorafJiip veas 
aii^ieXiaaas. The wording is slightly diflFerent in the Arm. 
text. 

^ TO irpos Stdvotav. 

^ alvLTTeraL rrfv cvrvxiav (or evTrpayiav). 

^' So Arm. lit. ; Aucher renders, " perfecta plenitude 
tripiclium bonorum." Prob. the original had merely Te- 
AetOTi^S Tpiu>v <dya^aiv>. 

* 17 vofjLodecria. 

^ Here, as elsewhere, Philo plays on the similarity of sound 
between 'Ev<f)pdTrjs and €v<f)poavvT]. 
200 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

external goods," health and keenness of sense * and beauty 
and strength, which are wont to flourish and grow and be 
attained in youth. And similarly those things which per- 
tain to profit and selling, (such as) piloting and agriculture 
and trade. For all (this) is proper to youth, especially 
those things which have rightly been so described." 

17. (Gen. xv. 19-21) " Who are " the Kenites and the 
Kenizzites and the Kadmonites and the Hittites and 
the Perizzites and the Rephaim and the Amorites and 
the Canaanites and the Girgashites and the Jebusites " .'' 

These ten nations are reckoned (as) evils which he de- 
stroys * because of being neighbours,^ since also a rejected 
and counterfeit denarius » (is a neighbour ?) of acceptable 
ones.'' For the all-perfection ' of the number ten is most 

** The Arm. text from " in the end " to " external 
(goods) " is far from clear to me. Aucher's rendering is 
fairly literal but also obscure, " in ultimis enim occurrunt res 
animae ; quibus aegre appropinquare succedit nobis, post- 
quam tamen transitum fuerit per corporales et externas." 
His " postquam " is questionable ; yarajagoyn means " first " or 
" formerly," and here is contrasted with yetoy housk " in the 
end " or " finally." The general sense of the passage seems 
to be that youth is the time for enjoying corporeal and external 
goods, and later life for spiritual goods. * evaiodrjoiav. 

" Aucher renders somewhat difi^erently, " juvenem namque 
omnia decere, maxime praedicta jure dictum est." 

^ These verses are not commented on elsewhere by Philo. 

* Or " which destroy," assuming that there was a neut. pi. 
subj. (edvrj) in the original ; variant " which (he) likens." 

^ The sentence is obscure and prob. corrupt ; Aucher 
renders, " decem gentes numerantur malitiae quas destruit 
ob vicinitatem." 

" Arm. dahekan — '^'' denarius," " drachma," etc. 

^ Lit. " of loved ones." The sentence is very puzzling; 
Aucher renders, " quoniam Denarius quoque falsus, et male 
signatus vicinus est bono ac amabili." The Arm. glossator 
explains, " The evil which is ten strives to be like the good, 
just as a rejected denarius, etc." 

* 17 TravreAeia, cf. De Decalogo 20 rov dpidfiov ScKaSt ttj mrav- 
reXeiq.. 

201 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

completely harmonious " and is the measure of an infinity ^ 
of numbers, by which the world and the mind of the wise 
man are ordered and ruled. But evil overturns and 
changes its " substance/ overlooking the most necessary 
powers, because of its only being said * that that which is 
good is the pursuit of virtue/ For the wicked man is 
such as to admit opinion rather than truth, in which are 
those who see." 

*18. (Gen. xvi. 1) Why did not Sarah the wife of 
Abraham bear him children ? 

As a barren woman is the mother of the race spoken of ; 
first of all, in order that the seed of ofi"spring ^ may appear 
more wonderful and miraculous.* Second, in order that 

" navapiiovLwraTOS (sic /). 

* aneipias ; cf. De Decalogo 27 17 aiT€ipia twv dpidixcov ravTrj 
{sc. rfi Se/caSi) fieTpeirat.. " The decad's ? 

<* Or " essence "— ouatav. * Variant " heard." 

^ This is a lit. translation of the troublesome Arm. text, 
which Aucher renders, " hujus tamen substantiam convertit 
subvertitque malitia, despectis viribus pernecessariis, ut 
solum restet illud quod dixerit (vel, audierit) bonum esse 
studium virtutis." 

" The last phrase is unintelligible to me. One ms. adds 
" The birth of Ishmael " ; another ms. prefixes these two 
words to the following section. Aucher renders — on what 
basis I do not know — , " in quibus semen prophetarum (vel, 
admittens ad aucupandos videntes)." The Arm. glossator 
explains, not very helpfully, " the virtuous man with single 
constancy abides in the truth and sees the good, while the 
evil man (abides) in opinion, and hearing belongs to him, 
who has not a credible birth, as seeing belongs to the former 
one." Here there seems to be an allusion to the symbolism 
of the names Israel (" seeing God ") and Ishmael (" hearing 
God"). 

^ So Arm. lit. = to tcDv exydvcov avepfia ; prob. the original 
read, as in the paraphrase of Procopius, 17 rcov eyyovwv anopd ; 
Aucher renders awkwardly, " generation i bus filius (ap- 
pareat)." 

* Prob., as in Procopius, Trapdbo^os . . . davixarovpyrjOeiaa. 
The verse is rather differently allegorized inDe Congressu 1-10. 

202 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

the conceiving and bearing might be not so much through 
union with a man as through the providence " of God. 
For when a barren woman gives birth, it is not by way of 
generation ^ but the work of the divine power. '^ This is 
the literal meaning.'* But as for the deeper meaning,* 
first, giving birth is wholly peculiar to woman, just as 
begetting is to man. (Scripture) therefore wishes the soul 
of the virtuous man to be likened to the male sex rather 
than the female, considering that activity rather than 
passivity is congenial to him.^ Furthermore, both (kinds 
of mind) beget— the virtuous mind and the wicked^ — , but 
they beget differently and opposites." The virtuous man 
(begets) good and useful things, while the wicked and evil 
man (begets) dirty, shameful and useless things. And the 
third (point) is that he who has progressed ^ even to the 
very end * is near to what is called by some the forgotten 
and unknown light. ^ This progressive man * does not 

* TTpovoia or eVi/ieAeia ; the Greek frag, from Cod. Barb. 
ap. Wendland has €Tn(f)poavvT], Procopius has eV €v<f>poavvrj. 

* Lit. " not of being in accordance with generation "(or 
" offspring ") ; Aucher renders, " non pariendi facultatis 
est " ; the Greek frag, has more simply oii yevvT^crcws {epyov). 

" rrjs Oeas bvvdfxecos epyov, as in the Greek frag, (omitting 
the article), which ends here. 

** TO prjTov. * TO rrpos Sidvoiav. 

^ TO Spdv ixdXXov rj to TTdax^iv avTW oiKelov efvai. 

" bLa(f>6pcos Koi ivavTia. ^ 6 TrpoKoipas. 

* Kal brj els rd a/cpa vel sim. 

' The text is obscure ; Aucher, who punctuates and con- 
strues differently, renders, " qui est adhuc proficiscens, ad 
ipsam summitatem invitandus, prope est ad lumen, quod 
apud aliquos dicitur oblivioni traditum ac incognitum." The 
Arm. glossator explains it in this way, " He who is alienated 
from sin has made a beginning of virtue ; of this some say 
that such a man is near the unknown light, which he formerly 
knew, but strayed from through sin, and now has come back 
to." Perhaps a partial parallel is to be found in De Con- 
gress ii 5-6^ which contrasts the preliminary studies (Hagar) 
with complete virtue (Sarah). 

* Reading Arm. yarajatealn (ptc.) for yafojateln (inf.). 

203 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

beget vices nor virtues either, since he is not yet complete, 
but he is the same as one who is not ill and (yet) not alto- 
gether well in body, but is now coming (back) from a long 
illness to health. 



19. (Gen. xvi. 1) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And she had an Egyptian maidservant, whose name 
was Hagar " ? 

" Hagar " is interpreted as " sojourning," « and she is 
a servant, waiting on a more perfect nature. And she is 
very naturally an Egyptian by race. For she is the study 
of school disciplines," and being a lover " of wide learning,"* 
is in a certain sense * a servant waiting on virtue,^ since 
school studies " are serviceable to him who needs help in 
receiving it,'' inasmuch as virtue has the soul as its place, 
while the school studies need bodily organs ; and Egypt 
is symbolically the body, (wherefore Scripture) rightly 
describes the form * of the school studies as Egyptian. 
Moreover, it also named her " sojourning " for the reason 
that sophistry ^ is a sojourner in comparison with native 
virtue ^ which alone is at home ' and which is mistress of 

« ■jTapoiKTjai.s ; cf. De Congressu iiO. 

^ CTTtT-qhevcns roHv iyKVK\l(ov imaTTjfiwv vel sim. 

« Or " friend." 

** TToXvfiadeias. 

* rpOTTOV Tivd. 

f dp€Trjs. Aucher, misled in part by the seemingly errone- 
ous repetition of bazoumousmnout' iun ( = TroAu/Lia^eia) in the 
Arm. text, renders, " nam studium encyclicae disciplinae 
deligit copiam scientiae et copiosa scientia tamquam ministra 
est virtutis." 

" rd iyKVKXia. 

" This is a slight emendation of the Arm. text which seems 
to mean lit. " who is of help, etc. " ; Aucher renders freely 
but more intelligibly, " qui scit proficere acquisitione ejus ad 
acquirendam virtutem." * elSos or ISeav. 

^ TO. ao(f>iafxaTa ; cf. Be Congressu 18. 

* Kard avyKpiaiv rijs Trarpias dperrfs. 
' Lit. " belongs " ( = e'mTT78et'a?). 

204 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

intermediate education " and provides for us ^ through the 
school studies. 



*20. (Gen. xvi. 2) Why does Sarah say to Abraham,'' 
" Behold, the Lord has closed me up so as not to bear. Go 
into my maidservant that thou mayest beget children ^ 
from her " ? 

In the literal sense * it is the same (as) not to be envious 
and jealous (but) to look out for the wise man and husband 
and genuine kinsman.' At the same time, to make up for 
her childlessness through the maidservant which she had, 
she designated her as her husband's concubine. More- 
over, the excessiveness of her wifely love is indicated 
(thereby), for since she seemed to be barren, she did not 
think it right to let her husband's household suffer from 
childlessness, for she valued his gain more than her own 
standing. That is the literal meaning." But as for the 
deeper meaning,'' it has somewhat the following argu- 
ment.* Those who are unable by virtue to beget fine and 
praiseworthy deeds ought to pursue intermediate educa- 
tion,^ and in a certain sense * produce children from the 
school studies,' for wide learning "• is a sort of whetstone 

<* TTJs (jLearis TratSeias, cf. Be Congressu 12, where Colson 
translates it as " lower instruction." 

^ Xoprjyel (?) ; Aucher " choreas agitat " ; cf. De Con- 
gressu 19. 

" Lxx, Heb. and Arm. O.T. have " Abram." The form 
" Abraham " is first used in Scripture in Gen. xvii. 5, see 
below, QG iii. 43. 

<* Some Lxx mss. in agreement with Heb. read tckvottolij- 
(7to(/iai), as do the Oriental versions. 

* TO) /iev prqrc^. 

f The construction and sense are not wholly clear to me ; 
Aucher renders, " in ipsa littera idem est non invidere et 
providere de sapiente," etc. 

" TO pt]t6v. ''^ TO TTpos Sidvoiav. 

* Xoyov. ^ Trjv fieorjv TraiSeiav. 
^ rpoTTOV Tivd. ' €/c TcSv ey/cu/cAicuv. 

"* TToXvixdOeta. 

205 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of the mind and reason." But most excellently was it 
written, " He closed me up," for what is closed is wont to 
open at a suitable time. So that his ^ wisdom '^ is not 
resigned ** to being childless for ever but knows that she 
will bear children. She will however, not bear now 
but when the soul ^ shows purity of perfection.^ But while 
it is imperfect it is sufficient for it to have a milder and 
gentler teaching ° which comes through the school studies. 
Whence it is not for nothing that in the sacred athletic 
contests those who cannot take the first prizes in the contest 
are deserving of the second. For a first and second and 
third prize are put before the contestants by the ofiicials 
of the games, who resemble nature, for before him '' it puts 
a first prize of virtue and a second of the school studies. 

*21. (Gen. xvi. 8) Why does (Scripture) call Sarah the 
wife of Abraham,' for it says, " And Sarah the wife of 
Abraham, taking her maidservant Hagar the Egyptian, 
gave her into his hands " ? 

The theologian ^ emphasizes ^ the marriage of worthy 

" oLKovr] Tt? Tov vov KoL Tov Xoyov. In De Congressu 25 
Rachel, as symbol of the lower education, is called a whet- 
stone. 

*> To what or whom " his " refers is not clear, but prob. is 
the mind. " ao^ia. 

'^ Arm. vcarem has a number of meanings, such as " com- 
plete," " discharge," " release," none of which seems to 
fit here ; Aucher renders freely, " spe destituta erat ac fixa 
in consilio." 

« Lit. " souls " ; but in the next sentence the verb is sing. 

f KadapioTTjra TcXeioTrjTos (a collocation that sounds un- 
Philonic). 

" CTTieiKeoTepa /cat yaAa/croiSet StSacr/caAta xP'^^r^ai ; cf. De 
Congressu 19. 

'' The person referred to is not clear. 

* i.e. why does Scripture repeat the phrase " wife of 
Abraham ? '' ; cf. De Congressu 73-80. 

^ d deoXoyos (Moses). 

* Lit. " seals " or " stamps " ; Aucher renders, " con- 
cludit comprobatione." 

206 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

persons in view of the intemperance of lascivious ones. 
For these, because of their concubines, whom they madly 
love, look down upon their wise « wives. Wherefore 
(Scripture) introduces the virtuous man '' as a more con- 
stant " husband to his wife when the occasion dictated ** 
the use of the maidservant. And (Scripture represents) 
the wise wife as more sober * when he entered another's 
bed.^ For with the concubine the embrace was a bodily 
one for the sake of begetting children. But with the wife 
the union was one of the soul harmonized to heavenly love." 
That is the literal meaning.'' But as for the deeper mean- 
ing,' he who has truthfully entrusted his thoughts ^ to 
wisdom and justice and other virtues,* when once he has 
received the thoughts ' of wisdom and has tasted marriage 
with her, remains her mate ^ and husband, even though 
he provides " abundantly for the education of the school." 

° Probably, as Wendland suggests, the Arm. translator 
read darreiwv " wise " or " virtuous " (in Philo) for dartSv 
" lawful." The latter word is used in the frag, from Pro- 
copius and in De Congressu 77. 

" Tov aTTovSalov, i.e. Abraham. 

*= ^ejSaiorepov, as in Procopius. 

** OT€ rrap-qyyeXXov ol Katpoi, as in ProcopiuS. 

' Or " temperate." The Procopius frag, has TTayicorepav 
" more steadfast " ; the point of the reference is clearer in 
the parallel, De Congressu 37, where the name Rebecca is 
etymologized as inrofiovq " constancy " or " endurance." 

^ Aucher, construing wrongly, renders, " et sobrium 
profecto (designat) mulier sapientem quum alium in thala- 
mum ingressus est." 

" The Arm. agrees literally with the Greek frag, evcoais 
^vx'fjS dp/xo^o/xevT^? epa>Ti Oeio). 

^ TO piJTOV. * TO TTpOS StdvOlttV. 

' Prob. Tous Aoyia/xouj; Aucher " secreta sua." 
* ao(f>ia Koi SiKaioavvj^ Kal dXXais dpeTois. 
' Or perhaps " counsel," as Aucher, renders ; the Arm. 
word is the same as that mentioned in note j. 

"* aVVOLKOS. 

" Prob. xop-qyel ; Aucher renders literally, " choreas agitet." 
" TTJ iyKVKXia TraiScia. 

207 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

For even if the virtuous man has ready to hand " the 
theories ^ of geometry, arithmetic, grammar, rhetoric and 
other scientific disciplines, none the less is he mindful of 
his integrity," and addresses himself to the one as a task, 
and to the other as to a side-task.'' But most worthy of 
praise is it that (Scripture) calls the maidservant " wife," * 
for he came together with her in bed by the will and at the 
injunction of his true wife, and not by any means of his 
own will. For this reason (Scripture) does not (here) call 
her " maidservant," for the maidservant, having been given 
to him (as wife), obtains this (status), if not in fact, at any 
rate in name. However, let us allegorize ^ by saying that 
the training in intermediate studies has the force " of a 
concubine but the form and rank * of a wife. For the 
several school studies resemble and imitate true virtue. 



*22. (Gen. xvi. 4) What is the meaning of the words, 
" She saw that she was pregnant, and her mistress was 
dishonoured before her " ? 

Advisedly * does (Scripture) now call Sarah " mistress " 
when she seems to be eclipsed ' and subdued by her maid- 
servant — a childless woman by a childbearing one. But 
this principle of reasoning * extends to almost all the 
matters necessary to life. For more lordly ' is the wise 
poor man than the foolish rich man,*" and the inglorious 

" TTpox^ipa. 

^ TO. decjpTJjjLaTa. 

" TTJs KaXoKayaOias. 

^ epyov . . . vapepyov, as Aucher conjectures. 

« By implication at least ; cf. De Congressit 80. 

^ a.XXr]yopa>ix€V. " Swa/xiv. '^ Ti/xiyv. 

* Or " cautiously," " guardedly " ; the Greek frag, has 
Kara Kaipov. 

^ Or " made light of " — iXaTTovadai. 

^ K€(f)aXr] Tov Xoyov (?) ; there is nothing corresponding to 
this phrase in the Greek frag. 

* KvpLcoT€pos (as in the Greek frag.) is rendered by two 
Arm. words. 

"• o <f>p6vinos vdvTjs d(f)povos rrXovaiov, as in the Greek frag. 

208 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

man than the glorious one," and the sick man than the 
healthy one/ For whatever is with wisdom " is wholly 
lordly and independent '^ and masterful/ But whatever is 
with folly is a slave and infirm/ And well is it said, not 
that she dishonoured her mistress, but " her mistress was 
dishonoured." » For the former would contain a personal 
accusation while the latter would be a declaration of things 
that happened/ But (Scripture) does not wish to lay 
blame and condemnation upon anyone for the sake of 
praising (another),* but to make clear the bare and simple 
truth of matters. That is the literal meaning.' But as 
for the deeper meaning,* those who accept and honour 
glory more than the science of wisdom,' and consider sense- 
perception "* more honourable than reason," set themselves 
apart from familiarity with the facts," thinking that the 
production of many things and the complacent love ^ of 
appearances are great and perfect goods and are alone 
honourable, while barrenness in these is bad. and dis- 
honourable. For they do not see that invisible seed « and 

" dSo^os eVSo^ou. 

* o voaojv vyiaivovTOS' 

" avv (f)povT^a€i, as in the Greek frag. 

•* Arm. bonn = <f>vaLK6s, yvijaios, avros, etc. 

* To these three adjectives the single adj. Kvpia corresponds 
in the Greek frag. 

^ daTOTOv. 

« A somewhat parallel distinction (between Sarah's seeing 
Hagar's pregnancy and Hagar's seeing her own pregnancy) 
is made in De Congress u 139-150. 

" The Greek frag, (which ends here) says more briefly ov 
yap ideXei KaT-qyop^Zv, h-qXwaai, Se to avfi^e^rjKOS. 

* The context requires the pronoun ; cf. Aucher " in 
alterius laude." ' to prjrov. 

^ TO TTpos Bidvoiav. ' Trjv T'qs aocf>ias €7ncn-qfir)v. 

"• TTjv aiaOrjatv. ** tov Xoyiapiov. 

** aTTo TTJs ruiv TTpayfjidrcov oiKfiOTrjTOS vel sim. 

p Lit. " sufficient loving " ; Aucher paraphrases, " mag- 
nam generationem . . . produxisse." 

« Or "sowing"; cf. De Somniis i. 199 dopdra> oTTopd 
<f>povqa€U}S' 

209 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the intelligible generations " which the mind is wont to 
produce by itself. 

^23. (Gen. xvi. 5) Why does Sarah, as it were, repent, 
saying to Abraham, " I am wronged by thee. I have given 
my maidservant into thy bosom, but seeing that she is 
pregnant, I have been dishonoured before her " '^ ? 

This statement contains doubt and indecision. And it 
is clear that the " since " " is the same as " the time when 
I gave my maidservant." And the other statement refers 
to a person,'' that is, when she says, " By thee I am 
wronged." « For this is a reproach. And it is proper (for 
Scripture) to keep the good, worthy, truthful and un- 
forgetting husband from blame and accusation and always 
to present him with all honour, calling him " lord." But 
the first statement is true, for since the time when she gave 
(him) her maidservant and made her his concubine, she 
seemed to be disesteemed and dishonoured. That is the 
literal meaning.^ But as for the deeper meaning,^ when 

** TO. voepa yevrj. 

* The Arm. closely follows the lxx dSiKovfjLai eV aov- iyw 
SeSoj/ca Tr)v TraihiaK'qv fjLov els top koXvov aov. ISovoa 8e on eV 
yaarpl €;^et, 'qrifidaOrjv ivavriov avTrjs. Aucher's rendering, 
" quia vidit," is misleading, since the Arm., like the lxx, 
makes " seeing " (ptc.) refer to Sarah, whereas the Heb. 
makes the verb (in its finite form) refer to Hagar. In the 
parallel, De Congressu 139 Philo, following the lxx in reading 
iSo£>o-a, makes the point that it was Sarah, not Hagar, who 
saw Hagar's pregnancy. The concluding part of the verse. 
Gen. xvi. 5, " let God judge between us," is cited at the end 
of his comment. 

" No such conjunction or prep, occurs in the lxx or Arm. 
O.T. texts of this verse. 

^ Variant " to the opposite." 

« The argument is unclear but the meaning seems to be 
that Sarah's doubts about Abraham's feeling are indicated 
by the interval of time implied ; cf. the Greek frag. dAA' 
ecTTt ;^poviK'ov roi i^r}? avvairroixevov e^ ov aoi Kal d(f)* ov xpovov 
iyoj SeSoj/ca tt^v vaLbiaKTjv fiov. 

^ TO prjTOV. " TO Trpos Stavoiav. 

210 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

someone gives (to another) the maidservant of wisdom," the 
latter, being ignorant and through sophistic reasoning,* 
dishonours the mistress. For when he receives and de- 
lights in the splendour "^ of the school studies,** since each 
of them is very attractive and seductive and, as it were, 
has the power of forcibly drawing (others) to itself, he is 
from then on no longer able to find time to unite with the 
mistress either in respect of enjoying the image of wisdom 
or her wonderful appearance * until that cutter f of things, 
the divine Logos, supervenes and separates, divides and 
cuts oif the probable from the true,'' and the means from 
the ends, and secondary things from those ranged in the 
first rank. Wherefore she says later, " God will judge 
between me and thee." 



*24. (Gen. xvi. 6) Why does Abraham say, " Behold, thy 
maidservant is in thy hands. Do with her as is pleasing 
to thee " ? 

The literal text * contains praise of the wise man,* for it 
was not " wife " nor " concubine " but " maidservant " of 
his wife that he called her who was pregnant by him. 
When he saw that she was growing big, he did not become 
indignant and provoke ^ the appetite of passion * but paci- 
fied it. And the passage " in thy hands " contains an alle- 
gory ' in a certain sense,"* by which I mean that sophistry " 

" ry^v rrjs aortas TTaLhLaKT}v. 

^ Toi T^? ao<f>ioT€ias Xoyiafiw ; Aucher renders, " consilio 
ilia [!] sophismatis ignorans." 

* Or " clarity." '^ rayv eyKVKXuov. 

* Aucher renders a little differently, " sive imagine sapien- 
tiae, ac gloriosa ejus mirabilique forma." 

^ TOfi€vs, a term applied to the Logos in Quis Rer. Div. 

Heres 225; Aucher more freely renders, " acutus judex 
rerum." 

' TO. TTidava dvo tcov dXrjOcov. 

" TO prfTOv. * rod cro<f>ov. 

^ In the Arm. it is not clear who the subject is. 

*= TTjv Tov irddovs 6p€^LV. ' dW-qyopiav. 

"* rpoTTOV Tivd. " 17 ao(f>icrr€ia. 

211 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

is under the authority " of wisdom, as if it flowed from 
the same source but crookedly, not straight, and not 
keeping its flow whole and pure but carrying filth and many 
other similar things along with it. And so, since this is in 
thy hands and thy power, to whom, being wisdom, all the 
school disciplines belong,* do with her as is pleasing to thy 
heart. For I am confident that thou wilt not judge more 
severely than is right, for this is very pleasing to thee, 
(namely) to apportion to each what is in accordance with 
his deserts, *= and not to honour or dishonour (anyone) more 
(than is right). 



25. (Gen. xvi. 6) Why does (Scripture) say, " Sarah 
afflicted her " "^ ? 

The literal meaning is clear. But as for the deeper 
meaning,* it has something like the following content.^ 
Not all afflictions are harmful," but there are times when 
they are even helpful. This is what sick people experience 
at the hands of physicians, and children at the hands 
of teachers, and the foolish at the hands of those who 
enlighten them. This I would never call an affliction, but 
salvation ^ and aid to soul and body. This is the part that 
wisdom gives to the group of school studies,* judging that 
a soul filled with much learning ^ and pregnant with 
sophistry ^ will not be refractory or haughty, as if it were 
in possession of a great and excessive good, but will be 

" Or " power." In De Congressu 155 Philo allegorizes 
the words " in thy hands " as a symbol of the bodily senses 
used in the school studies. 

* Aucher, construing differently, renders, " cujus enim 
sapientia, ejus sunt et omnes encyclicae disciplinae." 

" TO a^iov vel sim. 

^ eKOLKuiaev ainriv, as in lxx. 

* TO TTpos hiavoiav. ^ Xoyov. 

* ov TTaaai KaKcoacLS j8Aaj8epat eiai. 
'' acorrjplav. 

* T(x> TOiV iyKVKXittiv \op(^. 

* TToXvuadeiaS' 

^ (TO(f>LaT€tas, here used in a semi-respectable sense. 

212 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

quiet <• and show respect for a higher and better nature 
as its true mistress, to whom belongs stability itself and 
sovereignty over (all) matters. 

*26. (Gen. xvi. 6) ^ Why does Hagar flee from her face ? " 
Not every soul gladly receives discipline,"* but the 
friendly and particularly gentle mind * loves reproof,^ and 
becomes more familiar with " those who discipline it, while 
the hostile and malevolent (mind) '' hates and avoids and 
flees from it, and draws near pleasant words * rather than 
those which can profit it, thinking that (the former) are 
preferable and more valuable. 



27. (Gen. xvi. 7) What is the meaning of the words, 
" There found her an angel of the Lord ' by a spring of 
water in the wilderness on the road to Shur " * .'' 

All these things that are said are symbols and types,* by 
which (Scripture) represents "* the widely learned soul," 
whfch is the property of virtue " but is not yet able to see 

« Lit. " rest " or " subside." 

* Gen. xvi. 6-9 forms the subject of De Fuga et Inventione^ 
where Philo says (§§ 3-5) that Hagar fled, not out of hatred 
or fear, but shame. 

" LXX Kai aiTihpa airo Trpoawirov avT-fjs- 

<* Variant " receives attention and discipline " ; the Greek 
frag, has merely Se^eTai vovdeaiav. 

* Aucher renders, " facilis ac suavis proprie (in note : 
" v^/, ac constans sibi propria ") mens." 

^ cAeyxov. " Or " used to " — oiK^iovrai. 

'' The Greek frag, has only -q Se exOpa <fltvxq>. 

* rovs TTpos ri8ovrjv Xoyovs. 

' Some LXX mss. have " the Lord God." 

^ In De Fuga 1 Philo follows the lxx more closely, in 
reading cm rijs Tnjyijg rod vSaros €v rfj epijfKp, em ttjs tttjytjs 
iv TTj ohw Soup. 

^ avfi^oXa /cat tvttol. "* axf)fJiCLTlt,€i. 

** TTjV TToXvfjLadrj i/rux'^v. 

" KTTJfia TTJs apiTTJs ; i.e. Hagar, symbolizing the school 
studies, is owned by Sarah, symbolizing virtue. 

213 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the beauty of its mistress. Now these are the symbols : 
the " finding," " by the angel," " by the spring," " in the 
wilderness," " on the road " — none other than (the road) 
to Shur. However, we must begin with the first one. 
Now a very deceitful sophist * and contentious person ^ is 
not always " found out because of the skill and the sophis- 
tical arguments '^ with which he is accustomed to trick and 
deceive. But he who is without evil habits is zealous only 
for wide learning,* which comes through the group of school 
studies ^ ; and although this is hard to find," still it is not 
altogether undiscoverable. For perdition " is akin to the 
undiscoverable, while discovery * is salvation and life.^ 
And especially (is this so) when one is sought and found 
by a purer and more worthy spirit. But what is purer or 
more worthy than a divine angel ? For it was he who was 
entrusted with the search for a wandering soul,*^ which 
because of its learning did not surely know that which it 
ought to honour.' However, it might have "' obtained 
correction, for the sake of which the search was made. 
Now it is not incomplete " but is right at hand. For'the 
soul was found fleeing from virtue, not being able to receive 
discipline." And there is a second symbol after the " find- 
ing," namely that the finding by the angel took place " by 

" ao^iaTTjs. ^ jfiKoviiKos. 

« The Greek prob. had the indef. pr. rt. 
<* Or " proofs," " persuasions." 

* TTjS TToXvfJLadelas. 

^ 8ia Tov TU)v eyKVKXicov xopov. 

" 8va€vp€Tos. ^ diTcoXiia. 

* Or " discoverability " ? 

' aoiT-qpCa Kox t,o}ri. For an extended discussion of the 
symbolism of other biblical passages on " finding " see De 
Fuga 119-176. 

^ rrXavionevTjv i/jvx'qv. 

' The Arm. seems to make better sense than Aucher's 
rendering, " et ob praesumptam eruditionem nescientem 
constanter, quam oportebat venerari." 

"* Or " was able to " — dSuvaro. 

" areX-qs (?) ; the noun referred to is prob. " search," as 
Aucher conjectures. " TratSei'av. 

214 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

a spring." " By this I understand nature to be meant. 
For she offers the sciences of learning in accordance with 
each one's practices,'' wiping out and cleansing the wrong 
kind of learning. " And the passage is in praise ** of the soul 
which is thirsty for knowledge * and is desirous of its laws 
and is eager to draw up and drink its water, as a fellow- 
celebrant in the company of those who drink wine. So 
does it behave with those who are nourished by and luxuri- 
ate in the exercises that train the reason,^ for nature, as 
from a spring, offers an abundance of instruction and 
guidance.*" And the fourth symbol is the finding " in the 
wilderness," '^ for the perturbation and anxiety which come 
upon the various senses, and the floods of the various 
passions oppress the soul and do not permit it to drink 
pure water.* But when it is able to escape it betakes 
itself, as it were, to the wilderness, and it has surcease from 
the thoughts^ that disturbed it, and recovers its health. 
And it obtains hope, not only of life, but even of immortal 
life. The fifth symbol was the finding " on the road," 
since perverted characters use a trackless route, while he 
who is able to improve himself goes by the road that leads 
to virtue. And this road is a wall and a protection to 
those who are able to save themselves. For " Shur " is 

" For Philo's extended discussion of the symbolism of the 
various senses of " spring " in Scripture see De Fuga 177- 
201. ^ CTnTTjBevfJLara, 

" Lit. " left-handed learning " ; variant " lack of learn- 
ing." 

** Lit. " is praise." 

" Prob. eViCTTiy/xTy? ; Aucher has " ingenium " ; cf. De Fuga 
1 87 fiadrjaecos BiipcbvTes . . . e-TnaTTjfMais ISpvovrai. 

^ iv Tols TTJs XoyiKT]? traideCas iTnT-qScvixaai vel sim. On this 
sentence Aucher rightly comments, " totius periodi con- 
structio obscuritatem habet in Arm." 

" In De Fuga 197-198 Philo treats the spring as, among 
other things, a symbol of the living God, quoting Jer. ii. 13. 

^ Philo omits this symbol in De Fuga. 

* Ijt. " drink water purely." 

^ TU)v Xoyiaficov. 

215 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

to be translated as " wall." " Do you not see that aU this 
is a tropical figure ^ of the soul that progresses ? " And one 
who progresses does not become lost like one who is com- 
pletely foolish. If the divine Logos "^ is to be found, he 
seeks it. And he who is not pure and good in his habits 
is put to flight and pursued by the divine Logos ; however, 
he has a spring of water by which he may wash * away his 
passion and evil, and from which he may drink the super- 
abundance -'' of its laws. But he is a lover of the wilderness 
who flees from passion and evil, and on seeing the road of 
virtue, turns away from the trackless way of evil. All 
these are a wall and protection to him, so that he is in no 
way harmed either in word or deed, and does not suffer 
evil from those things which rush upon him. 

28. (Gen. xvi. 8) Why does the angel say to her, " Hagar, 
maidservant of Sarah, whence comest thou and whither 
goest thou " .'* 

The literal meaning " does not need any exposition,'^ for 
it is exceedingly clear. But as for the deeper meaning,'' 
forcefulness ^ (is meant), for the divine Logos *= is a dis- 
ciplinarian * and an excellent healer of the weakness of the 
soul. He says to her, " Whence comest thou ? Dost thou 
not know what good thou has left ? Surely thou art not 
useless and crippled ? "* For with seeing thou dost not see, 
and having senses, thou dost not perceive, and though thou 

<* In De Fuga 203 Philo etymologizes " Shur " as " wall or 
straightening." 

^ Prob. rpoTTOs kol axfjiia ; Aucher has " symbolice {vel, 
legitima) figura." 

"^ rrjS TTpOKOTTTOVOTjS ifiVX^S. 

^ 6 delos \6yos. * Lit. " he washes." 

•'' Lit. " fertility." ^ to p-qrov. 

^ e^rjyqcrews. * to vpos Siavoiav. 

' Aucher " asperitas " ; perhaps the original was em- 
vX-q^is, as in De Fuga 205. 

* o Oetos Xoyos. ' Perhaps vovdeTrjTTJs. 

^ Or " blind," as Aucher renders ; Arm. hasm has both 
meanings. 

216 



GENESIS, BOOK 111 

• 
seemest to have a portion of mind," thou seemest to me 
to be altogether without mind. But whither goest thou ? 
From what piety to what misery ? ^ Why dost thou 
wander in such a way as to throw away the good which 
thou didst have in thy hands, and follow after a more 
remote good ? Do not, do not do this, but subdue this 
stupid and irrational impulse." Come back and return 
from there to the same road (as before). Consider wisdom 
to be thy mistress, whom formerly thou didst have as an 
overseer and caretaker in those things which thou didst 
practise." 

*29. (Gen. xvi. 8) What is the meaning of the words, 
" From the face of Sarah my mistress I am fleeing " ** ? 

It is proper to praise a sincere nature * and consider it 
a lover of truth. Wherefore it is now also fitting to admit 
the veracity ^ of a mind that confesses what it has experi- 
enced." For " from the face " I take to mean, " I am 
struck dumb '' by the appearance of virtue and wisdom."* 
For at the sight of this royal sovereign it ^ shudders and is 
dismayed, not being able ^ to endure the sight of her great- 
ness and exaltedness, and must flee. For there are some 
who flee from virtue not because of hate but because of 
reverential awe,^ for they believe themselves to be un- 
worthy to live with "* their mistress. 

" vov: I have omitted an apparently intrusive negative 
before " to have." 

* d<f>* oTToias euaejSei'as els onolav raXanrcopiav. 
" opfi-qv. 

^ This scriptural half -verse is not commented on by Philo 
in De Fuga. 

* TO Tou rjdovs dvvTTOKpiTov, OS iu the Greek frag, from 
Procopius. f dif/evSiiav. 

^ o TreiTovdcv, as in the Greek frag. 

^ KaTa7T€TTXr)yiJLai ; cf. KaTaTriirXr^KTai in the Greek frag. 

* imo rrjs <f>avTaaCas rijs dperrj^ Kal o-o^ias, as in the Greek 
frag. i The mind. 

* Reading kareal (ptc.) for karel (inf.). 
' Prob. atSot, as in the Greek frag. 

"* avfi^iovv, as in the Greek frag. 

217 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

■^30. (Gen. xvi. 9) Why did the angel say to her, " Return 
to thy mistress and submit thyself under her hands " ? 

Since the literal meaning ** is clear, the deeper meaning * 
must be considered. The divine Logos " disciplines and 
admonishes '^ the soul which is able to receive healing, and 
turns it back to sovereign wisdom,* lest, being left without 
a mistress,^ it leap into absurd folly. And he " disciplines 
it," not only that it may turn back to virtue but also submit 
itself under her hands, by which I mean under her powers.* 
Now submission ^ is of two forms. One is by way of 
deficiency,'' arising from the soul's weakness,^ which it is 
easy to overcome, arrest and condemn."* The other is that 
which the dominant Logos ** enjoins, and arises from awe 
and reverence, such as sons feel toward their parents, and 
pupils toward their teachers, and youths toward their 
elders. For it is most expedient to be obedient to, and fall 
before," one's betters. He who has learned to be ruled, 
also learns at once how to rule. For not even if one should 
assume power over all the earth and sea, would he be able 
to rule in truth if he had not first learned and first been 
trained to be ruled. 



31. (Gen. xvi. 10) Why does the angel say to her, " I will 
multiply, he says," thy seed and it shall not be numbered 
for multitude " ? 

** TO prjTov. * TO TTpos bidvoiav. 

" 6 delos Xoyos. ** TTaiSevci koI vovdcrei. 

' Trpos TTjv r}y€fiovLKr]v oo<f>iav. ^ ahianoros . 

" The Logos. ^ The soul. 

* Tois 8vvdfj,€ai. ^ TaTTeivwoLS. 

* Kar e/cAeii/»tv or eXdrrcoGiv i variant " by way of corrup- 
tion." ^ €K ifjvxi'Krjs dadeveias. 

"' vTrep^dXXeiv Kal KaTaXafi^dveiv kul KarayiyvcoaKeiv. 

" o Kvpios Xoyos. 

" The Greek frag., which begins here, has only to vtto- 
TdrTeadai. 

^ Why the Arm. inserts " he says " is not clear ; possibly 
it is a substitute for the Heb. idiom, reproduced in the lxx, 
" multiplying I will multiply." 

218 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

The honourable thing for a believing soul « is not to revolt 
and resist because of its progress in learning * and the most 
useful growth '^ which comes from wide learning.'^ For it 
is no longer like the word-catchers and word-traders * who 
greedily stuff themselves with the various opinions that are 
(found) in the school studies/ but (seeks) that truth which 
is in the various (studies)," When it follows after this, and 
begins to seek out and search for it, it becomes worthy of 
beholding the sight of its unbribable, irreprehensible and 
irreproachable mistress/ 

32. (Gen. xvi. 11) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The angel * said to her, ' Behold, thou hast conceived 
and wilt bear a son, and thou shalt call his name Ishmael, 
for the Lord has heard thy affliction ' " } 

The literal meaning-' admits no questioning, but (the 
verse) is to be allegorized * as follows. Wide learning,^ 
which is practised and used through the administration'" 
of virtue as through a mistress, is not barren but receives 
the seeds of wisdom." And when it conceives, it bears. 
However, it bears, not a perfect work," but an imperfect 
one, like a child that is in need of care and nourishment." 
And is this not right ? « For it is clear that the offspring '' 

" viaTevovaT] ipv)(TJ. 

* Sia TTjv r-qs fiadTJcrecos 7rpoK07Ti]V. 

'^ Lit. " seed." "^ eV TToXvjxadeias. 

* XoyodrjpaL Koi XoyoTTcoXai ; these two epithets are coupled 
in De Congressu 53. ^ cV toIs iyKVKXiois. 

" Aucher renders somewhat differently, " non enim ul- 
terius, ut verborum captores venditoresque, ad placitum 
usurpat omnia encyclopediae argumenta, sed illam quae in 
singulis continetur veritatem." 
TTJs dSe/caarou koi aKarayvd 

* Heb. and lxx " angel of the Lord." 
' ro pT]r6v. ^ aXXr^yopelrai. ' TroXvfxddeia. 
'" oLKovofilav vel sim. 

" TO. TTJs ao(f)ias aTrep/iara. 

" Te'Aetov epyov. ''' eVi/icAeias /cat rpo^iys. 

' Aucher, in his rendering, inadvertently omits this sen- 
tence. *• Lit. " births." 

219 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of a perfected soul are perfect, and these are words and 
deeds.'' But those of inferior ^ (souls) which are still under 
service and in bondage are more imperfect. Therefore he 
was truly '^ named Ishmael, and this is to be interpreted 
as " hearing God." '^ Now hearing is second in rank to 
seeing. For as prizes in the contest of the senses * Nature 
has given the first to the eyes, the second to the ears, the 
third to the nostrils, and the fourth to (the organ) by which 
we taste. 



33. (Gen. xvi. 12) What is the meaning of the words, 
" He will be a wild man ^ ; his hand will be against all, and 
the hands of all against him, and he will dwell over against " 
all his brothers " .'' 

In the literal sense '' he has no brothers up to this point, 
for he was the first who came * to his parents. However, 
Nature indicates ^ something rather unclear, which must 
be examined, for it gives a picture ^ of those things which 
are to be. Now this picture clearly represents the sophist,' 
whose mother is wide learning and wisdom.*" But the 
sophist is wild in thought," while the wise man is civil " and 
is suited to the state and to civilization ^ ; but the man 
of wild thought is from that very fact « a lover of conten- 

" XoyoL /cat epya. 

^ 8eVT€p€ia)V. " €TVfl(OS. 

'^ oLKorj deov ; cf. De Fuga 208, where Ishmael and Israel 
(" seeing God ") are contrasted. 

* S.dXov iv Tip ru)v aladrjaeoiv dycuvtcr/xaTt. 

' Lxx dypoiKos avdpomos. ' Lxx /card irpoacoTrov. 

* Kara to prjTov. * Lit. " began to be." 
^ alvLTTCTai. * <^XW^ C**^**' fiop<f>i^v ?). 
^ Tov ao<f)ioTi^v ; cf. De Fuga 209. 

*" TToXvfiddeia /cai oo<f>La. 

** In De Fuga 209 Philo calls him dypoLK6ao<f>ov. 

" ttoXltikos. 

^ TToAei Kal TToXiTelq. 

« Text uncertain ; for Arm. anden " thence " Aucher sug- 
gests anden " infidelis, irreligiosus " [?] ; the Arm. glossator 
explains anden as " crooked," but seems to be guessing. 

220 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

tion.** Therefore (Scripture) adds, " his hands against all, 
and the hands of all against him," for, being trained in 
wide learning and much knowledge,* he contradicts all 
men (He is) like those who are now called Academics and 
Sceptics," who place no foundation '^ under their opinions 
and doctrines and do not (prefer) one thing to another, for 
they admit those as philosophers who shoot at (the doc- 
trines) of every school,* and these it is customary to call 
" opinion-fighters."^ For first they fight and become de- 
fenders and champions of their native school " lest they 
be stopped by those who oppose them. For they are all 
kin and, in a certain sense,'' uterine brothers,* offspring of 
the same mother, philosophy.' Therefore (Scripture) says, 
" over against all his brothers he will dwell." For in 
truth * the Academics and the Non-committals ^ take 
opposite stands in their doctrines, and oppose the various 
opinions which others hold.*" 

34. (Gen. xvi. 13) Why does (Scripture) say, " And she" 
called the name of the Lord, who was speaking to her, 
Thou art God who seest me, for she said, For indeed I have 
seen before (me) him who appeared to me "*'.'' 

" <f>tX6v€t.KOS. 

* TToXXfj cTnarTJfiT] (or yvcwaet). 

* Lit. " investigators," but the word evidently reflects 
Greek aKCTTTiKoL ** Aucher " terminum." 

* €KdaTr}s alpeaecos Soy/xara vel sim. 

f Perhaps Philo here used yvco/io/taxouj^es, though the 
word is not attested in his writings or elsewhere, it seems ; 
cf. yvwaifxaxovvrcs, used of sceptics, in De Congressu 53 ; 
Aucher here renders, " voluntatis oppugnatores (quasi 
Thelemachos vel Thelemamachos)." 

" TTJs TTarpLas alpdaecos vel sim. ; cf. De Fuga 210 dfivvofxivcov 
(bg V7T€p oiKeioyv iKyovcjv a>v €T€K€v avTwv rj ipv^Tj Boyfidrcov. 

^ rpoTTOv TLvd. * ofioydarpLoi dSeA^oi. 

' TTJS (f>lXoaO(f>LaS. '' OVTiOS. 

^ Lit. " non-sayers " ; Aucher " indicibiles." Prob. the 
Sceptics are meant, as above. 

"• Lit. " decree " — vonoderovm. " lxx " Hagar." 

" Philo literally follows the lxx, ivwmov tSov 6<f)d€vra fioi. 

221 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Observe the first point carefully, that he " was the 
servant of God in the same way (that Hagar was) the maid- 
servant of wisdom.* Hence the angel was called (God) " 
in order that she <* might harmonize the reality * to his 
appearance/ 

For it was fitting and proper that God, the Most High 
One and Lord of all, should appear to wisdom," while he 
who was his Logos (and) minister " (should appear) to the 
maidservant and attendant of wisdom.* But it was not 
strange ' (for her) to believe that the angel was God. For 
those who are unable to see the first cause * naturally ' 
suffer from an illusion "* ; they believe that the second is the 
first. (They are like those) who have poor eyesight and 
are not able to see the corporeal form ** which is in heaven, 
(namely) the sun, and believe that the rays which it sends 
to the earth are this itself. And all those who do not 
see the Great King ascribe the dignity of the first in 
sovereignty" to his satrap and the one under him. More- 
over, wild men," who have never seen cities even from a 

" That the angel is the implied subject is indicated by the 
parallel De Fuga 212 ayyeAot 8' olKerai deov. 
* rijs ao(f)las. 

« So also Aucher and the Arm. glossator understand the 
elliptical phrase. 

<* Or " it " (Scripture) ? « to npayixa (?). 

^ Or " person " ; Aucher renders, " ut personae propriae 
rem (ipsi) adaptaret." This rendering, like mine, finds no 
place for the adverb i veray " above " ; possibly we should 
emend the Arm. verb yarmarecouce " might harmonize " to 
hamaresne " might reckon," and thus fit in the adv. " above," 
rendering, " in order that she might consider the reality as 
more important than the appearance." 

» Apparently Sarah, the symbol of wisdom, is meant. 

^ Aucher " verbum ut ministrum " ; there is no conjunc- 
tion between the two nouns in the Arm. text. 

» i.e. to Hagar. 

' aroTTov, or " inept " — atro okottov. 

* TO rrpwTov oitlov. ' ciKOS. 

"* Lit. " deceit " — aTrarr^v vel sim. 

*» TO atofiaToeiSes. ° Lit. " first king." ^ ol aypioi. 



1 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

hiU-top, believe that a village or a country-estate is a 
metropolis," and that those who live in them are citizens 
of a metropolis, because of their ignorance of what a true 
metropolis really * is. 

35. (Gen. xvi. 14) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Therefore she called " the well * the well of him "" whom I 
saw before (me) ' " « ? 

A well has two things, both depth and a source.^ Now 
the teachings of the school studies ^ are not superficial '' 
and not without principles,* for they have discipline ' as a 
source. And so she rightly says that it was before the well 
that the angel appeared like God. And though the school 
studies have second rank in learning,*^ they seem to be ' 
first, and they are divided and separated from that first 
wisdom *" which it is proper for wise men but not for soph- 
ists" to see." 

" KU)[M7)V T] avXrjV <,€lvai> firjTpOTToXlV. ^ OVTCOS. 

" Philo follows the lxx in reading eVaAetrev, rendering 
Heb. qdra'' which is here used impersonally, meaning " one 
called " or " people called." 

<" So the Arm. O.T., taking od as gen. s. masc. of the 
relative pronoun ; the variant in the Arm. text of Philo takes 
the ov as a relative adverb. 

* Or " face to face " as in the Arm. O.T. ; both render- 
ings are based on lxx (fypeap oS evcomov i8ov. Heb. reads 
differently, " the well Beer-lahai-roi," traditionally explained 
as " the well {ba'Sr) of the living one {lahay) who sees me 
{ro'l).'''' Apparently the lxx translators took Heb. lahay as 
the noun lehi " cheek " in the sense of " before my face." 
For a somewhat similar interpretation of this verse see De 
Fug a 213. 

f TTrjyqv. Tuiv lyKVKKloiV. 

^ eTTtTT-oAatat. * dvapxoi. ^ rracBeiav. 

* TO. iyKVKXia rrjs TToXvpLadeias exei rrjv heirrepav Ta^iv ; Aucher 
renders, " eruditio encyclopediae " although the Arm. con- 
struction requires " encyclopedia eruditionis." 

^ npea^vrepa. "" rrjs TrpcoTqs ao<l)las. 

" TOt? ao<j)ols aAA' ov tols ao(f>t,aTais. 
" The meaning is unclear in part. 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

36. (Gen. xvi. 14) Why is the well said to be " between 
Kadesh and between <» Pharan " " ? 

" Kadesh " is interpreted as " holy," while " Pharan " 
is " hail " or " dots." " 



37. (Gen. xvi. 15) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Hagar bore to Abraham a son " ? 

This is very natural,^ for possession * does not bear any- 
thing for itself but for him who possesses, as does literature 
for the literary man,^ and music for the musician, and 
mathematics for the mathematician, for he is a part of it 
and is in need of it. But possession is received " as if it 
were not in need (of anything), as fire is not in need of heat, 
since it is its own heat and gives a common share '^ of its 
heat to those who come close or approach it. 

*38. (Gen. xvi. 16) Why is Abraham said to be eighty- 
six * years old when Hagar bore him Ishmael ? 

Because that which follows the " eighty," (namely) the 
number six, is the first perfect number.^ It is equal to its 
parts and is the first even-odd ^ number, having a part in 

** So the Lxx, which retains the Heb. idiom " between and 
between." 

^ Most LXX Mss. and Arm. O.T. have papd8 (Heb. Bered), 
as does Philo in De Fuga 213. 

" Or " minute pieces." The etymology " hail " fits the 
name " Bered " but not " Pharan." In De Fuga 213 Philo 
fancifully etymologizes " Bered " as " in evil " ( = Heb. 
bdra'). 

^ <f)vaiKa)TaTOV. 

* Lit. " having of possessions " ; perhaps Philo here used 
e^i? in the philosophical sense of " condition," " disposition." 

^ 17 ypafjLfiaTiKrj tw ypa/x/iari/fa). 

" Or " admitted to be." 

^ Lit. " a part of participation " — fiepos Koivcovias. 

* Lit. " six and eighty " ; lxx " eighty-six." 

' o irpcoTos reXiios dpcdfios. On the symbolism of the 
number six see QO ii. 45 and Staehle pp. 32-34. 
^ dpTionepiTTos ; cf. Be Spec. Leg. ii. 58. 

224 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

an active cause through its oddness, and in a material and 
affective (cause) through its evenness." Therefore among 
the ancients who were in the beginning,'' some called it 
" marriage," others " harmony." « And the theologian '^ 
represented the creation of the world (as taking place) in 
six (days). And the number eighty is the most harmoni- 
ous * of numbers, consisting of two most excellent scales,^ 
(namely) of that which is by doubles and that which is by 
triples in the scheme " of fourths. It includes all ^ progres- 
sions,* the arithmetic, the geometric and the harmonic ; 
the first is that (consisting) of proportions of two, that is, 
6, 8, 9, 12,^ of which the sum is 35.*= And the other con- 
sists of (proportions of) three, that is, 6, 9, 12, 18,' of which 
the sum is forty-five. And of these two (numbers), thirty- 
five and forty-five, is made up the numtjer eighty. And 
when the theologian began to speak of the divine command- 
ments,"* he was eighty years old.** Now the first of our 
nation who was circumcised by law and was named after 

" Cf. Joh. Lydus, p. 3^2, 4-8 (cited by Staehle) fierexcov 
Kai TTJs SpaaTLKrjs ovalas (Arm. = aiTias) Kara top Trepirrov Koi 
TTJs vXiKTJs Kara top dpriov. 

^ Joh. Lydus has only oi dpxaloL. 

" yd^iov . . . dpfxoviav, as in the frag, from Joh. Lydus, 
which ends here. 

^ 6 deoXoyos, i.e. Moses. 

* dpfMOViKiOTaros. 

' eV hvolv dpioTOiv Siaypafjifxdrajv, meaning the numbers 35 
and 45, as explained just below. 

" Kara to ttXivOlov, the figure of musical intervals ; cf. De 
Opif. Mundi 107-110. 

'* Variant " all four." * dvaXoylas. 

^ Philo explains in De Opif. Mundi 107 ff. that 6, 8, 9, 12 
form a proportion for 12 : 9 as 8 : 6, making a double pro- 
portion of 4 : 3. 

*= The Arm. uses numeral letters here and below. 

' 18 : 12 = 9 : 6, a double proportion of 3 : 2. 

"♦ Lit. " commands of precepts " ; Aucher " oraculum 
praeceptorum." 

" i.e. when he appeared before Pharaoh, according to 
Ex. vii. 7. 

SUPPL. I I 225 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the virtue of joy " was called Isaac in Chaldaean, which in 
Armenian * is " laughter." (His was) a nature " which 
rejoiced in all things and was not displeased at all with 
anything in the world, but was pleased with what happened 
as happening in a good and useful way. 

39. (Gen. xvii. 1) '^ Why does (Scripture) say that when 
Abraham was ninety-nine years old, " the Lord God * 
appeared to him and said, I am the Lord thy God " ^ ? 

It gives the two appellations " of the two highest powers ^ 
in connexion with * the wise man, for by them the world 
came into being, and having come into being, it is governed ^ 
by them. By one of them, indicated as * " God," it was 
created and ordered, for " God " is the name of the creative 
power,* while the other, indicated as " the Lord," comes 
under the head of power and kingship.^ And so, (Scrip- 

^ Arm, construction obscure ; Aucher renders, " virtute 
praestans ille nomen gerit gaudii." The reference to Isaac 
properly belongs below, in § 39. 

" Sic I The Arm. translator has substituted " Armenian " 
for " Greek." Aucher omits " in Armenian " in his transla- 
tion. 

* The formerly unidentified Greek frag, in Harris p. 97, 
recognized by Friichtel as belonging here, has fiaKapia ^vais. 

^ Gen. xvii. 1-5, 15-22 are commented on in Be Mut. Nom., 
where Philo devotes a long section to the discussion of the 
second half of verse 1, commented on in the next section. 

* So also the Arm. O.T. ; lxx and Heb. have only " the 
Lord," as does De Mut. Nom. 

^ Heb. "I am El Shaddai"; lxx has iyco elyn 6 deos aov, 
similarly Arm. O.T. and De Mut. Nom. 1. 

" Prob. = kA^otcis. 

^ TcDv avoyrdroi Svvdfieojv, i.e. the kingly power, symbolized 
by the name " Lord," and the creative power, symbolized by 
the name " God " ; see QO ii. 51 notes. 

* Arm. * veray^xoh. here = €?«'; Aucher renders, " super." 
^ oiKovonciTai,. 

^ Lit. " in accordance with " — Kara. 

* Trjs TTOtrjTLKrjs Bwdfiecos. 

"* rfyeyLOvLas (or i^ovaias vel sim,.) koI PaaiXeias. 

226 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

ture) wishes to show that the virtuous man <• is a citizen 
of the world ^ and of equal honour with the whole world " 
by representing as his overseers and guards '^ the cosmic 
powers, the divine and kingly, in a unique sense/ Now the 
manifestation ^ took place in his ninety-ninth year, a num- 
ber rightly (chosen). In the first place, it is next ^ to a 
hundred, and a hundred is a power '' of ten when the latter 
is multiplied by itself, and this the theologian calls " the 
holy of holies." • For the kor,^ the first tenth, is simply 
called " holy," and this he assigns to the caretakers of the 
temple.*^ And the tenth of the tenth, which he further 
commands the caretakers to set aside as an offering ' to the 
presiding official,"* is a tenth reckoned from a hundred, for 
what else is a tenth of a tenth but a hundredth part ? 
However, the number ninety-nine years is not only dis- 
tinguished " by its kinship and nearness to a hundred but 

" Tov oTTov8dtov, i.e. Abraham. 

^ KOaflOTToXiTTjV. 

" laoTi^ov ttovtI TO) Koafiu). 

** eTTLaTOLTovs {vel sun.) /cat (f>vXaKas. 

* Lit. " by a singularity of word " (or " principle ") — /car' 
iStoTT^Ta Xoyov ; Aucher renders, " singulari modo." The 
exact sense is not clear to me. 

^ v €in(f)dveia. 

" Lit. " neighbour." 

'' Svvafiis. 

* Apparently Philo here, as in the parallel, De Mut. Nom. 
2, refers to the tithe of the Levitical tithe, Num. xviii. 26, 
though in the biblical passage it is not called " holy of 
holies " ; however, the offerings are generally called to. dyca 
in the lxx of Num. xviii. 32. 

^ Arm. A-'o.r = Greek /copos = Heb. kor, a measure = 10 baths, 
c/. Ez. xlv. 14 et al. 

^ TOLs veojKopoLs, a name given by Philo to the Levites, cf. 
De Fuga 90, De Vita Mosis i. 316. 

^ Prob. dTrapxrjv, as in De Mut. Nom. 2 and lxx Num. 
xviii. 26. 

"» Prob. rut TTpoeoTTjKOTi, = the high priest ; Aucher supplies 
" summo sacerdoti." 

** Lit. " adorned." 

227 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

it also receives special participation in a remarkable nature," 
for it consists of fifty and seven heptads.'' Now the Pente- 
costal (year) " is called " release " <^ in the Legislation,* for 
all are freed/ both inanimate and animate beings. 

And the Sabbatical " years are the power '' of rest * and 
deep peace in body and soul/ for the seventh year is a 
memorial * of the self-grown goods ^ that require no thought 
or labour, which nature produced by itself at the first 
establishing of the world. And the number forty-nine, 
which is made up of seven hebdomads, indicates, not super- 
ficial goods,*" but rather those which have power and wis- 
dom in respect of invincible and mosf powerful firmness." 

■^40. (Gen. xvii. 1-2) " What is the meaning of the words, 
" Be well-pleasing before Me** and be blameless," and I 
will place My covenant ^ between Me and between thee, 
and I will multiply thee greatly greatly " * ? 

He lays down a law most appropriate ' to the race of 

" <l>va€a)S davfiaaias IBiav (or e^aipcrov) KOivwviav. 

^ 50 + 49 = 99. 

" Or Jubilee year, cf. Lev. xxv. 10. 

** d(f>€aiSi as in lxx. 

* eV TTJ vofjLodeaia. 

^ i.e. of debts and obligations to work. 

" Lit. " hebdomadal." 

'' hvvafiis (?) ; Aucher " mysterium." 

' dvaTTavaecos. 

' Kara aciifia Koi tpvxijv. 

^ fivrin€LOV. 

' Twv avTOfiaTcov dyaOwv^ cf. De Mut. Nom. 260. 

"^ evriTrdAaia dyadd. 

" jSejSatcuaiv or avoTaaiv. 

° This half-verse (lb) and verse 2 are commented on in 
De Mut. Nom. 39-53. 

P LXX €vap€aT€i ivavriov ifiov; for ivavriov some lxx mss. 
have eVoimov, as does Philo in JDe Mut. Nom. 39. 

" dfiefiTTTos. ^ hiadrjKiqv. 

* So Heb. ; LXX has only a(f>6Spa. The last clause is not 
quoted by Philo in De Mut. Nom. 52-53. 

* oiKeiOTaTOv. 

228 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

mortals. For he who has no share," and is not involved,* 
in evil " is perfectly good and noble — a property of incor- 
l)oreal natures/ But as for those who are in the body, 
(they are good) to the extent that they reject evil and in 
accordance with their part in sin. For the life of man 
appears virtuous not because they are without weaknesses * 
from beginning to end, but when they are inspired (to rise) 
from weakness to health.^ For these reasons He said 
directly and straightly, " Be blameless " because it suffices 
for the happiness of mortal nature " not to incur blame and 
not to say or do anything deserving of reproach. This is 
directly pleasing to the Father, wherefore He says, " Be 
well-pleasing before Me and be blameless." Hence these 
statements relate and correspond (to each other), '^ for a 
character which pleases God does not incur blame, while 
one who is blameless and faultless in all things is altogether 
pleasing (to God). And He promises to grant a double 
grace to him who is far from all blame. In the first place, 
He says that He appoints him the repository and guardian * 
of the divine covenants,^ and then that He will increase 
him to an indescribable multitude. For the words, " I 
will place My covenant between Me and thee " show that 
the custody and guardianship belong to a truly noble and 

" Lit. " part of sharing," prob. = Koivcoviav. 
" Lit. " is unmixed." 

' Lit. " in evilness (abstract) and evil (concrete)." 
'' t8i6rT]s dacoixaTcov ^vaewv ; for a similar idea see l^e Mut. 
Xom. 50. 

* Aucher renders, " immunium ab aegritudine." 
^ vyUtav or " wholeness " — oXoKXr^piav. 

" TTJ dvrjT-fj (f>va€t. Trpos cvrvx^civ. 

" Aucher renders, " ubi mutuam praefert conversionem 
assertio." The meaning is clearer in the parallel, De Mut. 
Nom. 47, TTpocreTTiXeyei, /cat yivov dfiefnrros, aKoXovdla Kal elp^w 
Xptofievos. 

* <f>vXaKrfv (or dTTodriKt}v) koX (f>vXaKa vel sim. Aucher ren- 
ders, " custodem depositi." There is no similar phrase in 
De Mut. Nom. 

^ T(x>v deicov BiadrjKibv. The Arm. uses two diiferent words 
in this section for Sia^i^/ci^, namely ouxt and ktakaran. 

229 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

virtuous man. Now the divine covenant consists of *• all the 
incorporeal principles, forms ^ and measures for the whole 
of all the things of which this world " was made. More- 
over that He twice ^ says, " I will multiply thee greatly 
greatly " clearly shows the indescribability and immensity 
of the multitude, (that is) the growth of the multitude (of 
people) and sometimes of human virtues. 

^41 . (Gen. xvii. 3) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Abraham fell upon (his) face " ^ ? 

What is now said is the development of the preceding,^ 
for He had said, " be blameless." Now that for which life 
is blameworthy and reprehensible is nothing else than 
sense-perception," for this is the head and font of passion.* 
Rightly and properly does he fall upon his face, by which I 
understand his senses, which (lead) to transgression and 
sin ; and this indicates His beneficence.* This is the first 
(point). And second, it should be said that he is struck ' 
by the manifestation *= of the Existent One,' and being 

« Lit. " are." 

^ ol dawftaToi, Xoyoi Kal rd eiSry (or at iSe'at) ; Aucher less 
literally renders, " incorporeum est verbum." 

" OVTOS 6 KOafXOS' 

^ i.e. repetitiously. 

* Lxx eireaev 'A^paufi em TrpoacoTTOv avTov. This biblical 
half-verse is commented upon (in part differently) in De Mut. 
Nom. 54-57, which omits the avrov after irpoaoiirov^ as does 
the Arm. here. 

f KaraaKevr] (?) tcDv Trporepcov ; Aucher " constructio prae- 
missorum." 
" atadrjois. 
^ apxq T€ Koi irrjyf) rcov Tradiov. 

* alviTTopiev7)s TTJs eKcivov evepyaaias. In De Mvt. jS'om. 
56 Philo more clearly says that God keeps the senses from 
erring. Aucher's rendering is inaccurate, " sensuum delicta 
(in unum cecidisse) operibus bonis jam illos deditas (sic) 
fuisse ostendens." 

' TrAi^TTerai. 

* Lit. " very manifest appearance," iproh. = €m<f)av€iq.. 
^ rov ovTos. 

230 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

unable to look (at Him) directly, falls down in consterna- 
tion and kisses the ground, being overawed and abashed by 
the vision which appeared to him. Third, the manifesta- 
tion was made by Him who was in the appearance, (namely) 
the Existent One, who exists, whom he knew in truth by 
(His) opposition to nature, which comes into being," for 
the one remains firm and intact,'' while the other vacillates 
and falls upon its place, the earth. 



42. (Gen. xvii. 3-4) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And God spoke with him, saying, And I, behold My 
covenant (is) with thee. And thou shalt become the 
father of a multitude of peoples " " ? 

Since He had earlier spoken of the covenant. He says, 
" Do not seek it in writing,** for I Myself am, in the highest 
sense,* the genuine covenant." ' For after showing 
Himself and saying, " I," He adds, " behold My covenant," 
(as if to say, " This is) nothing else but Me, for I am that 
same covenant by which pacts are made and formed and 
agreed upon, and, moreover, all things are well distributed 
and set apart." This is the archetypal form " of covenant, 
composed of ideas and incorporeal measures and principles,'* 
through which this world * was completed. Was it not 

" ov oi8e npos dA'^^eiai' e^ dvrideaecjs Trpos t^v yevofjLivqv 
<f)va(,v; Aucher renders less accurately, "quern novit ut 
veritatem naturae creatae oppositam." 

^ iv Tu> jSejSaioj kol aTnaiaTio vel sim. 

" So LXX, Kal (XdXrjaev avro) 6 deos Xeycov, kol eyo), l8ov i} 
hiaQriKT) fiov fierd aov- kol earj TraTrjp nX-qdovs idvwv. The 
second half of verse 3 to " with thee " is similarly inter- 
preted in De Mut. Nom. 58-59. 

^ i.e. in written form. 

^ Kara, rov dvcoTaTov Xoyov, cf. De Mut. Nom. 58 to 8' dvu)- 
rarov yevos hiadrfKiov. 

^ Lit. = yvqaia hiadrjKT] tcuv biadr^Ktov ; the Arm. here uses 
two different words for covenant, ouxt and ktakaran. 

" TO dpx^Txmov elhos. 

^ €^ iSecSv Kal daoypAroiv ixdrpcov Kal Xoycov awrfdeifievov. 

* ovros 6 KoapMS. 

231 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

then indeed a superfluity of beneficence which the Father 
granted the wise man,** that He not only carried him off 
and brought him up from earth to heaven or from heaven 
to an incorporeal and intelligible world,* but also (brought 
him) from here to Himself, showing (Himself) clearly,*' 
not as He is, for this is impossible,"^ but (in so far) as 
the eyes of the beholder are able to attain to the genuine 
and intelligible power itself.* Wherefore He says, " No 
longer shalt thou be a son, but a father." And a father, 
not of one, but " of a multitude," and of a multitude, 
not of individuals,^ but of a numerous group of nations." 
And of the agreements * revealed, two are literal,* while 
the third is more physical.' Now of the literal ones, the 
first is as follows. " Truly * thou shalt be a father of 
nations and shalt beget nations, that is, each of thy sons 
shall be the founder of a nation." ^ And the other is as 
follows. " In the manner of a father, thou shalt be in- 
vested with the care and supervision of many nations,*" 
for a lover of God " is by the same token " wont to be a 
lover of mankind,^ so that he is greatly concerned not 
only for his countrymen « but also for all others at the 
same time, especially for those who are able to receive 
the discipline of attention ^ and whose characters are not 
unpleasant and hard but easily give place to virtue ' and 

" to) ao(f)w, i.e. Abraham. 

* els dadifjuirov kol voepov Koafxov. 

'^ Aucher inadvertently omits the adverb. ^ ahvvarov. 

* els avTTjv T7)V yviqaCav Koi voepav hvyaynv. 

^ Kara fiepos ; Aucher renders literally but not quite to the 
point, " secundum partes." * TToXvavOpcomas yevcbv. 

^ Prob. =Tdiv o/xoAoy«Sv ; Aucher " promissis." 

* pTjTaC. 

^ <f>vaiKcoT€pa, in the sense of physical (or psychic) allegory. 

* ovrois. ' yevdpxrjs. 

*" TToXXaJv yevGiv eVt/ieAeiav /cat iinaraaiav ivSvaei. 
" (fyiXodeos. ° evdvs. 

^ <f>iXdv9po)7Tos. * Tots' 6p,o<f>vXois. 

'■ TTjv rfjs TTpoaox'fjs (or eVi/ieAeias) TraiSeiav ; Aucher " dis- 
ciplinam attentionis " ; the exact meaning is not clear to me. 

* dperrj. 
232 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

are submissive to right reason." But the third (promise) 
is to be allegorized ^ as follows. The multitude of nations 
is like there being in each of us a variety of inclinations in 
the soul," both those which it is wont to form ** by itself, 
and those which it receives through the senses * and which 
slip ^ into its sight from without.' And if the mind * 
assumes sovereignty over these like the father of all,* it 
changes them for the better, nursing ' the infantile and 
puerile thoughts, while urging on and helping to advance 
those which are mature but incomplete, and praising 
those which persist in the right way but restraining ^ the 
rebellious and refractory ones through discipline and 
reproof. For being desirous of imitating the Deity ,^ it 
receives from His powers, the beneficent and destructive,"* 
as if from a fountain, a double stream : beneficence 
toward those who wish to obey, reproof toward those who 
are out of hand and refractory, since some profit from 
praise, others from castigation. For he who is widely 
versed " in virtue can profit from all things in accordance 
with his power. 

43. (Gen. xvii. 5) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Thy name shall not be called Abram, but Abraham " 
shall be thy name " ? 

" Koi vTroTOLTTovTai TU) 6p6w Adyw. * dXXrjyopeiTai. 

" iv T7] t/ivxfj TToXirrpoTTOiV ovautv yvajfiiov vel Sim. 

^ TrAttTTCtv. ' 8ta TU)v aiadrjaecov. 

^ irapeiaayoyievaL. 

» Lit. " to the sight (or " eyes ") of vision inside from 
without " ; Aucher renders more freely, " imaginatione 
intermediante ab extra intus." ^ 6 vovs. 

* Aucher renders more freely, " communis pater." 

^ driXdt,(t)v. 

^ Lit. " putting a bit into the mouth of." 







TOJ V)€lCO. 



"» On the two divine attributes see QG ii. 51 notes. 

*» Lit. " extends everywhere." 

" Arm. and lxx " Abraam." In De Mut. Nom. Philo 
devotes a long section, §§ 60-120, to the changes of name of 
various biblical persons beside Abraham. 

233 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

Some of the uncultivated," or rather, of the uninitiated ^ 
and of those who do not belong to the divine chorus 
ridicule and reproach the one who is blameless in nature," 
and say reproachfully and chidingly, " Oh what a great 
gift ! The Ruler and Lord of all ^ has graciously given 
one letter,* by which He has increased and made greater 
the name of the patriarch, so that instead of having two 
syllables it has three." Oh what great devilishness ' and 
impiety (it is) that some presume to bring forward slanders 
against God, being deceived by the supei*ficial aspects of 
names, whereas it would be proper to thrust their minds 
into the depths in search of the inner facts for the sake 
of greatly possessing the truth.' And yet these (names) 
which are ready to hand ^ (and) which someone is said 
to have granted (in) writing — why do you not believe 
that (they are the work of) Providence * and that this is 
to be honoured ? ^ For the first written element of sound 
is A, both in order and in power.*= Second, it is a vowel, ^ 

" TcDv djLiouaoov, represented by two words in Arm. 
" dfiio(jLov (hvaei. Apparently Moses is meant. 



* ixapiae Iv ypdixfjLa (or otoix^Iov, as in De Mut. Nom. 61). 

' Arm. lit. = /xeyaAo8ai/xovta (not found in the Greek works 
of Philo). 

" Lit. " for the sake of great possessions in truth " ; 
Aucher freely renders, " ob veram magnitudinem posses- 
sionis." 

'' eroifia kol Trpoxecpa. * ttjv TTpovoiav. 

' The text is very obscure ; Aucher's rendering takes 
liberties with the syntax, " ad haec et litteram concessam, et 
si levem et facilem, quare providentiam non reputatis, neque 
pretium suum ponderatis ? " We may well suspect either 
that the Greek Vorlage was corrupt or that the Arm. trans- 
lator has misunderstood it. In the parallel, De Mut. Nom. 64, 
Philo says that it is impossible to suppose that God took 
credit for altering Abram's name since " He did not see fit 
to assign names even in their completed forms, but com- 
mitted the task to a wise man (Adam)." 

^ KoX TOL^ei Kal SvvdfX€i, ' (f)covrJ€v (aTOix^tov). 

234 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

and the first of the vowels, being fitted on to them like a 
kind of head. And third, it is not naturally one of the 
long vowels, and not naturally one of the short ones, but 
one of those which have both these (quantities). For it is 
(sometimes) extended in length, and then again it is con- 
tracted to the same shortness, easily taking many different 
forms " like wax, and forming the word into various and 
manifold forms. And the reason is that it is a brother of 
the number one,^ with which all things begin and end. 
And now if someone sees its great beauty and that the 
letter is exhibited as so necessary, can he pretend " that 
he has not seen it ? If he has seen it, he (shows himself) 
to be captious and a hater of the good.** And if he has 
not seen it, it is very easy to scoif and gleefully make fun 
of something he knows nothing of, as though he did 
know it.* But these things are, as I have said, mentioned 
incidentally.^ Now we must examine the necessary and 
principle matter. 

The addition of A as " one letter, by changing the 
entire position of the forms of the soul,'^ provides it with 
the knowledge of wisdom * instead of the study of astro- 
nomy. For skill in the study of astronomy is acquired 
in one part of the world, (namely) in the heaven and in 
the revolutions and circlings of the stars, ^ whereas wisdom 
(pertains) to the nature of all things, both sense-perceptible 
and intelligible.* For wisdom is the science of divine and 

" Lit. " formed into many things." 
^ Alpha as a numeral letter = 1. 
" aKrjTn^Tai. 

^ <f>l,X6lfjOyOS Kal (JLLGOKoXoS. 

* Aucher, punctuating diflPerently and supplying a verb, 
renders, " quod si non viderit tarn facile negotium, quomodo 
quod nescit, irridere et despicere praesumit, quasi sciat ? " 

■^ trapepyois. 

" Lit. " through." 

'* irdaas ras twv ^vx^js eiScov deaeis vel Sim. 

* rrjv TTJs ao<f)ias iTncm^firjv. 

' ev Tois 7T€pi(f>opais Kal ;^opetaij tcDv aarepcDv. 
^ <j>vaiv ala6r)Ti.Krjv re kox voepdv. 

235 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

human things and of their causes." Among these divine 
things is that which is visible and that which is invisible, 
and the paradigmatic idea.'' Among human things there 
is that which is corporeal and that which is incorporeal ; 
and to obtain knowledge of these is a truly great work of 
ability and prowess. And not only to see all substances 
and natures but also to trace and search out their various 
causes shows a power that is more perfect than is human." 
For it is necessary for the soul which receives so many good 
things to be all eyes and to complete its life in the world 
unsleepingly and wakefully, and with an unshadowed and 
radiant light all around it, to receive lightning-flashes 
(of illumination), having God as its teacher and leader 
in obtaining knowledge of things and attaining to their 
causes. 

Now the dissyllabic name " Abram " is interpreted as 
" uplifted father " ** in lespect of the nomenclature of 
astronomy and mathematics.* But the trisyllabic (name) 
" Abraham " is translated as " elect father of sound," ' 
the appellation of a wise man. For what else is an echo in 
us but an uttered word " coming from an organ constructed 
by nature through the wind-pipe,'* the mouth and the 
tongue. And the " father of sound " is our mind,* and 
the elect mind is that of the virtuous man.' And that 
the mind is eminently, properly and naturally the father 
of the uttered word is clear, for it is the special function 

" CTnaT'qfn) iarlv 17 ao<f>ia rwv deicov kol avdpoynlvoiv koX twv 
rovrojv aiViW. Exactly the same definition is given in De 
Congressu 79. 

* rj TrapaSeiy/LtaTiKi) Ihia. 

'^ hvvaynv reXeiorepav 7j Kara dvdpcoTTOV. 

^ fjLerecjpos Trar-jp, as in De Mut. Nom. QQ, De Cherubim 
4 et al. 

* fiad-qfiaTiKris (almost certainly not " astrology " here). 
^ 7TaTr)p €kX€kt6s -qxovs, as in De Mut. Nom. 66 et al. 

" Adyo? irpo^opiKos. 
^ 17 Tpaxela dpnjpia. 

* O r)fJL€T€pOS VOVS. 

^ Tov oTTovbaiov ; the parallel in De Mut. Nom. 69 f. has 
rod ao<f>ov. 
236 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

of a father to beget, and the word is begotten by the 
mind. And (of this) there is clear evidence, for when it <» is 
moved by thoughts, it makes a sound, and when these are 
lacking, it stops. Witnesses (of this) are the orators and 
philosophers,* who show their tendencies " through state- 
ments. ** For so long as the mind produces heads,* it 
begets them in accordance with the various constructions 
stored up in itself,^ and the word flows like a fountain 
into the ears of those who happen to be there as if into 
cisterns." But when it fails * and is np longer able to give 
out (its thoughts), the sound also stcips, since there is no 
one to cause it to resound.* 

But now surely it must seem to you, O men who are 
full of, and overflowing with, all absurd verbosity, and 
are empty and bereft of wisdom, that this single letter and 
element is a gift ^ and that through this letter and element 
he became worthy of the divine power of wisdom, than 
which there is nothing more precious *= in our nature, for 
instead of the knowledge of astronomy He granted (him) 
that which was entire, full and overflowing in place of a 
small part. For in wisdom is included astronomy, as is 
the part in the whole, and mathematics is (also) a part. 
But it behooves you, O men, to bear this too in mind, that 
he who is learned and skilled in investigating the nature 

" Apparently the organ of speech is meant. 

* ol prJTopes /cat (f)iX6ao(j)oi. 

* PrOD. Tol? I^eis. 

^ Prob. 8ia 7Tpo^X7]fjidT<ov. 

* Arm. ^Zowa;=/c€^aA'^, K€(f>dXcuov, aKpov. 

^ Aucher renders this obscure sentence a little differently, 
" in quantum enim mens foras edit capita, singulosque 
apparatus in se reconditos producit ad modum geniturae." 

" Se^a/i.evas'. 

* Prob. " the mind " is the subject (a grammatical pi. 
with pi. verb in Arm.). 

* Lit. " to strike it." 

^ Apparently the Arm. translator has interchanged 
subject and predicate, here reversed ; Aucher renders more 
literally, " videtur ne donum meri unius elementi fuisse." 

^ Tip.i(x>Tepov vel sim. 

237 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of higher things " may be * of a wicked and impure 
character. But the wise man " is good and fine in all 
things. Let us then no longer laugh at this gift, for one 
cannot find anything more perfect. For what is worse 
than wickedness or better than virtue ? '^ Surely it cannot 
be that good is not opposed to evil ? Can it be compared 
with wealth or honours or freedom or health or anything 
at all of the body or any abundance of external pos- 
sessions ? For all philosophy comes into our lives like the 
healing of the soul * that it may give freedom from suffering 
and from sickness.^ And it is the part of a virtuous man 
to be a philosopher." That a wonderful skill should be 
precious is very fine '' (but) more precious is the end * for 
the sake of which the skill (exists). And this is wisdom 
and the good, which He called " Abraham " in Chaldaean, 
and in Armenian,^ " elect father of sound,"*' as if giving 
a definition '^ of the wise man. For just as the definition 
of man is " rational, mortal animal,""* so the definition 
of the wise man is symbolically " " elect father of sound." 

" i.e. heavenly bodies. 
" Lit. " can be." 

" O 00(f)6s. 

** aper-q. 

* (Lairep larpelov ttjs ^vx'^S. 

^ T7]v a-nddeiav Kal to dvoaov. 

" (f)LX6ao(f)os. 

^ The Arm. seems lit. = ^au/naatav rexv-qu ri/Lttav <eivat> 
a^ohpa KaXov, but this is not quite certain ; Aucher, omitting 
the word " precious," renders, " et mira ars nobilis veraciter." 

* TO riXo?. 

^ Sic ! The original, of course, had " Greek " ; cf. 
QO iii. 38. 

^ Aucher here again mistakenly renders, " pater sonitus 
electi." 

' opov or opiafJLov. 

"* la)ov XoyiKov dvrjTov ; the same definition, common in 
Greek' philosophy, is given by Philo in De Ahrahamo 32 
et al. 

" Arm. xorhourd — Xoyia^wSi Stdvoia, avfi^oXov, tvttos, fJ-v- 
oT-qpiov, etc. ; Aucher here renders, " mystica." 

238 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

44. (Gen xvii. 6) What is the meaning of the words, " I 
will increase thee greatly * and I will make ^ thee into 
nations, and kings shall come into being " from thee " "^ ? 

" I will increase thee greatly " is said to the wise man * 
very rightfully,^ since every wicked and evil man grows 
and flourishes, not toward increase but toward deficiency,' 
just as those flowers which are (subject to) fading (grow), 
not into life but death. But he whose life is long is like 
a cloud which endures and grows exceedingly, and like 
streams of rivers, for he overflows and broadens out and 
becomes more ample as he goes out, since he is also the 
divine wisdom.'* And the words, " I will make thee into 
nations " are spoken to show clearly that he does some- 
thing of worth,* as if (to say that) the wise man is the 
foundation and base and firm support of the nations and 
of mankind and of those who are of various opinions in 
soul,^ as has been said before. For the wise man is the 
saviour * of nations and an intercessor ^ with God and one 
who seeks forgiveness for his countrymen *" who have com- 
mitted sins. Moreover that " kings shall come into being 
from thee " He very rightfully " says, for all that which 

" So Lxx and Arm. O.T. ; Heb. " greatly greatly." 
^ Lit. " place " as in lxx, Heb. and Arm. O.T. 
" So Old Lat. ; lxx, Heb. and Arm. O.T. " shall go out." 
** Philo does not comment elsewhere on this verse. 

* TO) ao0a>. 

^ vofiifjLcxyrcpov. 
" iXdrTwaiv or e/cAeii/'iv. 

'* Tj deia ao(f>ia. It is not wholly clear what the gram- 
matical subject of this sentence is. 

* The text seems to be in some disorder. 

' For Arm. karcik" " opinion " Aucher suggests karik' 
" needs " ; he renders, " hominibus vario modo egentibus 
secundum animum." The meaning of the Arm. is far 
from clear. 

^ aoiT-qp. 

'■ fiealrris or Tiapa.KXrjTos. This important passage is over- 
looked by Nils Johansson, Parakletoi^ Lund, 1940. 

"* roZs 6fjLO(f>vXois. 

" vo^ifjLwrepov. 

239 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

belongs to wisdom is of royal origin, and is sovereign and 
ruling by nature. And the wise man is unproductive and 
unfruitful « in respect of his own private seed,* and is 
fertile and productive in respect of ruling (seed).* 



45. (Gen. xvii. 8) What is the meaning of the words, " I 
will give to thee and to thy seed after thee the land in 
which thou sojoumest,'* all the land of Canaan as an eternal 
possession " * .'' 

The literal meaning ^ is clear, so that the passage " does 
not require any interpretation. But as for the deeper 
meaning,'' it is to be allegorized * as follows. The mind of 
the virtuous man ' is a sojourner in its corporeal place 
rather than an inhabitant. '^ For its fatherland ^ is the 
ether and the heaven, while its temporary abode "* is the 
earth and the earthly body, in which it is said to sojourn. 
But the Father in His benefactions to it," gives it authority " 
over all earthly things as an " eternal possession," as He 
says, in order that it may never be dominated by the body 
but may always be the ruler and chief, acquiring it ^ as a 
servant and follower. 



46. (Gen. xvii. 10-11) What is the meaning of the words, 

<* dyovos Kal aKap-nos- 

* Tov Ihiov (?) OTTepfiaros. 

" TOV dpxiKov (?) <a7T€pfiaTos> ; Aucher " semine ab ipso 
principali." 

'^ Lit. " in which thou dwellest in sojourn " =lxx Trapot/cei?. 

* els Kardax^oiv alcoviov, as in LXX. ^ to prjrov. 
" o Xoyos. '* ro irpos Sidvoiav. 

* oAAT^yopeiTai. ^ o rod oiTOvhaiov vovs. 
'' TTapoiKos eV TOJ aiofiaTiKO) roncp {xdXXov tj KdroiKos. 

' 17 TTOTpLs. 

*" Arm. galouV — diTOLKia or fieTdaraais ; here it seems to 
have the meaning of " exile " as does Heb. galvth. 
** €vepyeTcx)v avrov. 
" ^PXW ^^' ■"Jyc/xoviav vel sim. 

* i.e. the body. 

240 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

" There shall be circumcised every male of you, and you 
shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin " * ? 

I see two circumcisions, one of the male, and the other 
of the flesh ; that of the flesh is by way of the genitals, 
while that of the male, it seems to me, is by way of the 
reason.'' For that which is, one might say,*' naturally male 
in us is the mind,*^ whose superfluous growths it is neces- 
saiy to cut off and throw away in order that it may become 
pure and naked of every evil and passion, and be a priest 
of God. Now this is what He indicated * by the second 
circumcision, stating (in) the Law^ that " you shall circum- 
cise your hardness of heart," " which means your hard and 
rebellious and refractory thoughts, and by cutting off and 
removing arrogance, you shall make the sovereign part ^ 
free and unbound. 



47. (Gen. xvii. 10) Why does He command that only the 
males be circumcised ? 

In the first place, the Egyptians by the custom of their 
country circumcise the marriageable youth and maid* in 
the fourteenth (year) of their age, when the male begins 
to get seed, and the female to have a menstrual flow. But 
the divine legislator ' ordained circumcision for males alone 
for many reasons. The first of these is that the male has 
more pleasure in, and desire for, mating * than does the 
female, and he is more ready for it.' Therefore He rightly 

* Or " of your uncircumcision," = lxx t-^s aKpo^varias vfxwv. 

* 8ia Tov XoyLCTfxov or rijs Siavoias. 

" GX^SOV. '^ 6 VOWS'. 

* Tjvi^aTo. ^ Deut. X. 16. 
' T17V aKXrjpoKapSiaVf as in lxx. 

^ TO 'qyefjioviKov, i.e. the mind. 

* TOV VVIX<f>LOV Kol TTjV VU/i^T^V. 

^ o Kvpios vofxoOerrjs. Philo refers to God as a legislator in 
a few other passages, e.g. Be Fuga QQ ; I)e Vita Mosis ii. 48. 
Usually " the legislator " is Moses. 

* Arm. amoiisnout'iun = ydp.oSi o^tAta, avvova'ia^ etc. 

' Aucher inadvertently omits rendering the last clause. 

241 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

leaves out the female, and suppresses the undue " impulses 
of the male by the sign of circumcision. The second is that 
the matter ^ of the female in the remains of the menstrual 
fluids produces the fetus." But the male (provides) the 
skill and the cause.'* And so, since the male provides the 
greater and more necessary (part) in the process of genera- 
tion, it was proper that his pride should be checked by the 
sign of circumcision, but the material element, being 
inanimate,* does not admit of arrogance. So nmch for 
that. However, we must note what follows upon it. That 
which sees in us is the mind,^ and it is necessary to cut off 
its superfluous growths." Now these superfluous growths 
are vain opinions '' and what is done in accordance with 
them. And when the mind is circumcised and contains 
only necessary and useful things, and when at the same 
time there is cut off whatever causes pride to increase, then 
with it are circumcised the eyes also, as though they could 
not (otherwise) see. 



*48. (Gen. xvii. 12) Why does He say, " And the child 
of eight days shall be circumcised, every male " ? 

He commands that the foreskin be circumcised. In the 
first place this is granted because of disease, for it is more 
difficult and formidable to cure an affliction of the genitals, 
(which is like) a fire to those on which a covering skin 

« Lit. " superfluous." * 17 vXtj. 

" The text is slightly uncertain as there are variants to 
three words, but the above rendering is supported by other 
passages in which Philo follows the common Greek view of 
the physiology of conception, e.g. De Opif. Mundi 132, " just 
as with women the course of the menstrual fluids (tcDv Kara- 
fjLTjVLcov), for these are said by physical scientists to be the 
bodily substance of the fetus (ovala aw^ariK-q jS/ae^cDv)." 

"* T17V rexvTjv Kal to airiov ; there is no governing verb in 
the Arm. 

* TO vXtKov (OS axpvxov. 



O VOVS' 



^ See above, QO iii. 46. 
'' Keval So^ai. 

242 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

grows," but this does not happen to one who is circumcised. 
Now if there were some way of avoiding other afflictions 
and diseases as well by cutting off some member * or some 
part of the body, by the removal of which there would be 
no obstacle to the functioning of its parts, man would not 
be known as mortal " but would ])e changed into im- 
mortality. And that it has pleased some to circumcise 
themselves through foresight of soul without any ill effect 
is plain, for not only the Jews*^ but also the Egyptians, 
Arabs and Ethiopians and nearly all those who inhabit the 
southern regions near the torrid zone are circumcised. 
And what is the particular reason if not that in these 
places, especially m summer, the foreskin of the genitals, 
which is the skin that surrounds and covers (them), becomes 
inflamed and infected.* But when this is cut off, by being 
laid bare (the penis) is restored,^ and the affliction is re- 
sisted and expelled. For this reason the nations which are 
in the northern regions and all those to whom has been 
allotted a portion in those regions of the earth which are 
windy " are not circumcised. For in those regions, as the 
heat of the sun is relaxed and diminished, so too is the 
disease which is produced by heat in the skin of the parts 
of the body.'' And a sure indication of the credibility of 
this matter one may find in the time (of year) when the 
disease is especially (strong) ; it never occurs in winter, and 
it thrives and flourishes when it comes in summer, for it 
loves, as it were, to spread in this season * like fire. 

* The Arm. is elliptic ; Aucher renders more freely, " igne 
fere comburens ea quibus membranum supernascitur." The 
reference is to the disease called anthrax by the Greeks, see 
De Spec. Leg. i. 4. 

*= Aucher, wrongly, I think, renders, " nesciente mortali 
homine." 

** Arm. hreayk' (Hebrews). 

* Lit. " wounded." ^ Lit. " is revived." 

" Why Aucher renders, " partium terrae serenae " is a 
puzzle to me. ^ Lit. " in the skin of the limbs." 

' Lit. " in these parts." 

243 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

In the second place, it was not only for the sake of health 
that the ancients devoted thought " (to this) but also for 
the sake of populousness,*" for we see that nature is a 
living thing and very well disposed toward man." Now as 
wise men they knew that as the seed often flows into the 
folds of the foreskin, it is likely that it will be scattered 
unfruitfuUy ; but if there is no obstacle to prevent, it will 
succeed in reaching its proper place. For this reason such 
nations as practise circumcision increase greatly in jjopula- 
tion. But our legislator,'^ who had in mind, and was 
familiar with, this result, prohibited the immediate circum- 
cision of infants,* having in mind the same thing,^ that 
both circumcision and desire were populousness.'' Where- 
fore, it seems to me, the Egyptians indicate that for the 
sake of populousness it is proper to perform circumcision 
in the fourteenth year when the pleasurable desires for 
procreation begin. But it is very much better and more 
far-sighted of us to prescribe circumcision for infants, for 
perhaps one who is full-grown would hesitate through fear 
to carry out this ordinance of his own free will. 

In the third place, (Scripture) says that it is also for the 

" Lit. " forethought of soul." 

'' €V€Ka rijs rroXvavOpcoTTias. This is cited as the fourth 
and " most compelling " reason for circumcision in De Spec. 
Leg. i. 7. 

" <f)iXdvdpa)7T0V. 

^ vofioder-qs (here God or Moses). 

* Apparently Philo means immediately after birth, unless 
the Arm. is inexact in using " prohibited " for " com- 
manded " ; Aucher renders, " citius fieri monuit infantium 
circumcisionem. ' ' 

^ Lit. " seeing in the same mind." 

' The above is a literal rendering of a clause that is un- 
intelligible to me ; Aucher, in disregard of the syntax, renders 
freely, " eandem intentionem circumcisionis ob popula- 
tionem attendens." He remarks in a footnote that the 
passage is obscure, and the punctuation uncertain. Possibly 
the original Greek meant that Moses (or God) regarded 
populousness as due to circumcision as well as to sexual 
desire. 

244 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

sake of purity in the sacred offerings, for those who enter 
the courts of the sacred precinct are purified by ablutions 
and sprinklings. And the Egyptians shave the whole 
body, (removing) the hair which conceals and overshadows 
the body, in order that it may appear shining and bare. 
The circumcision of the skin, moreover, is not a little 
helpful for one is revolted by this when one sees it as it 
(really) is. 

In the fourth place," there are two generative (organs), 
in the soul and in the body ; thoughts ** are the generative 
(organ) of the soul, and that in the body is the (organ) of 
the body. Now the ancients " were disposed to regard the 
bodily organ of generation as resembling thought,*^ which 
is the most generative (force) of the heart.* And it is like 
nothing else so much as the circumcision of the heart. 
Now these are the widely known facts concerning the 
problems we are inquiring into. But we must speak about 
more symbolical things,^ which have their own status.^ 

They say that the circumcision of the skin is a symbol, 
as if (to show that) it is proper to cut off superfluous and 
excessive desires * by exercising continence and endurance 
in matters of the Law.* For just as the skin of the fore- 
skin is superfluous in procreation because of the burning 
affliction which comes upon it, so the excess of desire is 

<* The fourth reason for circumcision given here corre- 
sponds to the third reason given in De Spec. Leg. i. 6. 

^ rd voT^/Liara. The idea is more clearly expressed in De 
Spec. Leg. i. 6, Trpos yap yeveaiv dfi(f>(o Trap^aKcvaarai, to p.kv 
eyKaphiov TTvevfX,a vorjixaTwv, to Se y6vLp,ov opyavov t,oi(x)v. 

'^ ol TTpwToi. ^ voTjfiaai or tw vw. 

* rds /capSi'as, here regarded as the seat of the mind : see 
Colson's note in vol. vii. p. 615. 

^ rrepi avix^oXiKcoTcpoov. " tov auTcDv Adyov ixovroiv. 

'^ ras TTepirras /cai TrXeoval^ovaas iTTidvpiaSt cf. De Spec. 
Leg. i. 9. 

* Lit. " continence of endurance of the Law " — eyKpdreiav 
vTTOfxovTjs TOV vofiov {oT Ttjs dprjaKeias) ; Aucher renders, " con- 
tinentiae religionis." There is no parallel to this phrase in 
De Spec. Leg. 

245 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

superfluous and at the same time harmful. It is super- 
fluous because it is not necessary, and it is harmful because 
it is the cause of diseases of body and soul. But through 
this great desire (Scripture) alludes also to the fact that 
one ought to cut off other desires as well. And the greatest 
desire is that of intercourse between man and woman, 
since it forms the beginning of a great thing, procreation, 
and brings about in the progenitors a great desire toward 
their progeny, for it is rather natural " to be very fond of, 
and tender toward, them. And it * indicates the cutting 
off not only of excessive desires but also of arrogance and " 
great evil and such habits.'* And arrogance, as the saying 
of the ancients goes, is the excision and impeding of pro- 
gress,^ for one who thinks (well of himself)^ does not admit 
of betterment," thinking that he is the cause that is in- 
volved.'' 

Very naturally does (Scripture) instruct those who 
think that they are the causes of generation, and do not 
intently fix their minds on seeing the begetter of all things,* 
for He is the veritable and true ' Father. But we who are 
called begetters are used as instruments in the service * of 
generation. For as by a miracle of imitation * all those 

** <f>VUlK6v Tl. 

* i.e. the symbol of circumcision. 

* Aucher renders, " ut." 
** Twv avvrpocfxjjv. 

« The brief Greek frag, printed by Harris, p. 99, was 
identified by Friichtel as belonging here ; it reads otrjais, 
cos o Twv apxo-Lwv Xoyos, iarlv ckkottt) TrpoKOvijs. 

^ The Arm. translator either read oi6p.€vos or mistook the 
meaning of Karoiofxevos, which is found in the Greek frag. 

» peXriwaiv, as in the Greek frag., which ends here. 

^ Aucher renders, perhaps more aptly, " putans se suffi- 
cientem interesse causam." 

* Tov yevvrjTrjv rwv avfnrdvrtov. 

^ The Arm. uses three synonyms, two of which = dipevSi^s. 

* els XP^^°-^ VTrrfpeaias or SiaKOvias. 

'' The Arm. i hraSs nmanouVean is a misunderstanding 
of davfiari, which here means " puppet-show," as in Quod 
Omnis Prohus 5. See also p. 247 note/. 

246 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

things which are visible are inanimate," while that which 
activates them like puppets " is invisible. The cause of 
this is the cause of the habits " and movements of visible 
things. In the same way the Creator of the world sends 
out "^ His powers * from an eternal and invisible place, but 
we are wonderfully ^ moved like puppets toward that which 
pertains to us, (namely) seed and procreation. Otherwise 
we might think that the shepherd's pipe » is played by 
itself instead of being meant '^ for the production of har- 
mony by the artisan by whom the instrument was devised 
for this service and necessary use. 



49. (Gen. xvii. 12) Why does He command the circum- 
cision (to be) on the eighth day .'* 

The eighth (digit) reveals many beauties.* One is, in 
the first place, that it is a cube. And the second is that 
everywhere it contains in itself the forms of equality,^ 
because the number eight is the first which indicates length 
and breadth and depth, which are equal to * one another. 
Third, the composition of eight produces agreement, 
(namely) the number thirty-six, which the Pythagoreans 
call " homology " since it is the first in which there is an 
agreement of odd with even,' for the four separate odd 

^ vevpoaTTaarel ; Aucher's rendering, " nervos corroborat," 
misses the point of the implied metaphor. 
" Prob. ax^aeis in the Aristotelian sense. 
'^ Arm. zgel = €KT€iv€iv, e/cTre/iTreiv, etc. 

* TCLS Bvvdfieis. 

^ Again davfia " puppet-show " has been misunderstood. 
" Reading, with Aucher, sring (avpiy^) for sik' {ttvotj vel 
sim.). " Lit. " set aside " or " apportioned." 

* KoKXy]. For other passages on the properties of the 
number eight see QG i. 75, 91, ii. 5. Staehle, p. 51, also 
cites parallels from Joh. Lydus. 

■^ TO, Tov taov (or ttjs Igottjtos) ciSt;. 

* Or " congruent with." 

' Cf. Joh. Lydus, p. 150 eV aura) yap to TrepiTxa rots aprlois 
wfjioXoyrjaav. 

247 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

(numbers) from one on, and the even ones from two on 
make a total of thirty-six. The odd ones are 1, 3, 5, 7," 
making 16 in all ; and the even ones are 2, 4, 6, 8, making 
20. The sum of both totals amounts to thirty-six, truly 
a most productive '' number, for it is quadrangular, having 
as its side the hexad, which is the first even-odd number " ; 
this some accurately ** call " harmony " or " marriage."* 
By making use of it the Creator of the universe made the 
world, as the holy and wonderful writing of Moses relates. 
Fourth, the form ^ of the ogdoad produces sixty-four, 
which is the first cube and, at the same time, square, the 
pattern of an incorporeal, intelligible and invisible and 
(also) corporeal substance " ; incorporeal in so far as it 
produces a square plane,'' but corporeal in so far as it pro- 
duces a cubic solid.* Fifth, it is kin to the ever-virginal 
hebdomad,^ for when the parts of eight are added together, 
they make seven, for a half (of eight) is four, a quarter is 
two, and an eighth is one ; and the sum of these is seven. 
Sixth, the power * of eight is sixty-four, which, as we have 
said, is the first number that is a cube and a square at the 
same time. Seventh, from the number one on. the several 
double (numbers) 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 make 64.^ The ogdoad 

** In the Arm. text the two sets of numbers are indicated 
by numeral letters. 

^ yevvrjTtKWTarov. The same adjective is applied to the 
number six in De Opif. Mundi 13. 

'' See QG iii. 38, and cf. Joh. Lydus, p. 32 (cited by 
Staehle, p. 33). " eVu/iw?. 

* Cf. Joh. Lydus, loc. cit. odev Kai apxatoi ydfiov Kai 
ap^oviav avTOV eVaAccrav. 

^ eiSos in the sense of a numeral base to be raised to a 
certain power. 

^ napaSeiyfia dacofidrov Kai voepds KOi dopdrov Kai <ye> 
aojp,aTLKrjs ovaias. 

^ rerpdyoivov eTriVeSov (or eVi^aveiav). 

• KV^LKOV arepecofia. 

' rrj decTTapdevip e^8o/xa8i avyyevi^s. Cf., e.g., De Vita Mosis 
ii. 210. * 17 Svva/Ais:, here = exponential power. 

^ In order to get the total 64 we must add the number 
1 twice. 
248 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

has other further powers, about which we have spoken 
elsewhere." But we must give the reasons which are suit- 
able to, and in harmony with, the present inquiry, and 
depend upon the facts laid down as fundamental. 

However, this is to be said first. That nation to which 
was given the command to circumcise (children) on the 
eighth (day) is called " Israel " in Chaldaean, and in Ar- 
menian ^ (this means) " seeing God." " It wishes to be a 
part both of naturally righteous ones ^ and of those who 
are * (so) by choice.^ By the principle of creation " (this 
occurs) through the first hebdomad,* which, coming im- 
mediately after the creation, the Begetter and Creator 
clearly showed to be the festival of the creation of the 
world,* for He completed this on the sixth (day). But as 
to that which is by choice,^ (it occurs) through the ogdoad, 
which is the beginning of the second hebdomad. Just as 
eight is (the sum of) seven and one, so the adorned nation * 
is always a nation, and it receives this lot in addition, 
being chosen by nature and in accordance with the will 
and pleasure ' of the Father. In the second place, the 
number eight everywhere indicates equality, showing all 
dimensions equal, as has been said, (namely) length, 

" See note i on p. 247. 

'' Here, as elsewhere, the Arm. translator substitutes 
" Armenian " for " Greek." 

" This etymology occurs a good many times throughout 
Philo's writings. 

^ The Arm. lit. = fiepos ^xeiv tcov (f>vaiKU)v (or yvrjaicov) 
St/catW; the context seems to show that " righteous " refers 
to persons rather than things. 

"' Lit."Js." 

' Kad* alpeaiv. 

" /caret Tov rrjs yevdaeojs Xoyov. 

'■ Aucher inadvertently renders, " per primum quidem 
sextum." 

* T17V iopTrjv Ttjv TTJs TOV Koafiov y€V€a€ws, cf. De Opif. 
Mnndi 89 ioprrj . . . rov navros . . . kol tov Koafiov yevedXiov. 

' See note /"above. 

^ TO K€Koaiir]fxevov yevos. 

' KaTOL ^ovXT]aiv Kal yvwfi-qv. 

249 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

breadth and depth. Equality produces righteousness." 
and by this (Scripture) first proves that the god-loving '' 
nation is adorned by equality and righteousness, and is 
brought into possession." In the third place, not only is 
the (number eight) a measure ^ of complete equality in all 
dimensions, but also the first, since it is the first cube.* 
For the number eight, which indicates equality, is assigned 
to the second, but not the first, place in the order of rank.-*" 
Thus He symbolically indicates " that He has adapted ^ 
thii first nation naturally * to the highest and utmost 
equality and righteousness. And it is the foremost of the 
human race, not through creation^ or in time, but by 
the prerogative of virtue,*^ the righteous and equal being 
cognate ^ and united as if one part.*" In the fourth place, 
since there are four elements, earth, water, air and a form 
of fire,** fire has been assigned the homonym of " pyramid,"" 
while air is eight-sided, and water is twenty-sided,^ and 
the earth is a cube. It was therefore thought necessary 
that the earth, which was destined to be the (home) of the 
worthy and virtuous human race, should have as its share 

** hiKaLoavvriv. 

^ (f)iX6d€ov or " divinely-favoured "— ^eo^iAeV. 

" Kordax^ow or " inheritance " — KXT]povofilav. 

^ As Aucher notes, Arm. or ( = -qfiepa) must be a transcrip- 
tion of Greek opos. 

« This fact has been mentioned twice before in the present 
section. 

^ i.e. eight begins a new series after seven. 

" av[x^oXiK<JL>s alviTrerai. 

^ iijiiQp^oae. 

* Or " genuinely." 

* Or " generation " — yeveaews. 

* TTpoTifi-qaei rrjs dpeTfjs. 
'■ avpi(f)V'f}. 

"* Aucher renders differently, " ac si connaturalis pars sit 
unita justitia cum paritate." 

" eldoS TOV TTVpOS. 

" Philo plays on the resemblance between -nvpaiiis and rrvp 
or TTvpoeiBds. 

* OKTaeSpos . . . elKoadehpov. 

250 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

a cubic number, in accordance with which the whole earth 
was formed equally," and that it should share in the parts 
of generation. For the nature ' of the earth is very pro- 
ductive and fertile, and it brings forth various and distinct 
species of all animals and plants. 



50. (Gen. xvii. 12) Why does one circumcise (both) the 
home-born and the purchased " (child) ? 

The literal meaning ^ is clear, for it is right that servants 
imitate their masters for the sake of the necessary offices 
of life and service. But as for the deeper meaning,* the 
home-born characters^ are those which are moved by 
nature, while the purchased ones are those who are able 
to improve through reason " and teaching. There is need 
for both of these to be purified and trimmed ^ like plants, 
both those which are natural and genuine, and those which 
are able to bear fruit constantly * ; for well-grown (plants) 
produce many superfluous (fruits) because of their fertility, 
which it is useful to cut off. But those who are taught 
by teachers ' shave off * their ignorance. 



51. (Gen. xvii. 13) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And my covenant shall be upon your flesh " * ? 

" taios, or " in common " — koivms, or " at the same time " 

OIJLOV. 

^ 17 <f>v(ns. 

" OLKOYCvrj Koi dpyvpcovrjToVy as in lxx. 

^ TO prjTOV. 

* TO npos Stavotav. 

^ rpoTTOL or rjOrj. " 8id Xoyov. '' Lit. " cut." 

* cv Biafiovfj vel sim. Aucher renders somewhat differ- 
ently, " utraque istarum opus habet ut plantarum more 
purgetur et putetur, ad propriae ac fructiferae partis con- 
stantiam." 

^ VTTO SiSao/cciAcov. 
^ So lit. ; Arm. = ano^vpovai. 

' LXX K(u iarat rj SiadiJKr) fiov em (Heb. " in ") rijs aapKos 
vixwv. 

251 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

He wishes (to point out) that not only does the virtuous 
man " profit (thereby) but that together with the soul the 
divine word ^ is appointed over the body also, to be, as it 
were, its physician, to whom it is a matter of concern to 
circumcise the excessive and harmful impulses " of sight, 
hearing, taste, smell 'and touch ^ and of the organ of speech 
and of reproduction and of the whole body, to which 
taking pleasure in desire (is) to feel pain/ 



*52. (Gen. xvii. 14) Why does He prescribe a sentence 
of death for the infant, saying, " The uncircumcised male 
who shall not circumcise the flesh of his uncircumcision 
on the eighth day, that soul shall be destroyed from its 
kind " ^ ? 

The law does not declare (anyone) guilty of any in- 
voluntary (crime) since it pardons even him who commits 
involuntary homicide," specifying the cities to which he 
may flee to find safety. For he becomes sanctified and 
immune after taking refuge there, and no one has authority 
to take him away from there and bring him before a court 
of judgment. But if the child is not circumcised on the 
eighth day after birth, what sin has he committed that he 
should be judged deserving of suffering death ? Accord- 

" Tov OTTOvBaiov. 

^ Or " IvOgos " — TOV delov Xoyov. 

" opfids. 

'^ Lit. " of things seen, heard, etc." 

* The last clause has no verb in Arm. ; Aucher renders 
freely, " quo peragitur turn delectari in cupiditatibus, turn 
dolore affici," adding in a footnote, " vel sine puncto sic : 
cui vel ipsum delectari in cupiditatibus dolore afiici est." 

^ The Arm. differs slightly from i>xx and Heb., which have 
" who shall not be circumcised." Moreover, the words " on 
the eighth day " are not found in the Heb. 

" So too the Greek fragments in the Catenae and Pro- 
copius, ouSev Toiv aKovaicov evoxov a.TTO<f)aiv€L 6 vofios ott6t€ Kal 
TO) <f>6vov oLKovmov bpdaavTi avyyivwaKei (the Greek fragments 
omit the references to cities of refuge, and resume with the 
sentence beginning, " But if the child "). 

252 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

ingly, some say that the law of interpretation * has in view 
the parents, for it ^ believes that they show contempt for 
the commandment of the law. Others, however, say that 
it has imposed a very excessive penalty on infants, it seems, 
and that those adults who disregard and violate the law 
are deserving of punishment without regret or remission. <= 
This is the literal meaning.** But as for the deeper mean- 
ing,* that which is excessively male in us is the mind.^ 
This He commands to be circumcised in the ogdoad " for 
the reasons which I gave earlier '* ; and (He mentions) no 
other part but the flesh of the foreskin, symbolizing those 
sense-pleasures and impulses* which afterwards come to 
the body. Wherefore He adds a principle of law^ in His 
statement. For the mind which is not circumcised and 
purified and sanctified of the body and the passions which 
come through the body will be corrupted * and cannot be 
saved.' And since the argument"* does not concern man 
but the mind which has health," He adds, " that soul shall 
be destroyed " " — not the human body or man but the 
soul ** and the mind. And from what ? " From its 

<* One may also accept Aucher's rendering, " formam 
edicti." 

* Apparently the law or Scripture is meant. 

' The Arm. agrees closely with the Greek frag, printed 
by Harris from the Catenae, less closely with the recension 
of Procopius ; for these texts see Appendix A. 

** TO pr)r6v. 

* TO irpos Siavotav. 
■^ o vovs. 

^ This is Philo's allegorical variation of the scriptural 
" eighth day." 
'^ In § 49. 

* 'qhovas Koi opfxds. - 
^ Or, as Aucher renders, " rationem legitimam." 

* Or " be destroyed." 

*" o Xoyos. 

" vyUiav or oAo/fAi^piav. 

" i^oXedpevO-qaerai in LXX. 

^ V ^^XV (though sometimes Arm. ogi^nvevfxa). 

253 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

kind," " He says. For the whole genus is incorruptible ; 
thus from incorruption the sinner is brought to corruption. 



53. (Gen. xvii. 15) Why does He say, " Sara thy wife 
shall not be called Sara, but Sarra shall be her name "''.'' 

Once more some of the stupid people may laugh " at the 
addition of one letter, rlio,^ and ridicule and make fun of 
it because they are unwilling to apply themselves to the 
inward facts of things and follow after truth. For that 
which seems to be the addition of one letter produces all 
harmony.* In place of the small (it gives) the great, and 
in place of the particular, the general,^ and in place of the 
mortal, the immortal. For through the one rho she is 
called Sara, which in translation means " my rule," " while 
with two rhos it means " ruler." '' In what way these are 
individually distinguished from each other must be in- 
vestigated. My prudence and temperance and justice and 
fortitude * rule over me only, and are mortal. When I die, 
they die. But prudence itself is a ruler, and so is justice 
itself, and each of the other virtues ; it is not (merely) 
sovereign over me but is itself a ruler and queen, an im- 
mortal rule and sovereignty. Do you see the greatness 
of the gift } He has converted the part into the whole, 
and the species into the genus,'' and the corruptible into 

« y€vos in Lxx (Heb. " people "). 

^ Philo follows the lxx forms of the Heb. names Sarai 
and Sarah ; for parallels see De Congressu 2, De Mut. Nom. 
61 et al. 

" See above, § 43 on those who ridicule the change of 
Abraham's name. 

^ ivos oTOLx^iov p' (the last word is rendered by its numeri- 
cal equivalent, " hundred," in Arm.). 

* irdaav apfjbovlav. 

' dvTt rov im fiepovs to KadoXiKov, 

apxq f^ov. '^ dpxovaa, 

* <f)p6vrjai,s xai Ga)(f>poavvT) Koi SiKaioavvr) Koi dv8pei<a ; cf. 
De Congressu 2 et al. 

^ The Arm. misprints ser (yvqaios) for ser (yevos) ; Aucher 
renders correctly. 

254 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

the incorruptible. And all these are granted in advance 
for the sake of the future birth of a more perfect happiness 
and joy, of which the name is Isaac." 



54. (Gen. xvii. 16) Why does He say, " I will give thee 
from her children, ** and I will bless him and he shall be for 
peoples, and the kings of the nations shall come from 
him " <= ? 

It is not in place to inquire why He used the plural 
" children " in speaking of their only beloved son, for the 
allusion is to his descendants, from whom (were to come) 
peoples and kings. This is the literal meaning.'* But as 
for the deeper meaning,* when the soul has (only) that 
virtue which is particular,^ slight and mortal, it is still 
barren. But when once it receives a portion of the divine 
and incorruptible (virtue), it begins to conceive and bear 
a variety of peoples and of all other holy things. For each 
of the immortal virtues has very many voluntary laws," 
which bear the likenesses of peoples and kings. For virtues 
and the generations of virtues are kingly aifairs, being 
taught beforehand '^ by nature what is sovereign and 
unservile.' 

" Philo etymologizes the name Isaac as yiXcos and x°-P°- ^^ 
several passages, e.g. Leg. All. ill. 218. 

^ Lxx, Heb. and Arm. O.T. all have " son " or " child." 
In the parallel. Be Mut. Nam. 130-153, Philo not only follows 
the LXX in reading tckvov but emphasizes the singular number 
of the noun. 

'^ It is here assumed that the pronouns are masculine, as 
in the lxx rather than feminine as in the Heb. (referring to 
Sarah). There is no distinction of gender in Armenian. 
But Philo follows the Heb. against the lxx in i)« Mut. Nom. 
148-151. 

^ TO prjTov. 

* TO vpos hidvoiav. 
^ Or " partial." 

^ iKovaiovs vofMOVs. 
'' TrpoStSaaKO/xevat. 

* dbovXcDTOv. 

255 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

55. (Gen. xvii. 17) Why did Abraham fall upon his face 
and laugh ? 

Two things are shown by his falling upon his face." One 
is his prostration * because of an excess of divine ecstasy." 
And the other is his confession/ which is consonant with, 
and equal to, what has been said. For his mind acknow- 
ledged that God stands alone. But those things which • 
are under the generation of birth all fall into periodical 
change. And they fall with respect to that •'' part through 
which they are wont to be raised up and be erect, (namely) 
with respect to the sovereign " face. Rightly did he laugh 
in his joy over the promise, being filled with great hope 
and in the expectation that it would be fulfilled, and 
because he had clearly received a vision,'^ through which 
he knew more certainly Him who always stands firm, and 
him who * naturally bends and falls. 



56. (Gen. xvii. 17) Why is he incredulous,* as it were, 
in his confession,* for says (Scripture), " He said in his 
mind,^ shall a son be born to a centenarian, and shall 
Sarah"* bear at ninety years .'' " 

<• For parallels in Philo see Leg. All. iii. 217 and De Mut. 
Norn. 154 ff. 
^ npoaKVVTjcns. 
" deias cKcrdaecos. 
"* ofioXoyCa (in the biblical sense). 

* The sing, verb in Arm. indicates here that the pro- 
nominal subject was neuter plural, not masculine plural, as 
Aucher renders. 

^ The context requires emendation of the nom. pi. demons, 
pron. sok'a to gen. sing. sora. The Arm. letters k* and r are 
very similar. 

^ Lit. " first." 

^ eTTK^aveiav. 

' Or " that which." 

^ ainaTel. 

* ofioXoyiq.. 

' LXX iv TTJ biavoca avrov. 
'" LXX Sarra. 

256 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

Not ineptly or casually * are added the words, " He said 
in his mind." * For unworthy words spoken by tongue 
and mouth fall under transgressions and punishment. 
But those which are in the mind are not at all guilty.*' 
For involuntarily does the mind show arrogance "^ when 
various desires come upon it from various directions, and 
there are times when it resists these and disputes with them 
resentfully, and seeks to avoid their appearances. Per- 
haps too he is not in a state of doubt * but being struck 
with amazement at the excessiveness of the gift, says, 
" Behold, our body has passed (its prime) and has gone 
beyond the age for begetting. But to God all things are 
possible, even to change old age into youth, and to bring 
one who has no seed or fruit into the begetting and fruitful- 
ness." And so, if a centenarian and (a woman) of ninety 
years produce children, the element of ordinary events is 
removed/ and only the divine power and grace clearly 
appear. 

But we must (now) show what virtues *' the number one 
hundred has.'^ In the first place, the hundred is a power 
of the decad. In the second place, the myriad is (a power) 
of this itself. And the myriad is brother to unity, for just 
as one times one is one, so ten thousand times one is ten 
thousand. In the third place, all the parts of the number 
one hundred are well ordered.* In the fourth place, it 
consists of thirty and of six and of sixty and of four, 
which is a cube and a square ^ at the same time. In the 
fifth place, it consists of these several odd numbers, 1, 3, 

" Trapepyo)?. 

*" See the parallel discussion in De Mat. Nom. 177-200. 

'^ evoxo.. '^ dXal^oveiav, *" ovk e'vSoia^et. 

^ i.e. we are dealing here with something miraculous. 

" Bwdfieis. 

^ In the parallel, De Mut. Nom. 188-192, Philo cites a 
number of biblical passages involving the number 100, but 
does not treat them in the fashion of Pythagorean number 
mysticism as here. 

* Arm. parkeH = (r(x)(f)piov, Koafxios, etc. 

* Aucher inadvertently renders, " triangulum." 

SUPPL. I K 257 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, making 100." In the sixth place, 
it consists of four (numbers), one and its double, and four 
and its double, 1, 2, 4, 8, making 15, and of the four 
numbers,* 1, 4, 16, 64, making 85. Now there is a twofold 
proportion " in all things, containing that of four and that 
of five,'* but four is twice in all things. In the seventh 
place, it consists of several fours, each of which has one 
added (namely), 1, 2, 3, 4, making 10, and of four tri- 
angular numbers,* 1, 3, 6, 10, making 20, and of four 
quadrangular numbers, 1, 4, 9, 16, making 30, and of 
four pentagonal numbers, 1, 5, 12, 22, making 40, and 
(all) these together make 100. In the eighth place, the 
number one hundred is completed by the cubes of the 
four separate numbers beginning with one, for given the 
numbers from one on, (namely) 1, 2, 3, 4, their cubes, 
1, 8, 27, 64, make 100. In the ninth place, it is divided 
into forty and sixty, both of which are most natural 
(numbers).^ And in respect of the several decads in the 
pentagonal figure up to the number ten thousand, the 
number one hundred holds the middle place. For the 
number one hundred is the middle one of (the series) one, 
ten, a hundred, a thousand and ten thousand. 

But it is proper not to pass over in silence the number 
ninety in respect of its visible " (elements). It seems to me 
that the number ninety takes second place after the hun- 
dred, in so far as a tenth part (of the latter) is taken away, 
which is the decad. For in the Law I find two tenths " 

" These figures are expressed as numeral letters in the Arm. 
text here and below ; other numbers are indicated by name. 

'' Aucher correctly amplifies in rendering, " ex quatuor 
istis multiplicatis," since the second set of four is that of the 
squares of the first four. 

" Or " principle " — Xoyos. 

''■ " Five " is an error for " two," as Staehle notes, p. 71. 

" See QO i. 83. ^ 

^ ^vmKOJTaroi <,a.pi6ixoi>. 

" Or " conspicuous " ; Aucher " quoad notas visibiles." 

'' i.e. tithes, the first tithe going to the Levite and the 
tenth of this Levitical tithe going to the priest (" peace- 
offering of tithe "). 
258 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

of first fruits distinguished, one of the whole (produce) 
and one of the remainder. And when the tenth is taken 
from the produce of grain or wine or oil, another tenth 
is taken from the remainder." Now of these two (num- 
bers) the initial and first one is honoured with seniority, 
and the one that comes after with second place. For 
the hundred contains the two (kinds of) first fruits of 
the years of the wise man, by which he is consecrated, 
(namely) the first and second (offerings), while the number 
ninety (contains) the second first-fruits of the years of 
feminine gender, the younger and lesser remainder of the 
first and greatest among the sacred numbers. The former, 
therefore, is called " a sown aroura " '^ in the sacred Law, 
while the latter has a general nature," for the number 
ninety is generative,*^ wherefore also women are productive 
in the ninth month. But the decad is sacred and perfect. 
And when these * are multiplied there is formed the sacred 
and generative power ^ of ninety, which gets its fruit- 
ful generation from nine, and its sacredness from the 
decad. 

57. (Gen. xvii. 18) Why does Abraham say to God, 
" Let this Ishmael" live before Thee " ? 

« Cf. Be Mat. Norn. 191. 

^ The parallel, De Mut. Nom. 190, enables us to correct the 
unintelligible Arm. text. Arm. tesouac renders deiopla but 
this is a corruption of apovpa ; 9ntanaceal is the ptc. of the 
verb which renders aTrep/xari^etv, not of its homonym 
which renders olKeiovadai. As Colson notes in the passage 
from De Mut. Nom. (L.C.L. Philo, vol. v. p. 239), " Philo 
interprets apovpa in the technical sense of a piece of land of 
100 square cubits." 

'^ KaOoXlKTjV <f)VaLV. 

'^ yovLfios. 

* The numbers 9 and 10 (9 being unobtrusively substituted 
for 90). 

" So Lxx; Heb. has no demonstr. pron. before " Ishmael." 
Philo comments at length on this verse in De Mut. Nom. 
201-251. 

259 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

First of all, (he says), " We" do not despair, O Lord, of 
a better generation, but I have faith in Thy promises. 
However, it is enough of a gift for me that this one should 
live who is for the time being a living son, even though 
he is not a son by genuine descent, being born of a con- 
cubine." In the second place, what he now seeks is an 
additional good, for it is not merely life that he desires 
for his son but a life " before God," * than which nothing 
is worthy to be considered more perfect, (a life) before 
God (being) one of wholeness and salvation," which is on a 
par with immortality.'^ In the third place, he symboli- 
cally * indicates that not (only) should the heard laws of 
God be committed to hearing,^ but they should (also) pass 
into the inner (life) and mould and form its most sovereign 
part," for that (alone) is life in the sight of God whose 
words are worthy to become deeds.'* 



■^58. (Gen. xvii. 19) Why is the divine oracle * an agree- 
ment,^ for He says to Abraham, " Yes, behold,^ Sarah thy 
wife shall bear thee a son " ? 

What is indicated is somewhat as follows. " This 
agreement,' " He says, " is something for Me Myself to 

« On the 1st pi. for the expected 1st sing, see Colson's 
note on De Mut. Norn. 216 (vol. v. p. 255). 

^ €V(x>Tnov Tov deov, * vyieias Koi acoTTjpias. 

^ laorifios rfj ddavaala. 

* €v vTTovoiaLS. Aucher's rendering, " per conjecturam," 
is not quite right. 

^ In De Mut. Norn. 202 et al. Philo alludes to the inter- 
pretation of the name Ishmael as " hearing God." 

" TVTTOVv KoX fju)p<f>ovv TO iJyc/xovtKcijTaTOV fxipos. 

" Construction and meaning uncertain ; Aucher renders, 
" vita enim est ista divino conspectui condigna verbum 
effectum esse." * 6 delos XRV^^H'^^- 

' Or " assent " — avyxciip'qois or imvevais. 

''So Lxx, vai. IBov; Heb. '«6a^ usu. =:"but." Philo 
comments on the expression in De Mut. Norn. 253-254. 

' Arm. has two words, both rendering opLoXoyia, which is 
also used in the Greek frag. 
260 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

keep ** being clearly without denial. * And thy faith * is 
not ambiguous but is unhesitating, and partakes of 
modesty and reverence.'^ Wherefore that which thou 
didst formerly receive as destined to come about because 
of thy faith in Me, shall wholly * be." For this is shown 
by the " Yes." 



59. (Gen. xvii. 20) Why does He say, " But concerning 
Ishmael, behold I will hear thee, and I will bless ^ him. 
Twelve nations he shall beget." 

" Both the first and the second good things," He says, 
" I grant to thee, both that which comes by nature and 
that which comes by teaching " ; by nature '' is that which 
comes through the genuine * Isaac, and by teaching is that 
which comes through the not-genuine Ishmael, for hearing *' 
when compared with seeing is like the not-genuine beside 
the genuine, and that which comes by teaching does not 
have the same standing * as that which comes by nature. 
And " he shall beget twelve nations " (means) the train of 

" Text obscure ; Aucher renders, " confessio ac homologiae 
ista, ait, mea parte admissio est voti." The Greek frag, 
reads 17 ofxoXoyia, (jyrjaiv, 77 e/Lti) Kardt^aais iariv. 

" Arm. ouraxout'ene " joy " is clearly a scribal error for 
ouracout'ene = dpvrja€a)s, which is also found in the Greek 
frag. Philo apparently means that the "Yes" of Scripture 
indicates God's unhesitating willingness to reward Abraham's 
unhesitating faith. 

" TTlOTtS'. 

^ alBovs Kal evrpoTTTJs ficTexovaa, as in the Greek frag. 

* Or " absolutely " — TrdvTOJS, as in the Greek frag. 

^ Lxx and Heb. " I have heard thee and I have bles- 
sed." 

» In the parallel, De Mut. Norn. 255-264, Philo calls 
Ishmael cyyovov SiSaKTov, and Isaac avTOfiadrjs. 

^ <f)va€i. 

* yv-qmov. In De Mut. Nom. 261 he is called yewatov. 

^ Here again, as in QO iii. 57, Philo plays on the etymology 
of the name Ishmael, " hearing God." 

* Xoyov. 

261 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

school studies," for the number twelve is a cyclical number 
in the cycle of days and years.* 



60. (Gen. xvii. 21) Why does He say, " And My cove- 
nant I will establish with Isaac whom Sarah shall bear " 
at this time "^ in the other year " * ? 

Just as in human testaments ^ some persons are in- 
scribed as heirs, and some are counted worthy of (receiving) 
gifts, which they receive from the heirs, so also in the 
divine testament he is inscribed as heir who is by nature a 
good disciple' of God, adorned with perfect virtues.'* 
But he who is introduced* through hearing^ and is sub- 
jected to the law of wisdom * and participates in the 
discipline of school studies^ is not an heir but receives 
gifts which are bestowed by grace."* Most wisely ,[* more- 
over, is it said that " in the other year " she will bear 
Isaac, for that birth is not one of the life of the time " 
which now exists but of another great, holy, sacred and 

" Tov xopov Tcov iyKVKXtcov. In De Mut. Nom. 263 they 
are called rov )(op6v tcDv ao(f)i(mKa)V TrpovaibiVfiaTCjv. 

" Since the year consists of 12 months, and day and night 
of 12 hours each, as Philo explains in De Fuga 184. 

<' Lxx and Heb. add " to thee." 

^ LXX Kaipov, Heb. mS'ed " set time." 

" So LXX and Heb., i.e. " next year." The verse is 
differently allegorized in Be Mut. Nom. 264-269, where the 
covenant is not mentioned, perhaps because Philo planned 
to include it in his projected treatise On Covenants^ which 
has not come down to us. 

" fMadrjT-qs. 

''- reXeiais aperals. 

* eladyeTai. 

^ i.e. Ishmael. See QG iii. 59. 

^ UTTOTaTTerat to) ttjs ao(()ias vofjuo. 

' TT7S' TcDr ey/cu/cAicov TraiBeias. 

"* Arm. lit. = x^P^^'^VP''^ (f^^ X'^^P^'^"? ^) '*'"' 8">pea^' 

" TTavao^oys. 

° Text slightly emended, following Aucher. 

262 



GENESIS, BOOK III 

divine one," which has an abundant fullness * and is not 
like that 6f the gentiles. " 



*61. (Gen. xvii. 24-25) Why does (Scripture) say that 
Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circum- 
cised, and Ishmael, his son, thirteen years old ? 

The number of ninety-nine years is set beside ^ the 
number one hundred. And in accordance with this 
number it is destined to be the seed and progeny of a 
more perfect generation, which is to appear in the hundred.^ 
But the number thirteen is composed of the first two 
squares, of four and nine, of even and odd ; the even one 
has sides which are a double material form,^ and the odd 
one has a practical form." Through all these comes the 
triad,* and this is the greatest * and most perfect of festival 
offerings, which the pillars ' of the divine scriptures contain. 
This is one (explanation). But it is proper to mention 



" Prob. the noun " life " is understood. 

* TrXrfafJLOvqv or possibly TrAiypoj/xa. 

" Td>v idvcov. Philo does not often use eOvr] in the biblical 
sense of " gentiles." 

** In QG iii. 39 (on Gen. xvii. 1) and in De Mut. Nom. 1, 
Philo speaks of 99 as being " neighbour " (yeiVcov) to 100. 

* An allusion to the birth of Isaac in Abraham's 100th year. 
^ SittAow vXiKOv ethos. 

" TTpaKTiKov (?) eiSos : Aucher " formam operativam." 
Possibly Philo here refers to the nine months of conception, 
as above in QG iii. 5Q ; if so, we might render " productive " 
{TToirjriKov) rather than " practical." 

'' Apparently Philo means the 3 in 13. 

* Lit. " greatness." 

^ CTT^Aai : Aucher " exarationes." Probably Philo means 
the tablets of the Law, as elsewhere, or the Law generally. 
The " festival offerings " are presumably those of Pass- 
over, Pentecost and Tabernacles, as the Arm. glossator sug- 
gests. It is curious, however, that in De Somniis i. 242 
(on the pillar at Beth-el, Gen. xxxi. 13), Philo says that a 
pillar is a symbol of three things, " of standing, of dedication 
and of inscription." 

263 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

another as well, (namely) that the age of thirteen years is 
a neighbour and associate of fourteen " years, when '' the ^ 
generative movements are brought to their seed." And 
so, lest alien seed ^ be sown, He takes care that the first 
generation shall be preserved intact,* representing the 
generative organ by the symbol of generation/ 

In the third place He instructs him who is about to 
undertake marriage by all means to circumcise his sense- 
pleasures " and amorous desires, rebuking those who are 
lascivious and lustful,'' in order that they may restrain 
their excessive embraces,* which usually come about not 
for the sake of begetting children but for the sake of 
unrestrained pleasure. 



62. (Gen. xvii. 27) Why does Abraham circumcise those 
of foreign birth } ' 

The wise man is helpful and at the same time philan- 
thropic* He saves and calls to himself not only his 
kinsmen ^ and those of like opinions "* but also those of 
foreign birth and of different opinions," giving them of his 
own goods with patience and ascetic continence," for these 
are the firm foundations " to which all virtue ' hastens and 
finds rest. 

" Lit. " twice seven." ^ Lit. " behold ! " 

" The syntax is obscure ; Aucher renders, " quo seminis 
motus ad generationem fertur." 

** dXXoy€V€S OTTep/jLa. * oXokXtjpov. 

^ avfi^oXo) Tov yevovs. " "qSovds. 

^ Lit. " woman-loving." 

• Lit. " minglings." ' rovs dXXoyevets. 

^ (f>iXdvdpcoiTos. ' Or " countrymen." 

*" Text slightly emended by Aucher. 

** irepoho^ovs. 

" vnop-ovfj Koi daK'qaei iyKparcias vel sim. 

^ depiiXia. ' dp^TTj. 



264 



BOOK IV « 

1. (Gen. xviii. 1-2) Why does (Scripture) say, " And the 
Lord God '' appeared to Abraham "^ at the oak of Mambre,'' 
when he was sitting in the heat of day * at the entrance 
of his tent ; and he lifted up his eyes " ^ ? 

The literal meaning <> seems to me quite clear. But it 
is only necessary to explain the tree allegorically through 
the Chaldaean'' speech. According to Heracleitus,* our 
nature [a tree] likes to hide itself.' Now, in the first place, 
it is proper to recognize that the interpretation of Mambre 
is " from sight," * and this means something like the 
following. Just as being wise comes from wisdom,^ and 
being prudent comes from prudence,"* and having various 
dispositions comes from these (various dispositions), so 

<* Book IV, which is about as long as the combined first 
three books of the Qvxiestiones in Genesin, originally com- 
prised Books IV, V and VI, as some ancient mss. indicate. 
See the Introduction. 

» Heb. " YHWH " ; lxx and Arm. O.T. " God." 

" LXX and Heb. " to him." 

^ Heb. " Mamre." 

* So Heb. ; LXX and Arm. O.T. " at midday." 

' So Heb. and Arm. O.T. ; lxx " and looking up with 
his eyes." 

" TO prjTov. ^ i.e. Hebrew. 

* Cf. Diels-Kranz, Fragmenta der Vorsokratiker^ B 123 
[10] rj <f)vais KpvTTTeadai (fx-Xel (from Porphyry). The Arm. car 
" tree " is out of place here. 

' Arm. here uses two verbs, both of which render KpvTrreadai. 

* aiTo opdaecos (or opcofievtov), as if from Heb. mim-mar^ eh. 
The same etymology is given in De Migratione 165. 

' ao<j)ias. "• a(jt)<f>poavvrjs. 

265 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

in the case of the senses" the act of touching comes 
from touch, and tasting from taste, and hearing from the 
auditory sense, and seeing necessarily comes from sight. 
This is what enriches the spiritual, ** clear-sighted and 
excellent mind, which in Chaldaean is called Mambre, and 
in Armenian," " from sight " by enabling it to see better ** 
and to be sharp-sighted * and unsleeping, seeing not only 
the created world, ^ the forms " of which it is the part of 
philosophy to see, but its Father and Creator, the uncreated 
God/ For of what use would it be for Him to come and 
not be seen ? And since He is incomprehensible,* not only 
to the human race but also to all the purest parts of heaven, 
He caused to shine forth, as it were, a certain radiance, 
which we most properly call " form,"^ and caused this 
radiance of light to shine around the whole soul, and filled 
it with an incorporeal and more than heavenly light. And 
being guided '' by this, the mind '■ is brought by "* form 
to the archetype." For what is said" is better fitted to 
and harmonized with sight than with all the organs,'' since 
it is through sight that a vision is apprehended. « And 

" Tois alad'qaeai. * nvevfiariKov. 

" Sic ! The original, of course, had " in Greek " or " in 
our language." 

** The syntax is not altogether clear. Aucher renders, 
" Hoc est, quod spiritual! perspicacique mente sana, puta 
Mambre, sive visu ditat animum, praestans ei ut melius 
videat." 

•^ rov yevrjTov Koafiov. 

^ TO, €1877 (or TO? (xop<f)ds). 

^ Tov ayevrfTOV deov. 

* aKaTaX-q-rTTos, here rendered by two Arm. words. 

' ethos (or fiop<f>-qv). * lyyou/Liei'os'. 

' 6 vovs. "* Or "through." 

" npos TO apx^TViTOV. 

" i.e. in Scripture, about God's appearing to Abraham. 

'" i.e. the other organs of sense. Aucher's rendering seems 
to me to miss the point, " siquidem visu potius quam cunctis 
instrumentis sensus coaptavit symphoniam dictam." 

' i/oeirat. 

266 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

in the second place, since the extremes'' are wonderful 
— both He who appeared, for He is God, and he to whom 
He appeared, for he it was who saw, (Scripture) has very 
symbolically ^ placed between them both an oak-tree, 
which is most pOAverful and sovereign. And inasmuch as 
it is a tree that has been domesticated from a rather 
wild one," it indicates ** the wise man who is provided with 
eyes/ And beginning to see the truly existent One,^ the 
excellent and powerful and sovereign ruler of all things, 
he sees a wild (tree) unrestrainedly possessed by density," 
and the limit of unrestraint which contends, and the 
radiance which resists until it is reconciled with seeing.* 
For the trunk of the tree* is wild, but its fruit is the 
domesticated acorn, ^ which was given to man as food 
earlier than wheat ; and for this reason they ascribed 
life to it (as) its principle,^ considering the oak '■ to be the 
temple and altar of the only God. For, like the laurel of 
the sun,*" it comes to the aid of health. And the turnings ** 
of the sun clearly show forth the yearly seasons, of which 

" Apparently Philo means that God and Abraham were 
the two end-points in the relation, and the oak of Mambre 
the mid-point. '' avfi^oXiKwrepov. 

" i^ dypiov ti. ^ aiVt'TTerat. 

* Lit. " eyed." Possibly the original was 6<f>6aXfii^6ix€vov 
" grafted " but there is no other reference here to tree- 
grafting. ^ Tov ovTCos "Ovra. 

" The Arm. seems literally to render ttvkvottjtl Karexonevov 
aKcjXTJTws dypioVf whatever that means. 

'^ The above is a literal translation, which is admittedly 
unintelligible. Aucher very freely renders, or rather para- 
phrases, " ita tamen ut expedite et libere splendorem obvians 
renitentem, placidum redderet oculis." 

* The compound stelnatounk is not listed in the great Arm. 
dictionary. Aucher renders less accurately, " planta ipsa." 

^ (f)r)y6s (or jSaAavo?) oiVetos. 

* dpxw (?) ; Aucher has " ut propriam facultatem." 

' TT^V 8pVV. 

"* Probably a reference to the laurel of Apollo Daphne- 
phoros. 

" at rponai, i.e. the solstices. 

267 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

one brings mild temperateness," and the other brings about 
severe intemperateness (and) sickness. Now the ever- 
virginal olive-tree * is of the purest substance which the 
inerrant sphere *= attains, for olive-oil is the material of 
light, and radiant in form is the heaven in which are the 
light-giving stars. Wherefore it is customary to call most 
of them ^ not what they themselves are but after the most 
sovereign and chief of them, (namely) the oak, in places 
where trees and groves are especially dense and thick, 
even though the oak does not seek any payment of tribute." 
And they are called oak-cutters ^ who cut down fir-trees " 
and cedars and the like, and even others, of the timber 
of which it is usual to erect what are called dryphaktoi.^ 
And the fruits of trees of all kinds, both cultivated and 
wild, are called oak-fruits* and olives. And " oak-ripe "^ 
is what they call those (fruits) that ripen on the stalk. 
And the name of oak and olive is given to all (trees) as 
sovereign and chief. And rightly is He said to have 
appeared to him when seated, since sitting is a state of 
tranquillity and ^ peace of body. Now the mind of the 
virtuous man, when it sits in restful quietness and secure 
peace, wishing to bear a likeness to the unwearied and 
unchanging true being of God, which is of an intelligible 
nature and a thing of non-living life,' so far as is possible 

" evKpaaiav. 

^ rj deiirapdevos e'Aaia, here perhaps considered a variety 
of 8d(f>vr), cf. Strabo 16. 3. 6 on the trees of Arabia. 
" rj dirXavris a<f>aLpa, i.e. the sphere of the fixed stars. 
^ i.e. trees. 

* Prob. T1/X17V <f>6pov. Aucher less aptly renders, " ulti- 
onem," ignoring Arm. hark " tribute." ^ SpvrjKOJToi. 

^ Arm. elat is not defined in dictionaries available to me. 
1 have followed Aucher's rendering. 

^ Arm. transliterates 8pv<f>aKToi " rails, balconies," etc. 

* Prob. pdXavoL, which includes acorns, dates, etc. 
^ i.e. " tree-ripe " — Spweirds. 

* Lit. " a state (e^is) and tranquillity of." 

' dfiia>Tov piov. Aucher renders the whole clause ellipti- 
cally, " illam quam secundum intelligibilem vitam laboris 
nesciam, similitudinem veri Entis Dei volens imitari." 
268 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

for human nature," describes a form that is very obscure 
in comparison with the archetype.'' But the sitting at 
the entrance of his tent seems to be a symbol," that is, 
of the body, which the divine and holy Scriptures in 
another place call a " tunic of skin,"** as if of the soul, for 
(through the body) are the paths of colours, forms, voices, 
elements * and vapours, and everything that is at all sense- 
perceptible. And it is fitting for the virtuous reason^ to 
sit by the senses and be a doorkeeper " lest anything harm- 
ful slip within and be the cause of harm to the soul, inas- 
much as it is able to preserve it unharmed and whole and 
unaffected by any evil. For the senses of foolish men are 
left stranded without protection and abandoned to them- 
selves, and there is no one of them at all who stands at 
the entrance to exclude useless and harmful impressions.'* 
Wherefore many desperate misfortunes find their way 
within, no less voluntary than involuntary, and because 
of these, which shamelessly and unopposed find their way 
in, impressions* are engraved upon the mind, and by 
these the soul is shaken and agitated day and night, since 
the senses are left without protection and abandoned to 
their own devices. 

And excellently is it said that the vision occurred at 
midday,' for this is the most luminous (hour) in the whole 
length of the day. Thus, symbolically it sets before us ^ 
the intelligible sun,^ (which) sends out its incorporeal ray* 

* Aucher wrongly transposes the rendering of " for 
human life " to the next clause. 

'' Aucher goes astray in rendering, " humana natura 
similem originali describit obscuram formam." 
" avfi^oXov. 
'' Cf. QG i. 53 on Gen. iii. 21. 

* Or " humours." 

^ ru) (TTTOvBaLU) Xoyiafiw. 

" dvpcjpov. ^ <f)ain-aaias. 

* Aucher amplifies in rendering, " turpes ideae." 

^ Above, in quoting Scripture, Philo writes " in the heat 
of the day." 

* avfX^oXLKws ivavTLOV napicrTrjai. 

* TOV VOTJTOV TJXlOV. 

269 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

most luminously and splendidly upon pure souls,* which 
gaze directly into the rays and behold them ; and piety, 
after passion is removed, ** makes the heaven familiar. But 
they are not able to gaze at it for a long time, since that 
unmixed, undiluted, holy, pure, diffused and incorporeal 
light shines too brilliantly, and with its brightness blinds 
and dulls the eyes. But it seems to me that, since the light 
is purer and more luminous at midday, when impressions 
are seen more clearly, it wishes to illumine the mind of the 
wise man and have the rays shine about him with divine 
light, and make clearer and firmer the impressions of things 
that really exist," the rays being without shadow. 



2. (Gen. xviii. 2) What is the meaning of the words, 
" He saw,*^ and behold, three men were standing over 
him " * ? 

Most natural things ^ to those who are able to see does 
(Scripture) present, (namely) that it is reasonable " for one 
to be three and for three to be one, for they were one by a 
higher principle.'' But when counted with the chief powers, 
the creative and kingly,* He makes the appearance of 
three to the human mind. For this cannot be so keen of 
sight that it can see Him who is above the powers that 
belong to Him, (namely) God, distinct from anything else. 
For so soon as one sets eyes upon God, there also appear, 
together with His being,^ the ministering powers, so that 

* In the Arm. text the " and " before " pure souls " seems 
to be misplaced. 

^ Text uncertain. " rwv ovtojs ovrcov. 

'' Lxx and Heb. " he lifted his eyes and saw." 
" LXX eirdvco avrov. The verse is allegorically explained 
in De Ahrahamo 119-132 in much the same way as here. 
^ (f>vaiKa)TaTa. " eiKOS. 

^ /car' dvcorepov Xoyov. 

* aiiv Tals TTpcorais Suva/xeat, rfj iroirjTLKrj Koi rfj ^aaiXiKrj. 
Cf. QG ii. 51 notes. 

^ Or " essence " — ovaLa. Aucher renders less accurately, 
" una cum illo existentes apparent." 
270 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

in place of one He makes the appearance of a triad. For 
when the mind begins to have an apprehension of the 
Existent One," He is known to have arrived there, ** making 
(Himself) unique, and appearing as chief and sovereign. 
But, as I said a little earlier. He cannot be seen in His 
oneness without something (else), the chief powers that 
exist immediately " with Him, (namely) the creative, which 
is called God, and the kingly, which is called Lord. For 
(when Scripture) says, " he lifted up his eyes," (this means) 
not those of the body, for it is not possible to see God 
through the senses, but those of the soul. For in the 
moment of wisdom "^ He is seen with the eyes.* But the 
sight of many ignoble and idle souls is always blocked, 
since they are in a deep sleep and are never able to leap 
up and rouse themselves to the things of nature and to 
the sights and impressions therein. But the spiritual eyes 
of the virtuous man are awake and see ; or rather, he 
is sleepless because of his desire of seeing, and he spurs 
himself and leaps up to wakefulness. Wherefore it was 
well said in the plural that he opened, not one eye, but 
all the eyes which are in the soul, so that he was altogether 
an eye.^ And having become an eye, he begins to see the 
sovereign, holy and divine ' vision in such a way that the 
single appearance appears as a triad, and the triad as a 
unity. 

It is fitting to speak of what follows these words and 
not omit them. For not idly ^ is it said that " they stood 

" KaTdXrjipiv Tov "Ovtos. 
'' Meaning unclear to me. 

'^ €vdvs. 

'' Kaipo) ao<f)ias. 

* One may also render, " For at the (right) time He is seen 
with the eyes of wisdom." 

^ Aucher amplifies slightly in rendering, " ut totum 
totaliter oculum esse eum dixeris." 

" Perhaps in selecting these three adjectives, which render 
Kvpiav KoX ayiav koX deiav, Philo wishes to suggest that the 
central being of God is flanked (Trap* cVarepa is used in De 
Abrahamo 121) by His kingly and creative powers. 

^ OVK tlKij. 

271 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

over him." For God is above and over all generated 
creatures, and (so are) the divine powers that administer 
and oversee and govern. Now generally everything neces- 
sary has already been said, for. concerning the activity of 
things it is proper to see a vision in no casual manner " ; 
with a single turning of the eyes the mind apprehends a 
double appearance '' ; the one was of God coming with 
His two highest powers, by which He is served, (namely) 
the creative, through which He creates and operates the 
world, and the kingly, through which He rules what has 
come into being. And the other (appearance) was that 
of the strange men, not such men as one may happen 
to meet by chance, but most perfect of body according 
to human nature, and of venerable holiness. And being 
struck by either appearance, he was drawn toward seeing, 
now by one, now by the other. And he was not able to 
see just which of them was likely to be the true one.'' For 
the sake of safety and because of uncertainty and doubt 
he did not ignore (either of them), nor did he, like some, 
out of slothfulness forget them but received and appre- 
hended both appearances, thinking it better to accustom ^ 
his doubt, by truth rather than by falsehood, to the 
acquisition of two great virtues, (namely) holiness and 
love of mankind * — holiness, in so far as his gaze was fixed 
upon the one aspect,^ in which he saw God ; and love of 
mankind, in the other aspect, which is common participa- 
tion " with strangers. And that he was moved by either 

" Lit. the Arm. seems to render irepl yap ttjs raJv -npay- 
fidrcov ipyaaias -npiTTov iarl ov Trapepycos opaaiv iSeiv. Aucher 
renders, " de ipsa vero rerum causa non obiter visionem 
videre liceat " ; in a footnote to " causa " he adds, " ad 
verb, opere, quod accipio sicut opifice.'" The Arm. glossa- 
tor renders, " concerning the interpretation of things." 

* Of God with His powers, on the one hand, and of the 
three angels, on the other. 

" Aucher renders more freely, " quae ex illis certior 
credenda sit." 

^ The Arm. verb = e^i'^etv, otVciotJv, rifxepovv. 

* ooriOTT^TO? Koi (j>iXavdpo)TTia?. 

^ Ihiav. " fj,€Toxri Koivwvia^ vel Sim. 

272 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

appearance is clear from Scripture, for whatever is said 
concerning one or to one or by one is brought as evidence 
of an appearance as God, while whatever is said concerning 
several or to several is of an appearance as of strange men. 
For when it says,** " God appeared to him," and " Lord, 
if indeed I have found favour before Thee," and " Do not 
pass over thy servant," and, " Thus do as thou hast said," '' 
and when it is said to him, " Where is Sarah, thy wife ? ", 
and " Again I will come to thee at this time," and " God 
said to him, why did Sarah laugh ? " — all these passages 
point to His appearance as God. But the following indi- 
cate an appearance as of strange men : " And lifting up 
his eyes, he looked, and three men were standing over 
him," and " He ran to them," and " Let your feet be 
washed," and " Refresh yourselves under the tree," and 
" Eat," " and " He stood before them," and " The men 
got up from there." So that through both piety and love 
of man «* (Scripture) guides everyone who is considered 
civilized.' For in such civilized manner^ did the founder 
and chief of our race " make his way of life an example. 
Seeing the vision before his eyes, which was not constant, 
being at one time that of God, at another time that of 
strangers, he decided to show piety as toward God, and 
equal oneness and love of man toward the strangers. 
Some, taking this as a point of departure, have gone astray 
in their beliefs, for they have been struck by the notion 
that there are measures and weights of proportion and 
structure.* As the clever and considerably learned Homer 

** Gen. xviii. 2-15. 

* This particular phrase does not indicate that one person 
is speaking. 

" In the plural. 

^ 8i' ivoe^eias koL (f>iXav9pu}7rLas. 

* Lit. " who is written in polity (TroAireta)." 
^ 8ta ToiavTTjs TToXiTclas. 

^ i.e. Abraham. 

'' Probably we should supply the words " in God," as does 
Aucher, who renders, " hinc ansa capta, nonnulli mensuram 
pondusque harmoniae corporeae excogitarunt (in Deo) 
abnormi opinione." 

273 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

with beauty of sound describes the conduct of life, it is 
not right to be harmfully arrogant," for he says that the 
Deity in the likeness of a beautiful human form is believed 
to appear many times, (in this) not diverging from the 
belief of a polytheist. His verses are as follows. " And 
yet the gods in the likeness of strangers from other lands, 
in all kinds of form go about unknown, seeing and be- 
holding the many enmities of men and their lawlessness 
and also their good laws." ^ 



3. (Gen. xviii. 2) Why does (Scripture) say, " And when 
he saw (them), he ran to meet them " and prostrated him- 
self upon the ground "'*.'* 

It gives a warning to those who without reflexion and 
taking thought rush upon whatever happens to be there, 
without first thinking and looking, and it teaches them 
not to rush out before they clearly see and grasp what the 
matter is. Wherefore (Scripture) says, " Having seen, he 
ran," in order that when the perception of sight has first 
taken place, there may afterwards come an act that is 
irreproachable and pleasing. But excellently is it said 
that after his seeing, he then " ran forward," for having 
seen, he did not delay or tarry, but (like) one who has seen 
something worthy of this, hastened and ran toward them. 
Moreover, very discriminatingly does (Scripture) say that 
he made prostration " on the ground," for it would not 
be to mortal men that he prostrated himself but to Him 

<* This obscure clause is somewhat diff'erently rendered by 
Aucher, " quern admodum severus ille, et sufficiens in scientia 
exponit Homerus, decore vitae ut pulchrae harmoniae non 
licere superbire, ac noxam subire." 

* Od. xvii. 485-488 ; the same passage is paraphrased by 
Philo in De Somniis i. 233 with the comment, " The report 
may not be a true one but it is at any rate profitable and 
beneficial that it is made." 

" Lit. " ran forward to them." Philo omits the words 
" from the entrance of the tent." 

^ LXX TTpocr€KVvqa€v eVi rrjv yijv. 

274 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

who is above heaven and earth, and is God of the whole 
world in common." 



4. (Gen. xviii. 3) (What is the meaning of the words), 
" Lord, if I have found favour before Thee, do not pass 
over * Thy servant " ? 

Now " his mind ^ clearly forms an impression with more 
open eyes and more lucid vision, not roaming about nor 
wandering off with the triad, and being attracted thereto 
by quantity and plurality, but running toward the one. 
And He manifested Himself without the powers * that 
belong to Him, so that he saw His oneness directly before 
him, as he had known it earlier in the likeness of a triad. 
But it is something great that he asks, (namely) that God 
shall not pass by nor remove to a distance and leave his 
soul desolate and empty.^ For the limit <^ of happiness is 
the presence '' of God, which completely fills the whole soul 
with His whole incorporeal and eternal light. And (the 
limit) of misery is (His) passing on the way, for imme- 
diately thereafter comes heavy and profound darkness and 
possesses (the soul). Wherefore also the fratricide Cain 
says, " Great is the guilt of my punishment that Thou 
leavest me,"* indicating that there is no greater punish- 
ment for the soul than to be abandoned by God. More- 
over, in another place Moses says, " Lest the Lord be 

" KOlvfj. 

^ So Lxx, /X17 irapeXdrjs. Heb. " do not pass from." 
" i.e. on this occasion. 



o vovs. 



* av€v TU)v 8vvdix€0}v, i.e. the creative and kingly attri- 
butes. 

^ The Arm. uses two words to render epi/^i/v and two to 
render kcvt^v. 
" d opos. 
" The Arm. uses two words to render napovaia. 

* Gen. iv. 13, where lxx reads fxei^ojv -q atrm fiov rod 
dtfyeOijvaL jjlc. Cf. QG i. 73 where Philo takes this to mean 
that Cain is punished by being abandoned by God, not that 
his guilt is too great to be overlooked. 

275 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

removed from them," " showing that for the soul to be 
separated from the contemplation of the Existent One ^ is 
the most complete of evils. For these reasons he " attempts 
to lead the people toward God, not (any men), for this is 
not possible, but god-loving souls which can (be led), when 
a heavenly love ^ and desire have come upon them and 
seized them. 



5. (Gen. xviii. 4) Why does he again say, in the plural, 
" Let water be taken and let them wash * your feet, and 
do you refresh yourselves ^ under the thick " tree " ? 

This again applies to the other appearance, in accordance 
with which he thought them strangers, having reached a 
stage of knowledge which was not certain, but again being 
attracted and strongly drawn by a most excellent and 
divine countenance.'^ Wherefore he does not give a 
command like a lord and master, nor does he presume to 
offer washing of the feet to freemen or servants but (regards) 
Him who had made Himself directly visible as the one who 
gives commands, saying, " Let water be taken," and does 
not add by whom. And again (in saying) " Let them wash 
(your) feet," he does not make clear whom nor make it 
known exactly, because, as it seems to me, he did not have 
confidence and assurance concerning the sense-perceptible 
appearance as (being one) of men seen, but rather that it 
was intelligible, as if a divine manifestation had been made. 
Something like this is clear from Scripture, (namely) that 

" Probably, as Aucher suggests, a reference to Ex. xix. 22, 
where lxx reads fjLrJTTOTe dTraXXd^r] air' avrcov Kvpios. 

^ rod "Ovros. 

" Apparently Moses is meant. '^ epcos. 

* Philo reads vupaTcnaav, as do some lxx mss. ; most lxx 
Mss. have vLifidroi. The Masoretic Heb. has 2nd pi. impera- 
tive, " wash ye," but the consonantal {i.e. unvocalized) Heb. 
can also be read as 3rd pi. perfect, here meaning "let them 
wash." 

•^ LXX Karatpv^are. 

No adjective is used in lxx or Heb. 

^ irpoauiTTOv or oi/reojs". 

276 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

men are sanctified when washed with water, while the 
water itself (is sanctified) by the divine foot. Now 
symbolically <* the foot is the last ^ and lowest (part) of the 
body, while to the air is allotted the last portion " of 
divine things, for it animates ** the congregated things that 
have been created.* For if (the air) does not touch and 
move this (water), it dies ; and it becomes alive through 
nothing else than having air mixed in with it. Wherefore 
not ineptly ^ is it said at the beginning of the genesis of 
creatures " that " the spirit of God was borne upon the 
waters," which (Scripture) in allegorizing ^ on this occasion 
symbolically calls " the foot." 



6. (Gen. xviii. 5) Why does he say in this fashion, " I 
will take bread, and eat ye," ' and not, " Take ye " ? 

Here again he shows his doubt and his inclination toward 
either appearance. For when it is said, " I will take," he 
imagines it to be God, to Whom he does not dare to say, 
" Take '' food." But when (he says), " Eat," ^ he imagines 
it to be the three strange men. That is the literal meaning.' 
But as for the deeper meaning,*" when the mind begins to 
prepare and order itself and to take the divine and holy 
foods, which are the laws and forms of wisdom," then it is 
symbolically ** said to eat also of divine (food) ; and this 
is the food that is fitting for the heavenly Olympians,*' 

" aviM^oXiKws. ^ TO eaxcLTOv. 

" 6 eaxo-TOS KXijpos. '^ ifivxiov. 

« TO. crvvaxOevra KTiard vel sim.y i.e. the gathering together 
of the waters, mentioned in Gen. i. 10 (lxx to. oaar-qfiaTa 

TWV uSctTCOv). 

^ OVK OLTTO OKOTTOV. 

" Gen. i. 2. ^ dXXrjyopwv. 

* LXX XTJfxipOfjiai dprov, Kai <{>dy€ad€. 

^ Imperative sing. 

^ Imperative plural. ' to prjrov. 

"* TO rrpos Stavoiav. 

" oi vofjLoi Koi al iSc'ai rrjs aojiias. 

" av^^oXiKcos. 

f Aucher renders, " caelestem Olympum." 

277 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

(namely) the desires and yearnings of the rational soul,** 
which it uses for the apprehension of wisdom and the 
acquisition of perfect virtue." 

7. (Gen. xviii. 5) Why does He say,*" " So do as thou hast 
said " ? 

He reproves those of two minds and two tongues, who 
say one thing and do the opposite. But the virtuous man ** 
He sets apart * and determines that he shall be saved ^ 
through either order," his words first being inclined toward 
deeds, and his deeds toward words.'* For just as his words 
are, so is his life,* and as his life is, so do the words of the 
wise man appear. 

*S. (Gen. xviii. 6-7) Why do they all hasten } For 
(Scripture) says, " Abraham hastened to the tent to Sarah 
and said to her. Hasten and mix three measures of wheat- 
flour^ and make ash-cakes.*^ And he ran to the cattle and 
took a tender '■ calf and gave it to the boy,"* and he hastened 
to do this." " 

This is a eulogy of the virtuous man according to either 

" Trjs XoyLKTJs 'pvx'fjs. 

^ Trjs reXeias dpcTTJs. 

" Most Lxx Mss. have efTrev. Some lxx mss. and ancient 
versions have etTrav. Heb. has " they said." 

^ Tov aTTOvddlov. 

^ Or " approves of." 

^ awC€adaL. Aucher renders less literally, " vivere." 

" 8t' ixaripas Td^€cos. 

^ Xoyoi contrasted with epya. 

* /Sio? or Staycoy^. 

' r>xx aefiiSdXeios. 

'' LXX iyKpv(f)las. Heb. 'tigoth is rendered in A.V. as 
" cakes upon the hearth." 

' LXX and Heb. add " and goodly." 

^ i.e. his servant. 

" LXX TTOLTJoai avTo, rendering Heb. laasoth *6th6, which 
here means not "to do this " but " to prepare him " (the 
calf). 
278 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

appearance." For if it was the strange men whom he 
believed to have come to him, he is to be admired for his 
humanity and hospitahty.* And if (he thought) that it 
was God who had come to him together with His chief 
powers, he was blessed and fortunate. Now, as to what 
they did for the appearance of the strange men, Abraham 
and his wife and his boy must be thought hospitable 
persons. But as to what they did for the powers of God, 
they must no longer be thought hospitable persons but 
incorporeal." And the man and wohian are (to be con- 
sidered) ideas,** one being that of the most pure mind,* 
which is called Abraham, and the other that of the perfec- 
tion of virtue,^ which is called Sarah, while that which is 
the utterance of thought " is " named " boy." And without 
delay or hesitation the mind and the virtues hasten under 
pressure * to please ' and serve God and His powers. And 
the mind rules * in the manner of an overseer ' and becomes 
a helper and stimulator in that which it is proper to do, 
while virtue shows unhesitating speed in the completion of 
the three portions and the ash-cakes. Speech,"* moreover, 
brings the offering that is commanded. 

And most natural " is the passage concerning the three 
measures," for in reality " all things are measured by three, 

" i.e. either the three " strange men " or God. 

* TTJs (fyiXavOpcDTTias Koi ttjs <f>t,Xo$€vias. 

" dacofiaTovs. ** iSe'as. 

" Tov KaQapoirdrov vov. 

^ rfXeiOTTjTOS TTJs dp€Trjs. 

" The Arm. lit. = irpo^opa rod Xoyov. Elsewhere in Philo 
the expressions o Kara 7Tpo(f>opdv Xoyos or Xoyos Trpo<f>opiK6s are 
used. 

'' There is an intrusive rel. pron. before the verb in the Arm. 
text. 

* eVeiyo/xevoi vel sim. ^ Or " to attend." 

* Or " leads (them)." 
' iviardrov vel sim. 

"• o Xoyos. " <f>vaLK(x)TaTOS. 

" For a somewhat different allegorizing of the three 
measures and ash-cakes see De Sacr. A belts 59-62. 
" Prob. ovrcos. 

279 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

having a beginning, middle and end. And each of these 
partial things * is empty if it does not have (the others), 
similarly constituted.^ Wherefore Homer not ineptly says 
that " all things are divided into three." " And the 
Pythagoreans assume that the triad among numbers, and 
the right-angled triangle among figures are the foundation 
of the knowledge of all things."* And so, one measure is 
that by which the incorporeal and intelligible world was 
constituted.* And the second measure is that by which 
the perceptible heAven was established in the fifth 
(element), attaining to a more wonderful and divine essence, 
unaltered and unchanged in comparison with these (things 
below), ^ and remaining the same." And the third measure 
is the way in which sublunary things were made out of the 
four powers,'' earth, water, air and fire,* admitting genera- 
tion and corruption.^ Now the measure of the incorporeal 

" eKaoTov Tcov Kara fiepos. 

^ This sentence is rendered more freely by Aucher, 
" quorum utrumque inane comperitur absque tertia parte, 
carens exlstentia." 

" Iliad XV. 189 rpixBa hk -navra SeSaarat. 

^ Staehle, p. 25, cites Joh. Lydus, p. 25, 12-16, who is 
probably dependent upon Philo, and quotes the same passage 
from Homer. Lydus' text continues, Sid /xev tovto ol Yivda- 
y6p€L0i Tpidha fiev iv dpidfxots, ev 8e axrjpiaaL to 6p6oyu)viov rpl- 
ycovov VTTorldevraL aroix^lov rijs tcov oXcov yeveoeojs (Arm. Philo 
= yvcoaecos) . 

* Joh. Lydus has ev pukv ovv pLerpov eari, Kad^ o avvearr) 6 
dacopLaros Kal vorjros KoapLos. 

^ Aucher's rendering, " secundum illud," misses the point 
of the contrast between the heavenly sphere and the sub- 
lunary regions. 

" Joh. Lydus reads slightLy differently Seurepov Se pLerpov, 
KaO' o €7Tay7] 6 alaOriTOS ovpavos, ttc/xtt-tt^v Xaxojv kol deiorepav 
ovolav, drpeTTTOV Kal apLerd^oXov. 

^ So also Joh. Lydus, rplrov Se Kad^ 6 iS'qpiiovpyTJdr] rd vtto 
aeXrjvTjv, €K tcov Teaadpwv 8vvdpL€OJV (not otolx^lcov, as one would 
expect). 

* The four elements are not named in Lydus' text. 

' yiveaiv kol ^dopdv emScxo/xeva, as in Joh. Lydus, whose 
parallel text ends here. 

280 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

forms « by which the intelligible world was constituted 
must be said to be the eldest of causes.* And (the cause) 
of the fifth, perceptible and circular essence,* which the 
heaven has had allotted to it, is the creative power of the 
Existent One,** for it has found an imperishable, pure and 
unmixed blessing * in obtaining an immortal and incor- 
ruptible portion. But the kingly (power) ^ (is the cause) 
of sublunary things, those that (are subject to) change and 
alteration because they participate in generation and 
corruption. But (He gives) speech as an aid for guidance 
in a certain one " when something is to be done, for the 
sake of those who carry out and complete something. 
And to those who sin in some measure (there is assigned) 
corrective reformation through deserved punishments and 
chastisements. But those who commit indescribable 
and inexpressible wrongs are punished through retributive 
chastisement and banishment.'' 

So that truly and properly speaking, God alone is the 
measure of all things, both intelligible and sense-percep- 
tible, and He in His oneness is likened to a triad because of 
the weakness * of the beholders. For the eye of the soul, 
which is very lucid and bright, is dimmed before it falls 
upon and gazes at Him who is in His oneness without 
anyone else at all being seen. For just as the eyes of the 
body when they are weak, often come upon' a double 

" TcDv daconaTCDV iSecov. 
^ TO TTpea^vTarov twv aiTta»v. 
'^ i.e. the sphere of the fixed stars. 

^ rj Tov "OvTos TToi-qTiKrj bvvafiLs. On the two powers of 
God see QG ii. 51, iv. 2 et al. 

* More literally " benevolence." 
^ 17 ^aaiXiKTj {Svvafiis). 

" The Arm. seems lit. to render tov Xoyov (ws) iv ivL Tivt 
■qyefiovias avriX-q^tv, but the meaning is obscure to me. 
Aucher renders, " verbum vero certum regiminis auxilium 
praebet." 

* Apparently banishment from God's presence is meant. 

* 8ia TTjv dadeveiav. 

' The first of the two Arm. verbs used here I cannot 
translate. 

281 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

appearance from a single lamp, so also in the case of the 
soul's vision, it is not able to attain to the One as one but 
finds it natural to receive an impression of the triad in 
accordance with the appearances that attend the One like 
ministers, (namely) the chief powers. 

Wherefore Moses, the chief prophet and chief messenger," 
desired to see the One without His powers, as one in His 
oneness, to which no one by art or wisdom or anything else 
that exists * hoped to be adequate or to reach the upper 
regions by advancing upward from below. For he wished 
to receive the chiefest of all (blessings) " and to be granted 
the mercy of having (Him) appear to the god-loving soul 
all alone without any other (being present), for he says, 
" Show ITiyself to me that I may see Thee knowingly.'' " 

But most excellently, after the three measures, does 
(Scripture) speak of the ash-cakes, not only because know- 
ledge and understanding of the wisdom of the Father and 
His two highest powers are hidden * from many, but also 
because such an inquiry ^ should not be spoken of to all. 
For to reveal mysteries to uninitiated and unworthy men 
is the act of one who destroys and sacks and undermines 
the laws of the mysteries of divine perfection." O thrice 
happy and thrice fortunate soul, in which God has not 
disdained to dwell and move and to make it His palace and 
home, that the giver of joy may have joy, for this is really 

^ Lit. " is in genesis." 

". TO apxiKov. 

^ Cf. LXX of Ex. xxxiii. 13 efx<f>dvia6v fioi aeavrov, yvwarcos 
t8u) ae, which is quoted by Philo in Leg. AIL iii. 101 and 
elsewhere. The Heb. has " Show me Thy ways that I may 
know Thee." 

« Philo plays on the word iyKpv<f>las " ash-cakes," as if 
meaning " hidden." 

" The Arm. translator has evidently mistaken tcActi^s 
" initiation " for TeAeidriyTos " perfection " ; cf. the Greek 
frag, from Dam. Par. roiy dixv-qrot^ eKXaXelv fivcTT-jpia Kara- 
XvovTOS eari rovs deafiovs rijs UpaTiKrjs reAer^S". 
282 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

genuine and true." For while those who receive men '' 
show joy and conviviaHty, the most pure mind " is 
wholly filled and overflowing with the appearance of God, 
and it (alone) may properly be said to feast and rejoice 
lavishly. And may it not be that this is fitting and proper ? 
For the host is in need and in want, while He who came to 
him is in need of nothing but is most rich and great,'' and 
after Him come fountains of ever-flowing good, from which 
not all men but only those who are well and genuinely 
purified can drink, being invited to symposia of joy, in 
which the souls " of prophets and messengers rejoice and 
eat the food of the voluntary laws ^ of imperishable and 
pure wisdom at the invitation and through the entertain- 
ment of God. 



9. (Gen. xviii. 8) Why does (Scripture) say, " He placed 
(it) before them," and they ate " ? 

It is clear that " they ate " (is said) symbolically'' and 
not of food, for these happy and blessed natures do not eat 
food or drink red wine,' but it is (an indication) of their 
readiness in understanding and assenting to those who 
appeal to them and put their trust in them.^ For just as 
human guests who are hospitably received and are glad- 

" Apparently the word " joy " is to be understood. 

^ i.e. into their homes. 

" o KadapdoTaros vovs. 

^ Cf. De Abrahamo 167 eV ols hoKwv ianav 6 ^evoSoxo? 

€l(TTtaTO. 

* Or " spirits." 

^ iKOvaioiv voficov, cf. De Mut. Nom. 26 tKOVoiovs dnavras 
vo^ovs (Colson conj. n(x>fiovs). The text in both passages is 
suspect. 

" Lxx TTap€dr]K€v avTols. 

^ aVjJL^oXLKWS. 

* Cf. De Abrahamo 118 " It is a marvel indeed that 
though they neither ate nor drank they gave the appearance 
of both eating and drinking." 

' Aucher renders more freely, " sed annuendi benignitati 
fidenter rogantis indicio est." 

28S 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

dened with food rejoice in their host and entertainer, so 
does the Deity in those whom He finds sincerely and 
genuinely pleasing to Him. For, more figuratively," the 
pious and worthy life of a virtuous man is the food of God. 



*10. (Gen. xviii. 8) Why is it said, " And he was standing 
before them '' under the tree " ? 

That he had a multitude of servants is clear from the 
flock of 318 house-slaves " with whom he fought the kings 
of the gentiles.'' (But) he himself becomes an attendant 
and servant « to show his hospitality, if he believed them 
to be men, and his worthy way of life and love of God, if 
(he believed them to be) the divine powers appearing with 
the Father, for he thinks it right to perform the service of 
piety himself.^ 



11. (Gen. xviii. 9) Why does He again say " in the singu- 
lar, " Where is Sarah, thy wife, and he answered, In the 
tent " ? 

The literal meaning * is clear from what has been said 
before. But as for the deeper meaning,* (he so answers) 
because in some sense virtue is the wife and consort of the 
wise man,^' and through her are born virtuous thoughts and 

" TpomKcorepov. Aucher has " commodius." 

* So Arm. O.T. : lxx TrapcicmJKei avrots : Heb. " was 
standing by (or " over ") them." In the Heb. the whole 
clause precedes the phrase " and they ate," which Philo, 
following the lxx order of words, has discussed in the pre- 
ceding section. 

* otVoycvcDr, cf. Gen. xiv. 14. ^ ra>v dXXo<f>vXcov. 

* Lit. " attendant of service." 

^ Cf. the Greek frag, (paraphrastic) from Procopius, 
avTOvpya)v 8e tt)v VTrrjpeaiav. 

" Some LXX mss. and the Heb. have " they said." 

^ TO prjTOV. * TO irpos Stavoiav. 

^ rpoiTOV Tiva yvvrj kol avfi^Los eari rov ao(f>ov rj dper-q. In 
the parallel allegory, Quod Deterius 59-61, Philo actually sub- 
stitutes " virtue " for " Sarah " in citing the biblical verse. 
284 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

fine deeds and praiseworthy words. To this question he 
replies, " Behold, virtue is not only in my mind * but also 
in an empty and safe tent, in my body, extending itself and 
spreading as far as the senses * and the other functional 
parts " (of the body). For in accordance with virtue I see 
and hear and smell and taste and touch, and I make other 
movements in accordance with wisdom, health, fortitude 
and justice. ** " 



12. (Gen. xviii. 10) Why does He say in the singular, 
" Returning I will come to thee at this season at hours,* 
and a son will be born to Sarah thy wife " ? 

Why (He speaks) in the singular has long ago ^ been 
said. For in what is now related it is not men but the 
Father of all whom he imagines " to have come with His 
powers. But His gracious act ^ He postpones in order to 
give his soul a more certain test of visitation. For He 
wishes to make his thirst greater by the delay and to give 
him an unmeasured desire for piety.* But " season " ^ 
is not merely the name of a time * (but is found) together 
with completion,^ for the season is the time (required) for 

" eV to) e'/xo) vco. 

** ras aladrjaeis. 

" TOL opyaviKo. ixeprj. The same phrase is used in De Con- 
gressu 115. 

** The original prob. had the four Platonic virtues, ^pdvr/ats, 
aoi<f)poavvr], avSpela, hiKaLoavvT]. 

* Lxx Kara tov Kaipov tovtov els wpas (Arm. O.T. " at this 
time in these days "). The Heb. has simply " at the time of 
living," prob. meaning " at the time of giving birth." This 
biblical phrase is briefly commented on by Philo in De 
Migratione 126 and De Abrahamo 132 ; in the former passage 
Philo has eiV a>pas as here, in the latter, els viorra " next year." 

^ TTciAai: Aucher " iam." Prob. the reference is to QG 
iv. 2. » (ftavra^erai. 

^ rrjv Xtt/3tv. ' dneipov irodov ttjs evae^eias. 

^ Kaipos. ^ xpovov. 

^ avv Tw TTepaivew {nX-qpovv^ Xveiv, etc.). The sense is not 
clear. Aucher renders, " sed cum debita solutione rerum." 

285 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

completing a reformation." And clear evidence of the com- 
pletion of every reformation ^ is what He has said." For 
it is peculiar ** to the divine power to complete something 
by the reformation of those also to whom He wishes to 
show favour.* And He mentions " hours " not so much 
(in the sense) of length of time and intervals as for the 
aptness of order. For it was natural ^ to order and arrange 
the period of the year by seasons. And these He makes 
a symbol ^ of the soul which comes from disorder into order 
and proper arrangement,'' and to this He says he will 
grant, if He sees it remaining in order and evenness, a 
better progeny through a nature that rises * by itself.^ 



13. (Gen. xviii. 10) Why does (Scripture) say, " And 
Sarah heard, for she was by the entrance of the tent behind 

him " * .? 

** eTravopdcooccos. 

^ Emending the noun oullout'iun from nom. to gen. case. 

" This obscure sentence is differently punctuated and con- 
strued by Aucher, who renders, " persolvendi autem omnem 
rectitudinem. Manifestam huic facit fidem ille, qui {vet, 
illud quod) dixit." 

•^ iStov. 

« Aucher renders differently and, I think, less accurately, 
" proprium enini ac certum est per divinam virtutem persolvi 
quidquam recte, sicut et per illos quibus velit concedere." 

^ CLKOS. " avfi^oXov. 

^ els rd^iv Kox d^iov Koofiov. 

* Or " proceeds." 

^ The syntax is not clear. Aucher renders, " generationem 
meliorem natura ipsius per se edocti," but there is no indica- 
tion of a comparison in the Arm. The " nature that rises by 
itself " is perhaps an allusion to Isaac who is elsewhere 
referred to by Philo as a symbol of self-taught virtue. 

^ LXX Hdppa 8e TJKOvaev irpos rfj dvpa rrjs CKrjvijs ovaa 
oTTiadev avTov. For " she was behind him " Heb. has " it (or 
" he ") was behind him," possibly using the masc. pron. hu as 
a feminine, as occasionally in older Heb., in which case lxx 
renders correctly. 

286 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

The literal meaning * seems to be clear, but the deeper 
meaning * is perhaps as follows. Virtue " stands behind ^ 
the one who is virtuous by nature, not like a slave-boy 
but like a perfect administrator and governor,* who holds 
the reins in his hands, directs the entire soul and way of 
life. For those in front do not see those behind, while 
those who are behind see those who stand beside them. 
And the proper place for virtue to stand is at the entrance ; 
and the entrance to reflexion ^ is speech," and each of the 
senses is (the entrance) to a vital part of the soul. For 
when this ^ is near at hand, it must necessarily say and 
perceive what is fitting. 



14. (Gen. xviii. 11) Why does (Scripture) say, " Abraham 
and Sarah were old and advanced in days " * ? 

It tells us of the lawful years,^ teaching us that the 
foolish man is a child and a crude person, for even though 
he may be advanced in age, his folly produces childishness. 
But the wise man, even though he may be in the prime 
of youthfulness, is old, and virtue is old and venerable, 
since it is worthy of old age and higher honour. Wherefore 
rightly does (Scripture) speak of old age and being " ad- 
vanced in days," for it is fitting that days and months and 
years and all intervals and solar lengths (of time) should 
not be lacking to virtue, which nature has exalted with 
priority and headship. And in addition to these there is 
the substance of the light, or rather the mind ^ is luminous 
in the several disciplines of knowledge. And so this 

** TO prfTov. * TO irpos Siavoiav. 

* 17 dp€Ti7, symbolized by Sarah. 
'' Lit. " at the back side of." 

' <I)S TcAetos OLKOv6ixo9 Kal Kv^epvi^T-qs. 

^ Tu> XoyiafJLU). " o Xoyos. 

'^ i.e. virtue. * lxx irpo^e^rjKOTes. 

' errj vofjLLfjLa vel sim., apparently meaning lawfully re- 
sponsible or law-observant age rather than chronological 
age. One Arm. ms. has " wishes " for " years." 

* o vovs. 

287 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

symbol « purports to show that virtue is (composed) of 
all the sciences as light (is) of light.* 



15. (Gen. xviii. 11) What is the meaning of the words, 
" There ceased to be to Sarah the ways of women " '^ ? 

The literal meaning '^ is clear. For (Scripture) by a 
euphemism calls the monthly purification of women " the 
ways of women. ' ' But as for the deeper meaning,* it is to be 
allegorized ^ as follows. The soul has, as it were, a dwelling, 
partly men's quarters, partly women's quarters." Now 
for the men there is a place where properly dwell the 
masculine thoughts (that are) wise, sound, just, prudent, 
pious, filled with freedom and boldness,'' and kin to 
wisdom. And the women's quarters are a place where 
womanly opinions go about and dwell, being followers * 
of the female sex. And the female sex is irrational ^ and 
akin to bestial *= passions, fear, sorrow, pleasure and desire, 
from which ensue incurable weaknesses and ' indescribable 
diseases. He who is conquered by these is unhappy, while 
he who controls "* them is happy. And longing for and 

" TOVTO TO av^^oXov. 

^ The connexion of the last two sentences with the pre- 
ceding is not clear. Perhaps Philo refers to a comparison 
between Sarah (=:virtue) being "advanced in days" and 
the light of day. 

" LXX i^eXeiirev Se Sappa yiveadai ra yvvaiKia. Heb. has 
" there ceased to be to Sarah a way like (that of) women." 
This half-verse is commented on or referred to by Philo in De 
Cherubim 50, Quod Determs 28, De Poster. Caini 134, De 
Ehrletate 60, De Fuga 128, 167, De Somniis ii. 185. In all of 
these passages Philo briefly gives about the same allegorical 



explanation. as here. 
* TO Trpos Siavoiav. 
yvvaiKOiv^ here connected 


^ TO pr)r6v. 
^ dXXrjyopeiTat. 
with LXX TO. yvvaiKia ( =Ta 


KarafXYivia). 
* t,'t]\oyraL 
^ Or " irrational." 


'^ iXevdepias /cat TTapprjaias. 

^ dXoyov. 

' Lit. " of." 


"* Or " repels," " reduces " 


Aucher renders, " usus fuit 


(prudenter)." 




288 





GENESIS, BOOK IV 

desiring this happiness, and seizing a certain time to be 
able to escape from terrible and unbearable sorrow, which 
is (what is meant by) " there ceased to be the ways of 
women " — this clearly belongs to minds full of Law," 
which resemble the male sex and overcome passions and 
rise above all sense-pleasure and desire and are without 
sorrow and fear and, if one must speak the truth, without 
passion, '^ not zealously "^ practising apathy,** for this would 
be ungrateful * and shameless and akin to arrogance and 
reckless boldness, but that which is consistent with the 
argument given,^ (namely) cutting the mind off from 
disturbing and confusing passions. 



16. (Gen. xviii. 12) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And Sarah laughed within herself, saying. Not yet has 
anything happened until now," and my lord is old " ? 

The mind,'' which was about to be filled with joy and 
divine laughter, had not yet been freed from sorrow, fear, 
sense-pleasure and desire, by which it is shaken and com- 
pelled to stagger.* And when the mind is moved,^ it 
does not know laughter, except perhaps for its visible 

" vofiov or " religion " — dprjoK^las. 

^ aTTadets. 

" Variant " shamefully." 

** (iTra^eiav. 

^ Arm. angoy " non-existent " is clearly a scribal error 
for angoh " ungrateful." 

^ Text and meaning uncertain ; Aucher renders, " quae 
consistit juxta praedictum verbum," adding in a footnote, 
" ita MS. A, ubi C, D dicens vel prolativum verhum.'''' 

" LXX ovTTO) fi4v fjLOL yeyovev eto? rod vvv. The Heb. is 
different, " After I have become worn, will there be pleasure 
to me ? " The Arm. O.T. has a compromise, " What has 
not happened to me until now, will it then happen ? " This 
verse is commented on by Philo in De Mut. Norn. 166-169 ; 
see also De Spec. Leg. ii. 54. 

'' o vovs or ri Zvdvoia. 

* Kaprj^apetv. 

' i.e. by passion. 
SUPPL. I L 289 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

appearance," until a firm foundation is laid for a very strong 
and stable position ; for, in the fashion of the science of 
agriculture, virtue ^ does not appear only on the surface 
and lose its flowers, but it always lasts a long time in 
a flourishing state, being held togetlier by an invisible 
bond. Similarly does (Scripture) introduce the high priest " 
rejoicing inwardly and released '^ from all corporeal 
thoughts and entering into joy,^ for it says, " And seeing 
thee he will rejoice within himself." Very reverently does 
she ^ afterwards say, " Not yet has anything happened 
until now, and my lord is old," for this shows that having 
wholly forgotten passion through teaching, she has begun 
to rejoice, and that she is not yet perfect in attaining the 
end of perfect joy, whose true and genuine appearance she 
confesses to have been changed into an elder one." 



17. (Gen. xviii. 13-14) Why is Sarah, as it were, rebuked, 
while Abraham laughed and was not rebuked r For 
(Scripture) says, " And the Lord said to Abraham, Why 
is it that '' Sarah laughed, saying,' Shall I then truly bear, 
and ^ I am old ? Can it be that anything is impossible 
for God ? " 

That the divine words are deeds and powers is clear from 
the preceding, for there is no impossibility ^ for the Deity. 

" i.e. merely external laughter, cf. Be Mut. Nom. 169 kolv 
TTpoaTTOtiJTai ra> TrpoacoTTO) fieihidv. 

^ 7] aperxj. 

" Aaron, in Ex. iv. 14. The same verse is cited by Philo 
in the parallel, Be Mut. Nom. 168. 

^ Lit. " spread out " ; Aucher " quod superat." 

^ Aucher omits the last four words. 

f Sarah. 

" TTpea^vrepov. 

^ Some Lxx mss. and ancient versions, including Arm., 
have TL oTt, which closely follows Heb. " why then ? ", but 
most LXX 3ISS. have simply on. 

* So Heb. ; LXX iyeXaaev Hdppa ev iavrfj \4yovaa. 

^ i.e. " seeing that." 

^ ahvvaTia. 

290 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

But the rebuke would seem to indicate praise rather than 
personal " blame according to natural expectation.'' For 
she wonders that when all the necessary and plausible 
conditions have been removed by which birth can be 
successfully accomplished, a new act should be sown by 
God in the whole soul for the birth of joy and great glad- 
ness, which in Armenian ' is called " laughter," and in 
Chaldaean, " Isaac." '^ But Abraham was delivered and, 
as it were, escaped rebuke and reprobation, being secured 
by an unswerving and inflexible conviction of faith,* for 
to him who has faith in God all uncertainty is alien. 



18. (Gen. xviii. 14) What is the meaning of the words, 
" At this season I will return to thee at hours,^ and a son 
will be born to Sarah " ? 

(Scripture) manifestly and very clearly demonstrates 
that if God returns to the soul, and the soul returns to 
Him," He immediately shows it to be filled with joy,'' the 
name of which is feminine, while its nature * is masculine. 
For sorrowful and suffering is he from whom God is distant, 
and full of joy and gladness is he to whom He is near. Joy 
(consists) in seeming to receive the most lucid radiance 
that is brought from above.^ 

« Or '' direct " (?)— eV Trpoaoj-nov (?). 

'' Kara <f>vcrtKrjv TrpoaSo/ciav, apparently meaning the ex- 
pectation of the reader of Scripture. 

" i.e. " Greek." 

'^ This is only one of several passages where Philo plays 
on the meaning of " Isaac," Heb. yishaq="' he laughs." 
arpimco Koi dppeTrel Xoyiaixu) TTLorecos vel sim. 
Lxx €1? copaj. Heb. " at t 
to QG iv. 12 on Gen. xviii. 10. 

" Aucher inadvertently omits to render the second part 
of the conditional clause. 

'' x°-P^^- 

• ^vais. 

^ Aucher renders somewhat difi'erently, " ita ut pro 
laetitia lucidiores recepisse se existimabit radios desuper 
allatos." 

291 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

19. (Gen. xviii. 15) Why is it that " Sarah made a denial, 
saying, I did not laugh, for she was afraid. And He said, 
No, but thou didst laugh " « ? 

Appropriately this happened to a pious character,^ who 
saw the greatness of God and her incapacity to bear 
(children) and the imminence '^ (of this event). For where 
does (Scripture) ^ say that she is able to rejoice wholly * 
with most radiant and unmixed joy, when she is involved 
in sorrow and fear and in many other misfortunes ? But 
may it not be that rejoicing is peculiar' to the divine 
nature alone, from the territory of Whose kingdom " and 
from its borders are kept out and banished sorrow and 
fear ? And so, when the soul laughs and seems to rejoice, 
it takes hold of itself, '^ fearing that perchance through too 
great ignorance or reckless confidence it may drive away • 
something of the divine, to Whom alone is given the portion' 
of a happy nature. Wherefore, accepting in a gracious, 
affectionate and benevolent manner the mind's modest 
humility * of prayerfulness and reverence. He says to it, 
" Do not be afraid, for the matter does not call for ^ fear, 
that thou shouldst make denial."* Accordingly, thou hast 
laughed and wast filled with joy, for I am about to give 
thee (cause) for rejoicing, like a stream rushing from a 
spring, or a form of the archetype," or a mixture of un- 
mixed, pure and whole (wine) — like these (shall be thy joy)," 
for the generation of children is by a double number." ^ 

« This verse is more briefly allegorized by Philo in De 
Abrahamo 206-207. 

^ Oeoae^el Tpoiru). Aucher renders, " eventus accidit ex- 
empli pietatis opportunus." " to irpoaKaipov vel sim. 

^ Or " she." * airXios. ^ Ihiov. " ^aatXeias. 

'' eViAa/xjSaveTai iavrrjs. * i.e. " alienate." 

' KXrjpos. ^ Prob. atSo) Kol ivrpomju. 

^ Lit. " is not worthy of." 

"* i.e. of having laughed. ** iiop<f>T]v i^ apx^rvirov. 

" i.e. the soul's joy is an inferior form of its source, the 
divine joy. 

p As Aucher notes, this may refer to the double birth, of 
Isaac and of the soul's joy. 

292 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

*20. (Gen. xviii. 16) Why did Abraham " go with them, 
escorting them " " ? 

Through the literal meaning * (Scripture) shows the 
abundance of the humaneness " with which he was en- 
dowed,** for he had willingly given them whatever was 
fitting, together with his household, and also he could 
hardly be separated from them and was so much grieved 
at parting that he continued and persisted in escorting 
them ; and in this, it seems to me, he took as his example 
what the poet * fittingly says, " It is proper to welcome 
a stranger when he comes, and to give him a send-off when 
he wishes to go," for this shows a most generous and agree- 
able nature/ However, it is not proper to leave unnoticed 
the deeper meaning." When once the soul of the virtuous 
man '^ has received a very clear impression * of God and 
His powers,^ it is filled with longing,*^ and hardly or not 
at all can it be separated and parted (from Him). If He 
is with it and remains, it adores Him and holds Him and 
possesses Him. And if He moves away, it follows Him 
with longing, having a heavenly desire that clings '■ and 

" Philo cites only the second half of the verse, the whole 
of which reads, in the lxx, 'E^avaaravTes 8e eKcXOev ol dvBpes 
KaTe^Xeipav iirl TTpoaconov SoSd/iOJV Kal Tofioppas. ^A^paap, 8c 
ovveTTOpev€TO /ner' avrcov avwpoiTefiTrujv avrovs. The Second half 
of the verse is commented on also in De Migratione 173-175. 

* 8ia rov prjTOv. 

" TTJs <f>iXav6pa)7rLas. 

** Construction and meaning uncertain. Aucher omits the 
participle in his rendering. 

* o TTOLT]Trjs, i.e. Homer in Od. xv. 74, XPI i^lvov Trapeovra 
^lAetv iOeXovra Se Tre/tTreiv (said by Menelaus to Telemachus 
on the latter's departure). 

•^ KoivcoviKcoTarov Kal avpi^wvov {vel Sim.) ^dos. The Greek 
frag, from Procopius has simply KoivcoviKcoraTov ■^dos. 
" TO TTpos Stavotav. 
'' TOV OTTOvhalov. 

* <f>avTaaLav, or " appearance " — iin<f>dv€iav. 

^ Td)v Suva/xeojv, referring to the two angels ; see the pre- 
ceding sections. * irodov. 
^ Lit. " that is glued." 

293 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

adheres closely. For not ineptly « is it said that " he went 
with them," but for a more certain demonstration of the 
powers of the Father, which he surely ^ knew were not even 
for a little while far off. 



21. (Gen. xviii. 17) Why does He say, " Shall I conceal " 
from my servant Abraham what I do ? " ? 

O happy soul, to which God has shown nature '^ and what 
is in accordance with * nature, when the veil has been 
removed and various works have been revealed for more 
effective comprehension ! ^ This is the consummation 
of the contemplative life and all the virtues,^ (namely) to 
see nature naked and the coverings of nature by which 
it is concealed, after the Lord and Father has removed 
them and clearly shown His works to the mind," than 
which nothing is to be honoured as a finer sight or more 
worth seeing and studying. For those who do not philo- 
sophize properly * with the eyes of the soul are blinded 
and cannot see either the world ^ or the things that are 
in it. For all things are deservedly *= spread out,' and 
concealed from those who cannot see. 

22. (Gen. xviii. 19) Why does He say, " I know that he 
will command his sons and his household after him, and 
they will observe the ways of the Lord to do righteousness 

" ovK dno (jKOTTov. ** Or " constantly." 

" Lxx fiTj (variant ov firj) Kpvipo} here renders a Heb. ques- 
tion, expecting a negative answer. 

<* Tiyv <f)vaiv. 

« Variant " beyond." 

f Arm. = els evcpyoTcpav KardX-rjipLv. I suspect that the 
original adj. was ivapyearepav " clearer." 

'' TOO dewpTjTiKov i^iov Kol TTaoiuv dp€Ta>v reXelcoais. One 
Arm. MS. omits " and all the virtues." 

*' otKeicus, or " genuinely " — yviyaicos. 
' Tov KoapLov. * d^iois. 

^ i.e. for the discerning. 

294 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

and justice," that He * may bring upon Abraham that 
which He said " to him " ? 

(Scripture) clearly shows the prescient power of the 
Existent One '^ in saying, " For I know * that he will 
command." For it is natural^ for created beings to know 
various things from their fulfilment, while for God (it is 
natural) to know future happenings " before their be- 
ginning. And the virtuous man ^ is deserving of honour 
and glory, for he not only himself honours virtue^ but 
also produces ^ the desire for it in others. And of honour 
He spoke before.*^ For sight consists in * nakedness and 
removing the veil of nature, and, with the keen eyes that 
belong to the mind "* converting the perception of incor- 
poreal light into a clear apprehension," in finding a more 
weighty promise," which relegates to a second place ^ the 
aetiological ideas that belong to philosophy.^ For it is 
necessary that the soul which clearly knows and is able 

" Lxx hiKatoavvriv koX Kpiaw. 

* LXX and Heb. " the Lord." 

<= Variant " promised." Philo does not comment here or 
elsewhere on Gen. xviii. 18, in which God promises that all 
nations will be blessed in Abraham, unless this is referred to 
in the obscure passage that follows in this section. 

^ TTjV TTpoyvcoaTLKrjv Svvafiiv ttjv tov 'Ovtos. 

* Here and above the Arm. imperfect tense is used to 
render rjBeiv, which in the lxx is equivalent to Heb. ydda'tif 
having the force of the present tense. 

^ oIkclov. 

» TO. ixeXXovra (omitted in Aucher's rendering). 

^ 6 OTTOvSalos. * Tr)v apeTrjv. ^ eVepycDv. 

*= The subject may be God or Abraham or Scripture. 

^ Lit. " is." "* TO) va>. 

" Trjv TOV dauifiaTOv (f>iOT6s {xeTOxrjv els aa^fj KardXTjipiv nepi- 
dyovra. 

° jSapurepav o/xoAoyiav vel Sim. " UTrocrreAAet. 

^ rds Kara <f>iXoao(f}iav airioXoyiKas ISeas. The meaning 
seems to be similar to that found in Be Fuga 163, "What 
kind of place is meant (in Ex. iii. 5) ? Evidently the aetio- 
logical, which He has assigned only to divine natures, 
deeming no human being capable of dealing with aetiology." 

295 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

to comprehend should immediately with most lucid 
reasoning have a notion of the causes through which 
something has happened. 



23. (Gen. xviii. 20) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And the Lord said, The outcry of the Sodomites and the 
Gomorrahites « has increased, and their sins are very 
great " * ? 

There are two heads " under which the whole Legislation ^ 
is ordered, (namely) evil and virtue.* After treating of 
virtue ^ and the virtuous character which is adorned by 
it, it passes over to still another form,' that of evil, and 
to those who are its fond inventors and who practise it. 
Now he who is truly righteous '' is a faithful priest * of 
their folly and madness. And God is the common mediator ^ 
and supporter* of all, and His tribunal' is unbribable 
and without deception, but only full of truth with which 
no falsehood is mixed. Now " Sodom " is to be translated 
as "blindness" or "sterility,""' (which are) names of 
impiety and irrationality, for every unworthy man is blind 
and sterile. And " Gomorrah " (meaning) " measure " 

« Lxx and Heb. " Sodom and Gomorrah." 
'' So LXX, ai dfjiapriai avrwv /xeyaAai a<f>6Spa. Heb. has 
" their sin is very heavy." 
" K€<f)dXaia. 
^ r) vojjLodeala, i.e. the Mosaic Law. 

* KaKia /cat dperi]. 

^ i.e. in the preceding verses. 
' Or " species " — etSos. 
^ SiKaios. 

* iTiaros UpevSi which does not make much sense. Just 
possibly Arm. k'ourm " priest " is here a corruption of bourn, 
meaning " lord," " antagonist," " fighter " or the like (Arm. 
k' and 6 look much alike). 

^ /x€CTtTT7?, a term elsewhere in Philo applied to the Logos. 

* dimXafi^avofievos. 

' ^rjp-O. or KpLTrjpLOV. 

"* TV(f)Xa}ai,s ^ GTeipcoais. The same fanciful etymologies 
are given in De Ehrietate 222 and De Somniis h. 192. 

296 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

true and just, is the divine Logos," by which * have been 
measured and are measured all things that are on earth — 
principles,*' numbers and proportions in harmony and 
consonance being included, through which the forms and 
measures of existing things '^ are seen. But the measure 
of evil is a spurious thing,* a false name without measure 
and without value. For nothing is measured or numbered 
or ordered by an evil man, since he is full of all disorder 
and unmeasuredness.^ 



*24. (Gen. xviii. 21) Why does He speak like a man,» 
saying, " Going down, then, I will see whether it is in 
accordance with their outcry which has come to Me that 
they are acting,'* but if not, that I may know " .'' 

This statement is rightly one of true condescension ' 
and accommodation to our nature, for God through His 
prescient power ^ knows all things, including the future, 
as I said a little while earlier.*' And He wishes to instruct 
those who were to act in accordance with the sacred 
Legislation ' not to give orders to anyone lightly and 
immediately but first to enter into matters and inspect, 
observe and examine them severally with all care,'" and 

" [icrpov . . . o deios Xoyos. The same etymology is given 
in De Somniis ii. 192. 

^ Variant " to which " but the dat. reflects Greek dat. 
of agency with perf. pass. verb. 

•^ Or " ratios " — Xoycov. 

'' TCOV 6vT(xiV. 

" vodela or KaTaxpTjaiS' 

^ dfjL€TpLaS. 

" dvdpcoTrivojs vel sim, 

'' Lxx avvTeXovvrai : Heb. " have done (or " do ") com- 
pletely." 

* Aucher " humiliationis." 

' TrpoyvojdTiKij bvvdfiei. The same phrase occurs in De 
Vita Mosis ii. 190, where it is said to be God's gift to Moses. 

" In QG iy. 22. 

^ Kara tt]v Updv vofxodcaiavy i.€, the Mosaic Law. 

'^ Trdarj dKpi^eia. 

297 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

not to be deceived by obvious appearances." For there 
are some things that appear fair and just, and after they 
depart and recede, are shameful and unjust. And on the 
other hand, things which seem evil and deserving of 
condemnation are found through selective tests to be 
virtuous and very praiseworthy. It is, therefore, an 
excellent doctrine of the good life that He announces and 
legislates,'' (namely) that one should not lightly and 
immediately give credence to any appearance before 
examining it with wise reflexion " to see what sort of thing 
it is in truth. For the first impression ** is deceptive. And 
so, no one among men, especially princes, should be 
ashamed of not knowing, since in the case of an appearance 
that one encounters one is not able to attain the real truth 
that is invisible. (And therefore Scripture) represents 
the ruler and sovereign of the universe as not believing 
beforehand but as inquiring and examining whether the 
facts follow rumour or whether they say some things that 
deserve condemnation, and do other things that are not 
reprehensible. For many who speak evil act virtuously, 
and (many) who profess goodness violate the law through 
their acts. And this must be carefully ascertained by him 
who is destined to be the champion * of human affairs in 
sincerity.^ 



25. (Gen. xviii. 22) Why does (Scripture) again say in 

<• This sentence is briefly paraphrased by Procopius ; see 
Appendix A. 

* vofiodeTCi. 

" Aoyta/xoi rrjs ao(f>ias. 

^ Arm. has drzoumn ( = im^ovXri) which Aucher correctly 
renders as " fraudatio " (except that he seems to confuse 
subject and predicate). But evi^ovXij is clearly an error for 
€7ri/3oA7j, here meaning " first impression," as in De Vita 
Mosis i. 26 ras irpcoras rrjs ^vxrjs imBoXds re koi opfias cos 
d(f>r}ViaaTr]v Ittttov iireT-qpa. 

« Lit. " mediator of help." 

f KadapcJs: variant " in human fashion." 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

the singular, " And Abraham was still" standing before 
the Lord " " ? 

Again " the soul becomes filled with God,'^ worshipping, 
admiring and honouring the Cause * above His powers, 
and also standing still in His likeness, for constancy in 
the truth is immovable and enduring. And so it was now 
necessary to introduce him in the fashion of a suppliant 
servant,^ standing before Him who Was about to inflict 
punishment upon the impious in order that the human 
race might not be altogether destroyed but might have 
some worthy and God-loving " example, whose prayers, 
since He who was entreated was benevolent, He did not 
disregard. Wherefore He gave him understanding," for 
not without the assent of divine providence was he about 
to make entreaty, but He used the wise man * as a founda- 
tion and base ^ for showing beneficence to those who were 
worthy of receiving kindness, and for demonstrating two 
virtues, the power of unconquerable sovereignty and that 
of righteous j udgment,* suitably tempered with a familiar 
gentleness.^ 



26. (Gen. xviii. 23) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And approaching, Abraham said. Thou wilt not destroy 

<* Some Lxx mss. and ancient versions, like Philo, follow 
the Heb. in reading " still " ; most lxx mss. omit it. 

^ Philo does not comment on the first half of the verse, 
which reads " And departing from there, the men went to 
Sodom." The second half of the verse is briefly alluded to 
in De Cherubim 18, De Poster. Caini 27 and De Somniis ii. 
226. 

" Or " turning." 

'^ evdios yiverai or ^eo^opetrai. 

* TO AiTiov, i.e. God, as elsewhere in Philo. 

^ Aucher renders somewhat diff'erently, " hunc servum 
supplicantem in exemplum adducere." 

^ Or " God-beloved " — <f>iX6d^os or d€6<f)iXos. 

'' 8i,dvoi.av or " mind "- — vovv. * roi ao<f>a). 

' (hs dciMcXiu) Koi ^da€i. * hiKaioKpiaias. 

' Lit. " with a familiarity (oiWott/ti) of gentleness." 

299 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the righteous with the impious, and shall the righteous 
be as the unrighteous ? " " ? 

The literal meaning " is clear. But as for the deeper 
meaning/ man is said to be close to"^ God rather figura- 
tively but not in the proper sense/ For He is far from, 
and away from, the body, and never even comes into our 
mind, for a mortal and dissoluble substance ^ is separated 
and far removed from an uncreated and undisturbed 
nature. Nevertheless, the sovereign part of the soul,» 
which is called the mind,'' and has the dignity and capacity 
to be close (to God), becomes worthy of travelling » with 
Him who is entreated, and offers Him, together with his 
entreaties, great praise for His benevolence and kindness 
and love of man.^' For he entreats Him not to destroy 
the righteous together with the impious, nor thought with 
thought.* But it seems to me that the uncorrupted and 
righteous character, in which there is no admixture of 
unrighteousness, is removed from the argument that is 
now put before us. For it is to be firmly believed '■ that 
such a person is worthy of salvation "* and will by all means 
be saved." But he trembles and shudders for the man 
who is mixed and jumbled up" and, as it were, (both) 
righteous and unrighteous. For he hopes that such a 

<» Philo follows the lxx against the Heb. in including the 
clause, Kol earai 6 dUaLos co? dae^-qs (except that for dae^ris 
Arm. has aSi/cos). The verse is cited in part in Leg. All. 
iii. 9, Be Cherubim 18, De Poster. Caini 27 and De Migra- 
tione 132. ''to prjTov. " to Trpos Siavoiav. 

^ Lit. " to be beside " (Trapetvat) or " to touch " {dTrreadai}. 

* TpOTTlKCOTCpOV <dAA'> OV KVpiCOS. ^ OVOta. 

^ TO TTjs ipvx'fjs riyefioviKov, a common Stoic term in Philo. 
'^ o vovs. * TVS oBoiTTopCas. 

^ TTJs <f)tXavdpco7rLas. 

* AoyiCTjLtov avv Aoyia/xoi, i.e. the thoughts of the righteous 
together with those of the impious. 

' Or " he firmly believes." Aucher's rendering is am- 
biguous and (or because) ungrammatical, " verum mihi 
videtur quod purum et justum moribus . . . interim a 
praesenti sermone seponere, persuasus etc." 

"* d^ios TTJs acoT-qpias. " acodrjaerai. " Tre^yp/ievo?. 

300 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

person, having a revived spark " of brightness and a gleam 
of the fire of righteousness, can be converted to spiritual 
health.'' For he believes it to be better and more fitting 
that through the beneficent powers of God (which are 
used) for the righteous the punishments awaiting the 
unrighteous should be lightened and decreased than that 
on account of the impious the righteous should be involved. 



27. (Gen. xviii. 24-32) Why does he " begin with fifty 
and end with ten ? And why does he at the beginning 
subtract five at a time '^ down to forty, and from then on 
ten at a time down to the end, (namely) the decad ? For 
he says,* " If there are fifty righteous men in the city, wilt 
Thou destroy them ? Wilt Thou not spare the place ? 
And what if there are forty-five ? And, further, if there 
are forty ? And what if there are 30,^ or if there are 20 ? 
And what if there are ten ? ^ " 

Two things he seeks : that the righteous be saved, and 
also others for their sake. And all the numbers are sacred. 
Fifty (consists) of a rectangular triangle.^ And in accor- 
dance with its power * the prophet ' proclaims the release * 
in the fiftieth (year). But forty-five is a productive number, 

<* Lit. " revivification of a spark." The same figure of 
speech is used in connexion with the present verse in Be 
Migratione 122. 

* vyUiav tpyxi-K-qv (or irv^viiarLKrjv). The phrase vyUia ^vx-fjs 
occurs elsewhere in Philo. 

" i.e. Abraham in pleading with God to spare Sodom. 
^ Lit. " five five." 

* Here Philo condenses nine verses. 

^ This and the following number in contrast to the rest 
are indicated by numeral letters in the Arm. 

" This passage is alluded to in De Congressu 109 and Be 
Mut. Norn. 228-229, where Philo applies Pythagorean 
number-mysticism more briefly than here. 

" See Be Spec. Leg. ii. 177 and QG ii. 5 where Philo 
explains that the squares of the sides 3, 4, 5 (namely 9, 16, 25) 
add up to 50. ^ SuW/itv. ' i.e. Moses. 

* a^cCTiv, i.e. from debt-slavery, cf. Lev. xxv. 10. 

301 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

consisting of intervals of three, in accordance with which 
they first appear as progressions, the arithmetic, the 
geometric and the harmonic," for the scheme of intervals * 
is 6, 9, 12, 18, the sum of which is 45. And in the same 
number of odd-numbered days the embryo is formed, 
rarely in forty, and less (often) in more, for it is productive." 
And again, in the same number of days is the embryo 
formed in the womb, in the case of almost (all) nine-month 
(infants),*^ for in the case of seven-month (infants) it takes 
thirty-five days, as they say similarly.* Thirty (days), 
moreover, is the lunar interval of separation, the cycle of 
the moon.^ And twenty (years is that) of age ' and of 
one who has advanced in age and belongs to the elders '' ; 
and it is the number * of military service. And ten is 
altogether perfect.^" And through these numbers, which 
are harmonies in music, all those (numbers) *= are seen 
which in all cases ^ are a double ratio, as forty to twenty, 
or twenty to ten. But through five"* (they are) the ratio 
of one and a half to one," (as is) thirty to twenty, while 
through four " (they are) the ratio of four to three,^ (as 

" See QG iii. 38. ^ to irXivdiov. 

" In QO i. 25, ii. 14, iv. 154 and De Vita Mosis ii. 18 Philo 
says that the male embryo is formed in 40 days. Which 
number is here meant as " productive " is not quite certain. 

^ Aucher renders somewhat differently, " fere in paucis 
novem mensium." 

« Where the " similarly " belongs is not clear. 

f Aucher renders less literally but more smoothly, " tri- 
ginta vero mensuale est spatium circuli lunae." 

" Philo means that 20 years is the beginning of maturity. 

^ So lit. ; Aucher renders more freely, " et viginti aetatis 
norma, qua transacta, inter majores computatur." 

*■ i.e. the age. 

' TravreAeioj. Cf. De Decalogo 20 Sc/caSi rfj TravreXeia. 

* What noun is to be supplied is not clear. 

^ Lit. " through all." 

*" Where 5 comes from is not clear. Possibly Philo means 
the fifth (and below, the fourth) proposal made to God by 
Abraham. " ly/xtdAio? Xoyos. 

" See note m. ^ eViVptToj Xoyos. 

302 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

is) forty to thirty. But there is an angular interval " of 
separation,* (as is) forty to forty. Therefore fittingly and 
properly," since he makes entreaty on behalf of the salva- 
tion '^ of the city, does he use salutary numbers,* since they' 
consist of harmony, and harmony is salutary, just as, on 
the other hand, disharmony is the cause of dissolution 
and destruction.''' 



28. (Gen. xviii. 27) Why does he say, " Now I have be- 
gun " to speak with the Lord, and I am earth and ashes " ? 

Those who approach God with a pure mind ^ are especi- 
ally aware of their own weakness in comparison with the 
greatness of Him whom they approach. For the God- 
loving mind * will tell forth and confess its humility by 
its deeds. But we should consider his entreaty concerning 
earth and ashes as noble,^ and declare the earth and ashes 
holy as in the holy ofiFerings and holocausts. And either 
of these is a symbol of the soul.*' For earth is goodly and 
fertile, since the mind of the wise man is fruitful.' And 
the ashes'" are the other (symbol), for whatever mortal 
remains were mixed in were, under the laws of piety," 

** ywviaKov hidaTr]ixa. Did Philo write ivwriKov ? 
'' Emending Arm. makout'mn (of unknown meaning) to 
meknout'ean as above. 

" oiKeluiS Kal Kvplois. ^ rrjs acDTrjpias. 

* aoiT-qpiois dpidp,ols. ^ Or " corruption." 

" So Lxx, ripidpiriv, rendering Heb. hd'alti " I have pre- 
sumed." 

^ yvcLpLTfi or " character " — -rjOei or Tpono). 

* o (f)iX6d€os (or 6€0(f>iXr}s) voOs. 

^ The two Arm. adjectives used here render aefxvos. 

'^ avfi^oXov TTJs fpvx'fjs. 

^ The Arm. variant is rendered by Aucher, " sapientis 
menteni fructificat," but this rendering is questionable. 
Rather does the variant agree in meaning with the accepted 
reading except that an impersonal construction is used. 

"* The Arm. translator uses three different words for 
" ashes " in this section. :;i; 

" i.e. by the sacrificial laws of the Pentateuch. 

303 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

tested and examined as is gold by fire. And in his prayers 
his worthiness remained.* 



29. (Gen. xviii. 83) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The Lord went away as He ceased to speak with Abraham. 
And Abraham returned to his place " * ? 

The one who is begotten and brought into being '^ is 
not wont to be God-possessed ** always, but when he has 
been divinely inspired * for some time he then goes and 
returns to himself. For it is impossible for the soul to 
remain permanently in the body when nothing slippery 
or no obstacle strikes its feet. But it is necessary that 
the most pure and luminous mind ^ should be mixed with 
the mortal (element) " for necessary uses. This is what 
is indicated by the heavenly ladder,'' (where) not only an 
ascent but also a descent of the angels is mentioned. 
And this is what is said of the prophet,* (namely) his 
descent and ascent reveal the swift turning and change 
of his thoughts.^" And thought and change altogether 
bear a resemblance to those who practise continence* for 
athletic well-being,' whom their trainers teach methodi- 
cally, not in order to do violence to *" the body but that it 
may be able to endure necessary labours easily and not 

" Apparently this means that Abraham's nature was 
tested and approved by the wording of his prayer. 

* This verse is more briefly commented on in De Somniis 
i. 70-71. '^ i.e. a mortal. 

^ evdeos or 6e6(f>opos. " Ivdovaidaas. 

^ 6 KaOapcoraros koI eiXiKpiviararos vovs. 

" TO) dv-qrco. ^ In Gen. xxviii. 12 fF. 

* i.e. Moses, in Ex. xix. 17 if. The passage from Exodus 
is also referred to in the parallel, De Somniis i. 71. 

' ru)v Xoyiajxcov. 

*= eycpareta: Aucher " studiosam vitam." 

' vpos dOXTjTiKTjv eve^iav, cf. De Plantatione 157. Aucher 
renders, " pro athletica quiete," but though Arm. hangist 
means " rest " as well as " well-being " the context and the 
parallel seem to support the latter rendering. 

304 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

be worn down and afflicted by continuous and frequent 
labours. This too is what musicians carefully observe 
in respect of their instruments, when they loosen the 
strings lest they snap through unrelieved tension. For 
these reasons nature too has adjusted the voices of living 
creatures to sing not with only one intensity but with all 
kinds of variation, becoming lax and tense (in turn). 
And so, just as music is by its laws adapted not only to 
distinct and increased intensities but also to medium 
ones and to relaxations, so too is it with the mind." For 
when it is wholly intent upon pleasing ^ the Father and 
becomes God-possessed, " it is rightly said to be fortunate.** 
And when it ceases to be inspired,* after its enthusiasm ^ 
it returns to itself and reflects upon its own aitairs and 
what is proper to it. For piety and love of man are related 
virtues. » And these the wise man '' uses and observes, 
taking care to be reverent as a suppliant. While God 
stays, he remains there, and when He departs, he too 
departs. And the Father takes His departure because 
of His providential care and consideration * for our race, 
knowing that it is by nature shackled and involved in its 
needs. ' Wherefore he * saw fit to retire and be alone, for 
not everything is to be done by the sons in the sight of 
the Father. 



■^30. (Gen. xix. 1) Why, when three had appeared, does 
(Scripture) say, " The two angels came to Sodom at 
evening " ? 

To Abraham three appeared and at midday, while to 
Lot two (appeared) and at evening. (Scripture) indicates 



* Or " being grateful to " or " worshipping." 

^ evOeos. ^ evSaifJLcov or evTvx^]S. 

* Kopv^avTidv. ^ Tov evdovaiaofiov. 

' avyyevels yap elai dperat evae^eia /cat (ptXavOpcoTria. 

* o ao<f>6s. * 8ia TTjv vpovoidv re Kat <f)€L8u). 

' Tots ivSelais vel sim. 

^ Apparently Abraham, not Cxod, is meant. 

305 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

a most natural distinction between the perfect man and 
the progressive one.** For the perfect man has an im- 
pression ^ of a triad, a nature that is full, dense, "" not- 
empty and overflowing, while the other has the dyad, 
which is divided and empty. The one perceives the 
Father between His ministers, the two chief powers,'' 
while the other (perceives) the servant-powers ^ without 
the Father, ^ for he is unequal to seeing and understanding 
Him who is between and king of the powers. And the 
one is illumined by a most radiant light at midday with- 
out shadow, while the other (is illumined) by a changing 
(light) between night and day. For evening occupies an 
intermediate place ; it is not ^ the cessation of day, and 
not ^ the beginning of night. 



31. (Gen. xix. 1) Why was Lot sitting at ^ the gate of 
the Sodomites ? * 

Sodom is to be interpreted as " blindness " or " steri- 
lity,"^ and being seated at the gate is very proper to 
the progressive man "^ in respect of a symbolical inter- 
pretation. ^ The gate is neither within the city nor outside 
the city ; similarly he who wishes to progress is neither 
within virtue "* nor outside virtue, but sometimes he is 

" (f>vaiKCOTdT7]v Bia<f>opav rov reXeiov koI tov TrpoKoirrovTOS 
(the Greek frag, has ^vaiKcoTara hLa<j>6pov, which may have 
been the original reading). For the distinction between the 
TcXeios and the TrpoKoirroiv see Leg. All. iii. 140. 

^ <f>avraaiovrait as in the Greek frag. 

" The Greek frag, has hirjveKrj. 

^ TTpuiToiv 8uva/i6ajv, see QG ii. 51. 

* Lit. " powers of service." 

^ Aucher inaccurately renders, " virtutes ipsas sine cultu 
Patri exhibit© " instead of " virtutes cultus sine patre." 

" The negatives are surprising. 

^ Lxx TTapd : Heb. " in." 

» So Arm. O.T. : lxx and Heb. " of Sodom." 

^ The same etymology is given above in QG iv. 23 and 
elsewhere (see note there). * to) vpokotttovti. 

' TTpos avp.^oXLKTjv {ov TpoTTLKTiv) aTTohoaw. "* dperfj. 

306 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

among 'those who, as if within a city, are involved in the 
usual passions <* that belong to the soul and are the work 
of sterility and unfruitfulness and blindness. And some- 
times, as if in a desert, ^ he pursues a pure zeal " which is 
without practical concern,** and a truly contemplative 
way of life. * 



32. (Gen. xix. 1) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Seeing (them), he arose (and) hastened toward them and 
bowed with his face to the ground " ^ ? 

The face in man is uncovered. Now our " especially 

prostrates itself before an appearance '• and receives it 
before the truth.* Such is everyone who is not perfect.^ 
He admires the visible things that are seen rather than 
the invisible and unseen things, while the mind *= grasps 
these before the senses.^ 



*33. (Gen. xix. 2) Why, when they are invited, do they 
refuse hospitality, saying, " No, but in the street will we 
spend the night " "* ? 

** Trddeai. ^ iv ipiqfia). " Kadapov ^ijXov. 

^ av€v TrpayfiaTtov. 

* rrjv TTpos dXTjOeiav dewp-qTiKrjv 8taya)yi7v (or ^aiT^r). Aucher 
inaccurately renders, " contemplationem veritatis vitae." 

^ Philo slightly varies the wording of the lxx, ISwv 8e Acot 
dvecTTr) ei? avvavrrjaiv avrols kol TrpoaeKvvrjaev tm iTpOGcoTTW eVi 
TT^v yfjv. 

Either a word has fallen out after the poss. pronoun, 
or the text is corrupt. 

'^ Aucher renders unintelligibly, " nostro magis itaque 
modo nunc factam adorat apparitionem." 

* Or "in preference to the truth " — irpo ttjs dXyjOelas : 
Aucher renders, " ante certificationem." 

^ ov reXfios, i.e. Lot in contrast to Abraham. 
^^ o vovs. ' at aloOrjaeis. 

"* So the lxx, ovxi, dXX •>) eV tt^ TtXareia KaraXvaofxev (the 
last word is rendered literally in the Arm., " we will break 
up "). 

307 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS , 

Him ° they refuse, being unwilling, but in the case of 
Abraham, the friend of God,* who invited them, they 
accepted. And the reason is that the divine powers " 
accept the perfect man, while to the imperfect man they 
hardly ever come."^ And so the " no " (is the reply) of 
those who refused to come to him. But (in saying) " in 
the street will we spend the night " they announced that 
every foolish man is a narrow one, being constrained by 
love of money, love of pleasure, love of glory and similar 
things, which do not permit the mind to move in free 
space. * And so (Scripture) excellently presents a law ^ 
showing that for the wise man every place in the world 
is spacious " for living with and seeing individual things." 
But he who is unlike this does not have even his own 
house or a mind of his own but is confused and is treated 
contemptuously like those * who, as it were, enter an inn 
only to fill themselves ^ and vomit ^ in their passions. 

« Lot. 

* Tov (j>i\odeov or deo(f)LXovs (Philo sometimes combines the 
adjectives in a single phrase). 

" at Oelai Suva/xetj, see the preceding sections and QG 
U.51. 

'^ Aucher " aegre veniunt." 

* The Arm. agrees very closely (except for one slight 
difference in word-order) with the Greek frag, printed by 
Harris, which ends here. The rest of the section agrees 
almost as closely with another Greek frag, from the same 
Catena (Cod. Rupefucaldi) printed by Lewy ; see Ap- 
pendix A. 

^ Or " doctrine " : the Greek frag, has Sdy/na. 
" Here the Arm. differs somewhat from, or freely renders, 
the Greek t(o fxev ao(f>a> dvaTreWaTai to. ev Koafio). 

* Here the Greek frag., reading tcDv /caret fxepost shows that 
we must prefer the Arm. reading * masancn to the variant 
imastnoyn. * The Greek frag, has vtto twv. 

^ Possibly the Arm. Icouscen " fill themselves " is an 
emendation or corruption of loucscen " spend the night " 
{KaraXv(oai), which the scribe did not understand in its 
idiomatic Greek sense. 

* Lewy conjecturally restores Kopeadtoai. 

308 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

34. (Gen. xix. 3) What is the meaning of the words, " He 
forced them, and they turned aside to him " " ? 

Carefully is it said that they did not come in but turned 
aside. For seldom is there a turning aside * of the sacred 
(and) holy words to those who have progress (but) not 
wholly perfect acceptance. ^ And the reason for their 
turning aside was the use of force. For to him who is 
progressing it is peculiar to attain to a better nature not 
easily and willingly and with a free and easy letting go,** 
but he is laboriously and arduously forced,* whereas the 
wise man is accustomed to desire wisdom willingly. ^ But 
the other is disciplined by necessity and unwillingly. 



35. (Gen. xix. 3) Why did he " alone make for them 
drink and unleavened bread,'' whereas Abraham (made) 
ash-cakes * and no drink } 

It is said by medical students ^ that the use of drink is 
not (as) a food but the conveyance ^^ of food. And the 

" Lxx 7rapej8ia^€To (v.l. KrarejSta^eTo : Heb. "he pressed") 
avTovs Koi e^e'/cAivav Trpos avrov. * More literally " rolling." 

" The syntax and meaning are not clear. Aucher, con- 
struing differently and, I think, wrongly, renders, " quoniam 
pauciter tantum declinatio efficitur sacrorum verborum apud 
proficientes, non vera perfectissima acceptatio." The general 
meaning is that Lot, the type of the progressive man, could 
not receive the divine word as easily as Abraham, the type 
of the perfect man. 

** d<f>4a€i vel sim. ^ * Or " forces himself." 

^ Construction slightly uncertain. 

" i.e. Lot in distinction from Abraham. 

* LXX d^v/xous. 

* €YKpv<f>Las, see QG iv. 8 on Gen. xviii. 6-7. 

* TTapa Tols laTpwv rraiOL. Cf. De Josepho 160 larpibv 

* Arm. kark' = dpfjLa. Apparently the original had dpfxa 
(with smooth breathing), meaning " conveyance " or 
" stimulus " or the like (?). According to Liddell-Scott- Jones 
dpfia was used by Hippocrates {ap. Photius, p. 533 b) in the 
sense of taking food. 

309 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

passage shows that it is a superfluous enjoyment " and 
not a necessity.* And it was proper and fitting for the 
wise man ^ to prepare the necessary (foods), in which the 
greatness of nature is determined and circumscribed/ 
while for him who is still under discipline (it is fitting to 
prepare) the superfluities of sensual pleasure,* which do 
harm rather than good. But he who is not yet perfectly 
purified does not have anything hidden ^ but (only) what 
is in the sight of the multitude, because he has taken 
hold of what is common.' But the wise man has many 
things that are hidden. For it is not seldom that equality 
is hardly given to plants and herbs,'' which exhibit the 
mysteries * of the Deity as if they were intelligible, and 
a hidden and invisible sense. ' 



36. (Gen. xix. 4) Why did the Sodomites surround his 

house, from youth up to old man, all the people at once ? * 

All these are causes of their guilt, (namely) their age 

" rrepLTTr) dvoXavais. 

* Lit. " necessary need." 
'^ TOP ao(f>6v, Abraham. 

** Syntax and meaning are obscure. Aucher renders, 
" quibus naturae latitudo conclusa est." 

* TO. TcDv iJSoVcDv TrepiTTtt. 

^ KpvTTTov vel sim. Philo here makes a punning allusion 
to the €yKpv(f>ias " ash-cakes " of Abraham. 

" TOV KOIVOV. 

^ The above is a literal translation of the obscure Arm., 
which Aucher renders (with grave doubt expressed in his 
footnote), " quoniam non desunt neque in plantis res in- 
aequales." 

' Or " thoughts." ^ Prob. Bidvoiav. 

* LXX Koi ol dv8p€S Ti]s TToXecos ol SoSo/ietTat TrepieKVKXwaav 
T-^v oLKiav dno veavloKov €cos Trpeo^vrepov, aTras 6 Xaos d/Lta. 
For " at once " Heb. has " from end (to end)." In De 
Con/us. Ling. 28 Philo cites the verse a little differently, 
irds 8' o Xaos TrepieKVKXcoaav a/xa t-^v oLKiav, ve'oi re Kal npea- 
/Su'rai, but in the lines preceding he uses the lxx wording 
dno v^aviahov Icos npia^trrepov. 

310 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

and their multitude and that they had neither harmony 
nor unanimity in their affairs. The literal meaning " is very 
clear. But the literal meaning has a base and foundation 
in the deeper meaning.*' For the traits of soul that are 
blind and unproductive of wisdom, which (Scripture) calls 
" Sodomites," '' surround its connatural home,** the body. 
And old men and youths, making up a single chorus with 
one accord, take care of it and tend it, * as if they were 
offering abundant food and other sensual pleasures to an 
insatiable, untamed, mad and unclean beast. 



37. (Gen. xix. 5) What is the meaning of the words, ^ 
" Bring them out to us that we may know them " » ? 

The literal meaning '' indicates servile, lawless and 
unseemly pederasty.' But as for the deeper meaning,^ 
lascivious and unrestrainedly impure men, raising a mound 
of desires,*^ threaten with death those who are self-controlled 
and desirous of continence. ^ To these they say, " Let 
them come forth from their own wills and from their 
choice of a constant, seemly and noble way of life in order 
that we may know them. For they will be persuaded to 
change (their ways) and gladly accept ours, learning in the 

" TO prjTOV. ^ TO Trpos Stavoiav. 

" See above, QG iv. 31, for the etymologies of " Sodom " 
as " blindness " and " sterility." 

'^ Cf. De Somniis i. 122 tov oru/i^ya rrjs tpvxrjs oIkov, to 
acD/Lia, similarly Be Praemiis 120. 

" i.e. the body. 

^ Spoken to Lot by the Sodomites. 

" The Arm. preposition or preverb ^nd used here prob. 
reflects Greek aw- compounded with the verb, as in the 
Lxx avyyevuiiJLeda avrols. Philo, like the Arm. O.T., holds 
more literally to the Heb. " that we may know them." 

'^ TO prjTOV. 

' Lit. " unseemly and male pederasty." 
' TO Trpos Stavoiav. 

* The " mound," x<^/^a» is suggested by the picture of the 
Sodomites surrounding Lot's home as if besieging it. 

311 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWP:RS 

act that souls are not naked and incorporeal" so as not to 
be in want,** but have something in common '^ with the 
body, which lacks many necessities. They should not treat 
it '^ badly or dismiss it but tame it and domesticate it by 
offering it the materials that belong to it." 



38. (Gen. xix. 7-8) Why does Lot say to them, " Not 
so, brothers, do not do evil. For I have two daughters, who 
have not known a man. I will bring them to you, and you 
shall use them as it pleases you. Only do not do any 
wrong to these men inasmuch as they have come under 
the shelter of my roof " ^ ? 

The literal text ^ very clearly shows that the Sodomites 
were pederasts. But as for the deeper meaning," in the 
soul of the progressive man'' there are some thoughts* 
that are masculine, and some offspring that are feminine. 
Now he wishes, if it is somehow possible, to save all 
parts. ^ Otherwise, if his hostile opponents who make war 
on him overcome him, (he will try) to keep the masculine 
kind unharmed but will abandon the feminine for the sake 
of the former. For no one condemns those who for the 
sake of saving and preserving the better accept the lesser, * 
since, as I have said, they are unable to withstand all 

« Aucher renders less accurately, " quod non nudae 
animae incorporeae sunt." 

* Aucher rightly renders, " immunes a timore," but the 
context suggests that the Greek had dSeeis which was here 
rendered by the Arm. translator as " without fear " instead 
of " without want." " Koivcoviav. 

'^ It is not clear whether " it " means the body or the soul. 

* Philo closely follows the lxx MiySa/icDs, dSeAi^ot, /xt) irovrj- 
pevarjade. elalv 84 fioL 8vo dvymepes ax ovk eyvwaav avhpa' 
i^dyo) avras rrpos vfids, Kal XPW"'^^^ avrals Kada dpeaKj) vpuv. 
fiovov els Tovs dvBpas tovtovs fir} iTOL'qar]T€ firjbev dhiKOV ov 
eive/cev elarjXdov vrro rrjv aT€yr)v {v.l. aKeirrjv) rcov Sokcov /xov. 

^ TO pTjTOV. " TO TTpOS hldvOLOV. 

^ eV TTJ TOV TTpOKOTTTOVTOS ^^xfj' * XoyiOpioL 

^ i.e. of the soul. 

^ Apparently meaning the lesser evil or the like. 

312 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

things. " Which then are the masculine thoughts ? Those 
which are emulous of wisdom and of all virtue in general * 
and of that which is truly good and alone is good. But 
the feminine kind, having the position of daughters, are 
under service to bodily needs and under the dominion of 
the passions. " 



89. (Gen. xix. 9) What is the meaning of the words, 
" They said, Go to, stay away."^ You have come to dwell 
as a sojourner " and not indeed to sit in judgment " ? 

Those who gather to make war on the soul, workers of 
evil and impurity, shamelessly choose a leader and teacher, 
saying, " O thou, dost thou not wish to come to us ^ who 
are — are we not ? — inhabitants and countrymen ? Thou 
art in need of our ways and shouldst emulate the ways of 
our country. For our territory is licentiousness, and our 
law and lawful will is sensual pleasure." And now that we 
have permitted thee to live in freedom as a sojourner, dost 
thou dare to resist and rebel ? And whereas thou shouldst 
be quiet, dost thou judge and decide matters, saying that 
these things are bad, and others better, that these are good, 
virtuous and honourable, and those are evil, disreputable 
and dishonourable, changing some into virtue,'' and apply- 
ing the measure of evil to the nature of * others ? In 
every one of the beings who exist there is desire,^ and to 

" Aucher curiously renders, " cunctis satisfacere." 

^ t,r]Xa}Tal rrjs cro(f>ias Kal KOivfj Trdarjs dpeTTJs. 

" Tcov vadcov. 

** The Arm. seems to be a double rendering of lxx aTToara 

€K€l. 

« LXX darjXdes rrapoiKeiv : Heb. " shall one come to 
sojourn ? " 

^ The text is uncertain, perhaps a conflation of two 
clauses. Aucher renders, " O tu, qui ingressus es ad nos, 
an non amas {vel, nescis) conversari nobiscum ? " 

" 17801^. ^ dp^Trjv. 

* Or perhaps " the measure of an evil nature to." Aucher 
omits " nature " in his rendering. 

' €7ndvfxia. 

313 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

this must we refer all things on earth. This is the ancient 
law of the Sodomites, which some boys call their helper," 
like boys in grammar-school ** who are imable to receive 
instruction because of weariness. " "^ 



*40. (Gen. xix. 10-11) What is the meaning of the 
words, " Stretching out their hands, the men drew Lot to 
themselves into the house, and closed the door of the house, 
and the men who were at the door they struck with blind- 
ness " '^ ? 

Three things they did : they saved their host, they 
closed the door, and they blinded those who were rising 
up and were using force.* In the first place, they passed 
judgment upon undisciplined and licentious men so that 
they might not be victorious through the use of force, and 
having been defeated, might let go the one whom they were 
mistreating. Second they kept them— in word, from the 
house, but in deed,^ from attaining their desire " and its 
end, which remained.'' For this is the most terrible of 
evils, (namely) that passion spreads and grows in the 
suffering soul. For despair of (attaining) the end is like 
the remainder of a touch of disease.* And there is (only) 
one cure for those who are thirsty and hungry when their 
need ^ is prolonged, (namely) to drink and eat. And for 
those who desire something (the only cure) is to attain it. 
And third, the judgment of blindness overtakes those who 

" ^OTjdov. ^ eV Tjj ypafMfjLaTiKij. 

" Or " labour." Aucher renders, " prae labore." Ap- 
parently the meaning is that all work and no play makes 
for dullness, in the opinion of the " Sodomites." 

^ Philo omits, after " blindness," the words " from small 
to great." 

* As stated in the latter part of Gen. xix. 9 which Philo 
does not comment on in § 39. 

^ Xoyo) iJL€v . . . €pyw St. " tt)v cTTiOvfilav. 

^ i.e. from completely attaining their desire. 

* Text and meaning somewhat uncertain ; Aucher 
renders, " velut residuum morbi inurentis." 

^ Lit. " hunger." 

314 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

have been condeniiied." This (affliction) would seem to 
be in the eyes, but in truth (it affects) the soul of those 
who see, for they are made bUnd to the appearance of 
most holy visions. Let the law, therefore, be (invoked) ^ 
against those who have not seen fit to see nobly and glori- 
ously and in a manner worthy of God " that which is 
noble and pure ^ and divine,* and the punishment of being 
struck with blindness be inflicted (upon them)/ 



41. (Gen. xix. 11) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And they gave up ^ seeking the door " ? 

The literal text '' denotes an excess of licentiousness, for 
not even when blinded did they lessen in their desire ' but 
thought nothing of so great an evil as blindness, and acted 
madly and wildly in the insanity of desire. But as for the 
deeper meaning,^ those who pursue desire ^ as their end 
while pretending that through this they are seeking 
virtue,' will never find an entrance to it "• but will soon 
give up in despair, for nothing fights so hard against 
another thing as does wisdom " against sensual pleasure," 
and the shameful " against the best.** 

" TOW? KaTeyvcoofievovs : Aucher " devictos." 

* Probably vofios eorto, as in the Greek frag., which begins 
at this point. 

'^ The Greek frag, has, more briefly, aeixvws kuI deoTrpeirws. 
'^ Or " seemly." 

* Here again the Greek frag, has only two adjectives, 
ae/iva koL dela. Aucher's " vultum divinum " is an expan- 
sion of the Arm. text. 

^ The Greek frag, has, more briefly, KoXaaiv eVi^e/oeiv 
dopamas. 

Lxx vapeXvdrjaavy which, like the Heb., might also be 
rendered, " they were tired out." The phrase is quoted in 
Be Fuga 144. 

^ TO pTjTov. * rrj enidviJLia. 
. ' TO TTpos hidvoiav. ^ TTJs €7ndvfiias. 

^ rrfv dpeTTJv. "* i.e. virtue. 

" ao<f>ia. " Tr)v "qBovi^v, 

** TO alaxpdv vel sim, « to dpiarov vel sim. 

315 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

42. (Gen. xix. 12-13) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The men told Lot to lead out * his whole household, for 
we are about to destroy this place, ^ for," it says," " their 
outcry has gone up before the Lord, and He has sent us to 
blot it out " ** ? 

(The phrase) " their outcry has gone up before the Lord " 
denotes something which is usually found among licentious 
and intemperate men, and is even greater than impiety. " 
For they do not believe that there is an overseer and 
inspector ^ of human affairs, nor do they believe that there 
is a providence » over such things as seem good (to Him).'' 
And they do nothing else but what is contrary to what He 
says, and they send forth voices that are hostile to the 
Father and His truth. But (the phrase) " He has sent us 
to blot it out " indicates a philosophical law.* For He 
provides the virtues through Himself, but the contraries ^ 
through His servants.*= And these are the laws of nature,' 
which He determined from the beginning "* together with 

" Aucher supplies " ex urbe." ^ Variant " this city." 

" Apparently Philo here parenthetically refers to scripture ; 
Aucher omits the phrase. 

** Philo here partly paraphrases, partly quotes lxx, which 
reads eiirav Se ol dv8pes irpos A.(ot, "Kotlv tls ool cSSe, yaix^pol 
rj viol 7j dvyarepes rj ei tls ool dXXos iarlv ev rfj TrdAei, i^dyaye 

CK TOV TOTTOV TOVTOV. OTl dTToXXvfXeV rjpi€LS TOV TOTTOV TOVTOV 

OTt ViftwdT) rj Kpavyri avTcov ivavriov Kvpiov, koL aTTeareiXev rjfids 
Kvpios iKTpltpai avT-qv. * dae'jSeia. 

^ imTpoTTOv Kal €<f)opov vel sim. " Trpovotav. 

^ Construction and meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, 
" neque existimant ad suum placitum providentiam esse." 
In a footnote he adds " VeU neque putant quod providentia 
sit illis, qui existimant ita esse." This second rendering can 
hardly be right. * vofxov <f)LX6ao(f>ov. 

' rds ivavrioT-qras — a punning allusion to the biblical 
phrase evavriov KvpLov. Philo here means the contraries of 
nature, mentioned in the next sentence ; cf, also Quis Rer. 
T)iv. Ileres 31 1 tcDv evavTioTTJrcjv i^ ciSv diras 6 Koofxos 
awearrjKe. 

^ i.e. the angels, as symbols of natural forces here. 

' ol rrjs <f>va€a)S vofioi. "* c^ o.pxfjs. 

316 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

the things of creation. But (Scripture) clearly represents 
the beauty of a just judgment " in removing from such a 
destruction one household which had the sparks and seeds 
of virtue and had become sojourners ^ among sensual 
pleasures and passions. Not idly," however, but naturally '' 
is it written that " we are destroying * this place." For it 
is proper not only to kill venomous creatures but also to 
destroy and lay waste their holes and caves, in which it 
may happen that there remains one that has not been 
destroyed. And now a similar thing is to be applied ^ to 
the soul, (namely) that not only is that which pertains to 
sensual pleasure or anger to be removed and destroyed, 
but also the entire place of desire and anger, where they 
lurk, in order that the mind ^ may have paths that are 
broad and free of fear, with nothing to impede its feet and 
Heep it from right conduct.'' 



*43. (Gen. xix. 14) Why does (Scripture) say that when 
Lot was exhorted by the angels,* " he seemed to his sons- 
in-law to be jesting " ^ ? 

Those who are in a lavish and unlimited state of wealth 
and glory and the like, and live in health and strength and 
vigour of body,*^ and have a store of ' pleasures (acquired) 

" TO SiKaioKpiaias kolXXos. 

* TrdpoiKOL. " ovK eiKij. ** (f>vaiKd>s. 

* So Lxx, but above in the title-question the Arm. has 
" we are about to destroy." 

^ Lit. " fitted " or " harmonized." 

" o vovs. ^ dno TTJs KaTopOcoaecos. 

' Aucher amplifies in rendering, " nunciante Lot ut 
monitum habuerat ab Angelis." 

^ LXX eSo^ev Be yeXoid^ecv evavriov tcov ya/xjSpcov avrov. 
Philo omits the first part of Gen. xix. 14 containing the 
angels' warning that Lot and his family must flee to escape 
destruction. 

*^ The Greek frag, differs slightly, reading Kal iv vyieia Kal 
€vaiadi)ala awjxaTOS Kal eve^la ^co'^y. 

' Lit. " store away " : the Greek frag, has KpaTovfxevoi, 
which Harris (p. 110 note) would emend to Kapnovfievoi. 

317 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

through all of the senses," believing themselves to have 
achieved genuine happiness,^ do not look for change or 
variation, "^ but laugh at, and mock, those who say that 
everything which is in the body and outside contains great 
harmfulness and is short-lived.'* For, when the Persians 
ruled land and sea, who expected that they would fall ? 
And again, when the Macedonians (ruled) ? But if any- 
one had dared to say so, he would most certainly have 
been laughed at as a fool and simpleton. And no less 
necessary a change awaits those nations that opposed 
them, though they have become illustrious and conspicuous 
in the meantime ; so that those at whom (others) laughed 
are beginning to laugh (at them), while those who laughed 
are becoming (an object of) laughter for thinking that 
things which are by nature mobile and changeable are 
immobile and unalterable. '' 



*44. (Gen. xix. 16) Why did the angels, when they ^ 
were dazed and confused, take by the hand Lot and his 
wife and his daughters ? ^ 

Certainty and clarity not only provided '' those whom 

" ras 8ia Traautv rdv alaOijaecov rjSovds, as in the Greek 
frag. 

* The Greek frag, differs slightly, reading ttjs aKpas 
evSai^ovlas. 

" The Greek frag, has only fxera^oX-qv. 
'^ The Arm. seems to be a double rendering of imKaipcos 
exeiy the reading of the Greek fragment, which ends here. 

* The Arm. writes " immobile and unalterable " (or 
" unchangeable ") twice, the first time before the ptc. 
" thinking," where it is out of place. Like Aucher, I have 
omitted the redundant pair of predicate adjectives. 

^ i.e. Lot and his family. 

" Aucher, following the biblical text, gives " his two 
daughters." After " daughters " lxx adds eV to) ^eiaaadai 
Kvpiov avTov, while Heb. continues still farther with the 
clause, " and they led him out and left him outside the 
city." 

^ Lit. " (was ?) adapted and fitted." 
318 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

they touched with confidence but also prevented the 
incidence of evil." For just as living beings ^ (are con- 
trolled) " by natural reason,'* so too do inanimate beings * 
reverence and fear the words of the Deity ^ ; so that they 
do not harm those who are touched (by them).^ This is 
the literal meaning.'' But as for the deeper meaning,' the 
souls which are governed and led by the holy scriptures ^ 
can be saved '' if only (once) having taken hold, they hold 
on to them. For if they are separated and cut off from 
them, they will be condemned to misery along with other 
things. 



45. (Gen. xix. 17) Why did the angels who led (them out) 
say, " Save thyself. Do not look backward and do not 
stay in all this region " ^ f 

It is the custom of teachers, when they explain some 

" The syntax is very obscure. Aucher renders somewhat 
differently and more freely, " certa securitas data eis, quos 
apprehenderunt, non solum confortare eos debuit, sed etiam 
impediebat eventum malorum." 

^ Or " animals " — to, ^wa. 

" What verb is to be supplied is far from clear. Aucher's 
guess " detinentur " is probably as good as any. 

<* vv6 <f)vaLKov Xoyov. Aucher's rendering " verbo naturali " 
is also acceptable. 

* Prob. TO. aijjvxo. rather than ol difjvxoii since the follow- 
ing verb is sing., and the Arm. translator usually follows 
the Greek construction of sing, verb with neuter plural 
subject, ailsvxo. are contrasted with ^oja in De Ehrietate 183. 

^ Apparently Philo here refers to the (inanimate) evils 
mentioned in the preceding sentence. 

" i.e. by the angels symbolizing the words of God. 

'' TO pr)T6v. * TO TTpos Siavotttv. 

' Or " words " — twv Upcov X6ya)v. ^ aco^eaOai. 

^ Philo closely follows the LXX, koI iyevero -qviKa i^-qyayov 
avTOvs €^co /cat etTrav (Heb. " and he said "), llco^cov acD^e TTjv 
aeavTov if/vx'^v' /xi) rrepi^Xeijjrjs els to. oirtaco /xi^Se arfjs iv Trdarf 
TTj TT€pix<^PV (Heb. " in the kikkar,^^ i.e. the land around 
Sodom). 

319 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

theory <» to their pupils, to instruct them to remember it 
and say it by themselves. And similar to this is what 
the divine words ^ command, saying, " O thou, behold, 
on many occasions we have explained worthy things '^ 
to thee ; holding thee by the hand, we have led it ** on 
to worthy and useful things. Henceforth, then, do thou 
move by thyself, having been taught in what manner thou 
must be saved. Strive to preserve whole ^ all that which 
is in accord with (our) teaching, willingly and of thine 
own desire.^ " This too is what the physician says to the 
ailing man who has been saved by him, " O thou, I have 
delivered thee from affliction and I have done everything 
useful in my art." Now that thou art saved, do not relapse 
into illness so as again to be in need of another recovery,'' 
but keep thyself whole, and enjoy health." Thus, the first 
command given was, " save thyself," (that is) do not seek* 
salvation elsewhere. And the second was, " do not look 
backward " — (this being said) philosophically,^ for the 
things behind *= the body are blind and insensitive.^ And 
(Scripture) prays that the mind*" will see and be keen- 
sighted and avoid those who are licentious and foolish and 
atheistic, and, after leaving them behind, will hasten with 
all its might toward continence " and holiness." For many 
men who are, as it were, carried into port, again go back 
from there and are drawn into the same harm and help- 
lessness ^ because their withdrawal and abandonment 
(of these) was not carried out with firm resolution (and) 

<* Oecjfyqfid ti. * ol Oelot, Xoyoi. 

" d$ia vel sim. ^ i.e. thy hand. 

* oXoKXrjpov. f €Kov(TLa yvcofiT}. 
" rrjs T€xvr}S /xou. ^ oKX-qs acoTrjplas. 

* Lit. " hunt " or " catch." ^ ^lAoCTo^t/ccDs. 
*= Or " at the back of." 

^ Cf. Be Somniis i. 248 on Lot's wife and her backward 
glance, TrepijSAeTrerai Se rd ottioco koL to. voiTia, Ka)(f>7jv 86^av kol 
rv^Xov frXovTOV Kal dvaLadrjTov evaapKiav ktX. 

'"■ TOV VOlh'. 

" iyKpdreiav, here rendered by two Arm. words. 
" oaiOTTjTa vel sim. ^ aTropiav. 

320 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

thoughtfulness." And the third divine command was, " do 
not stay in all this region," (that is) the mind (not staying) 
in the body, or the mind (not staying) in the soul.^ Thus 
it says, " O thou, if thou dost wish to be of pure character, 
do not stay, not even in any one place of this region, but 
pass them all by, in order to pass at once from all harm 
here, by which the mind is harmed (being) in the body and 
the several senses. But whatever characters remain in 
these and stand firm, fall of themselves, for they lean on, 
and trust in, dead things." '' 



46. (Gen. xix. 17) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Escape to the mountain lest thou be seized among 
them " <* ? 

The literal text * reveals the destruction ^ of a plain of 
low-lying (places)." But as for the deeper meaning,'' it 
seems to be somewhat as follows. When the mind * begins 
to take the higher road,^ it becomes better and progresses,* 
leaving behind earth-bound and low things,* which those 
men pursue and admire who are undisciplined."* But (the 
mind), becoming light,** is elevated to higher things, and 
looking around observes what is in the air and in the ether 

" laxvpd yvoiyiri koX Xoyiaixw. 

* The Arm. lit. =tov vov iv rco awfiari •^ tov vov iv rfj i/jvxj}' 
Aucher renders, wrongly, I think, " puta intellectum in carne 
vel aflFectibus animi." However, the text is troublesome, 
and should perhaps be emended from the following sentence. 

" Aucher " in mortuos," but the neuter ptc. is indicated 
by the context. 

'' LXX els TO opos aw^ov fi-q 7tot€ avvTTapa\i)iJi(j>dfis . 

* TO prqrov. f <f)dopdv vel sim, 

" Perhaps " people " is to be supplied. Aucher less liter- 
ally renders, " humilioris campi." 

* TO irpos hiavoiav. * o vous. 

' Ti)v dviorepav 686v. * irpoKOirTCL. 

^ TO. ;^a/tx.ai^7jAa koX rd TttTreiva. The two adjectives are 
used together of external and bodily things in Quod Deus 
Immut. Sit 167. 

"* aTraiSeirrot. " KOv<f>os. 

SUPPL. I M 321 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and the whole heaven together, its substance " and move- 
ments and harmonies and affinities * and sympathies,'^ by 
which things are related to one another, and this whole 
world. ** This ascent is more figuratively ^ called " moun- 
tain," but its true name is " wisdom," ^ for the soul » which 
is truly a lover of wisdom * desired a vision of higher and 
more exalted things, by being in ethereal regions. Accord- 
ingly, a divine response and warning was uttered, that 
those who strive after low and base and earthly things 
shall die in respect of true life — the soul,* wandering about 
in the manner of the dead. But those who desire heavenly 
things and are borne on high shall be saved ' alone, 
exchanging mortal for immortal life. 



^47. (Gen. xix. 18-20) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Lot said,*= I shall not be able to escape to the mountain 
lest perchance evils overtake me, and I die. Behold this 
city is near to escape to, which is small, and it is not small. 
Thereto I will escape,* and my soul will live " »» ? 

The divine word,** extending abundant grace," calls up 
the soul of the progressive man ^ to perfection.' But he 
is still small and, like those whose health revives after a 



" aviJLTTaOelas, in the Stoic sense of cosmic sympathies. 
Aucher inadvertently omits to render the word. 

^ KOaflOV. * TpOTTLKUirepOV. 

f ao<f)La. " Tj ipvx'i]. ^ <j>iX6ao(f>os. 

* Aucher " moriuntur anima e vera vita." 
^ acod'qaovTat. 

'^ After " Lot said " Philo omits the last few words of 
vs. 18 and the first half of vs. 19. In the lxx the phrase which 
Philo renders " and it is not small " is a question. For a 
different allegory of the phrase see De Abrahamo 166. 

* In LXX and Heb. the words " thereto I will escape " 
precede the phrase " and it is not small." 

"• After " will live " many lxx mss. add " because of thee." 
" o Oelos Xoyos. ° d^Oovov x<^P^v. 

* TOV TTpOKOTTTOVTOS. 

^ TTpos reXeioTTjTa, cf. De Mut. Nom. 24. 
322 



GENESIS, BOOK I\^ 

long illness and who, though they are delivered from the 
danger of death, are not yet well but still maintain a 
balance between health and illness, confesses his own 
poverty " by saying that he is not able to depart altogether 
from his city and from civilization * and change to the 
security of quiet that is becoming to wise men." But it 
is for him to progress and no longer accept the city and 
civilization as great and honoured, and to restrain his 
admiration for them, considering them small indeed but 
somehow necessary and not a little useful.** Thus there 
are three persons who stand in the middle * : the wise man, 
the progressive man and the wicked man ; and the extremes 
are at war. For the wise man (pursues) ^ peace and 
" and leisure '' in order that he may devote him- 
self to following after divine contemplation.* But the 
wicked man (pursues) the city and the excitement of the 
multitude and the crowding of the city and the stream 
of men and things as well.^ For the love of business and 
greed and zeal to obtain authority ^ are honourable to 

° Aucher " imbecillitatem." * rrjs TroAireia?. 

" T^v TOLS ao(f>ois iTTLTTjSelav a.a<f)dX€iav rjavxio-S. 

^ The text is suspect. Aucher renders more freely, " flocci 
faciendo similia, ita tamen ut non parvipendat ceu necessaria 
utiliaque." 

* One expects something like " thus he stands in the 
middle of three persons." 

^ The verb is supplied from the Greek frag., which begins 
here. 

" The Arm. here is meaningless ; it is either a corruption 
or misunderstanding of a-npay^jLoavvriv, which is found in the 
Greek frag. Aucher's rendering, " nescius dimicationis," 
appears to be a guess. 

* axoX-qv, as in the Greek frag. 

* The Greek frag, reads Iva rots deiois dccupT^fiaaiv iv -qavxiq. 

^ The Greek frag, reads more briefly o <f)avXos ttoXlv re Kal 
rov Kara ttoXiv oxXov re Kal (f>vpix6v dvdpa)7ra)v ofj-ov Kal Tvpay- 
fidrcov fierabicoKei. 

* For the last phrase the Greek frag, has brjfjiOKomai re Kal 
Sr]fiapxio-t'- 

323 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

such a man, but quiet is not honourable." But he who 
is progressive between both ^ moves toward the peaceful- 
ness of security ; he is not, however, able to get entirely 
beyond civilization though he no longer, as formerly, 
admires the city as a great good but restricts his percep- 
tion "and receives the impression that that which formerly 
seemed great is a slight and small thing. But the state- 
ment of contradiction ** that the same city is small and not 
small has a most natural reason,* which is in order and 
follows upon the things that were declared earlier. For 
the life of the city seems great to him who wishes to please 
the multitude, but small to the progressive man. And 
this question has a solution something like this. There 
are three ways of life which are well known : the con- 
templative, the active ^ and the pleasurable.'' Great and 
excellent is the contemplative ; slight and unbeautiful is 
the pleasurable ; small and not small is the middle one,'' 
which touches on, and adheres to, both of them. It is 
small by reason of the fact that it is a close neighbour to 
pleasure ; but it is great because of its nearness and also 
its kinship to contemplation. 

48. (Gen. xix. 21) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Behold, I have admired thy face also concerning this 
word " * ? 

** TO 8e "riavxaX^iiv aTifxov {drifiwrarov in the Greek frag., 
which ends here). 

* i.e. between the perfect man and the wicked man. 
" Aucher " aviditatem." 

^ Lit. " of quarrelling." 

* Xoyov (f>vaiK(OTaT0v. ^ 6 decofrrjTiKos kol 6 irpaKTiKos, 
" In rendering " condecens " Aucher has chosen the 

wrong meaning of Arm. vayeUakan. 
^ i.e. the active or practical life. 

* Philo follows the lxx rendering, eOaviMaad aov to Trpoaco- 
TTov, of the Heb. idiom which means " I have looked upon 
thee with favour." Also, lxx pr}iJLa = Heb. dabdr^ meaning 
both " word " and " matter." Philo omits the rest of the 
verse, " not to destroy the city of which thou hast spoken." 

324 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

It is proper to accept " those who do not boast and do 
not promise more than their ability (to perform). Where- 
fore the divine and sacred word praises the things 
said.* For many men in their desire for the very great 
things lose even middling things which it is proper to 



49. (Gen. xix. 22) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Hasten to escape " there "''.'* 

The sweet, good and humane * word of God gives a share 
of salvation ^ to him who is able to save himself, and it 
accepts his decision " as true and inexorable when he 
promises to progress so far as possible. And so it says, 
" O thou, although thou art not able to walk upon the 
mountainous and heavenly road, and the middling things 
that are worthy ^ still attract thee, nevertheless hasten 
and bestir thyself, henceforth no longer thinking these the 
greatest. And now that thou hast most firmly established 
these opinions, so that no longer may anything soft or 
dissolute change in thee * or emanate (from thee),^ for 
thou art most firmly established, the avenger and destroyer 
of the impious will not bring judgment near to thy 
borders." 



50. (Gen. xix. 22) What is the meaning of the words, 

" Aucher renders freely, " humaniter recipere." 

^ i.e. by Lot. 

" Or " be saved." 

'^ Lxx aTT€vaov ovv Tov acoOrjvai CKel. 

* (f)lXdvdp(D7TOS. 

^ KOivcoviav awTT]pLas. 

" yvco/Ai^v or " character " (?) — 17^0?, rpoiTov. 

^ TO, fieaa KadiJKovTa vel sim. 

* The Arm. = fieToXXdrTrj, perhaps a corruption of fieraX- 
Xevrj " undermine (thee)." Aucher has "in te haereat," 
apparently a guess. 

' Aucher " fluat." The verb is suspect. 

325 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

"Because of this he" called the name of the city 
' Zoor '" ^? 

" Zoor " is translated as " mountain," " which is for 
the salvation of those who progress, and for the destruction 
of those who are incurable/ 



*51/' (Gen. xix. 23-24) Why (does Scripture say that) 
" the sun went out over ^ the earth, and Lot entered 
Zoor," and the Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah 
sulphur and fire from heaven " " ? 

The same time is given, to those who progress, for 
salvation, and to those who are incurable, for punishment.* 
And at the very beginning of day, when the sun rose. He 
immediately brought down punishment,^ wishing to show 
that the sun and the day and light and whatever other 
things in the world are excellent and precious * are appor- 

<* The Heb. idiom often has the 3rd sing. pers. pron. 
(incorporated into the verb) as an impersonal subject = " one " 
or " people." 

* Lxx (followed by Arm. O.T.) has 2l7/yc6p for Heb. So'ar 
(A.V. " Zoar "). In De Somniis i. 85 most mss. of Philo have 
Sryycup or Siywp but two read Hoip. Josephus, Ant. i. 204, 
uses the form Zcocop. 

" Philo inaccurately connects Heb. ^Sd'ar with sur " rock " 
or " mountain." 

^ For the Greek original of this clause see the following 
section, where it is repeated. 

* Two separate Greek fragments, making up the first half 
of this section, have been preserved in the Catenae, and 
printed by Harris and Lewy respectively ; see Appendix A. 

^ LXX €7tL 

" See the note on the name in the preceding section ; the 
Greek frag, here has l.r)ycop as in the lxx. 

'' LXX and Heb. " from the Lord, from heaven." 

* The Greek frag, has d avros XP^^^^ yiverai Kal rols irpo- 
KOTTTovmv els awTrjpiav, /cat tols aviarct*? Ixouai rrpos KoXaaiv. 

' Or possibly "he {i.e. Moses = Scripture) introduced 
(the theme of) punishment." 

*^ oaa dXXa iv Koafxtp KoXa koI Tifxia. 

326 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

tioned only to the wise " and not to any of the wicked 
whose wickedness is incurable. But from heaven, from 
which come the annual storms and rains for the growth 
of plants * that are sown and (of) '^ trees for the production 
of fruits for the food of men and other living creatures, 
(Scripture) says that sulphur and fire came down ^ for the 
destruction of all things on earth, in order to show that 
the cause of the seasons and annual times * is not heaven 
or the sun or the processions and revolutions ^ of the other 
stars but the power of the Father," who presides over the 
whole world as over a winged chariot, and guides it as 
He thinks best and most useful/ And this marvellous 
activity * shows, not the established ' habit of the elements,* 
but a certain autocratic and arbitrary power which trans- 

" The Greek frag, has toIs aoreiois. 

* Lit. " of growing things " — rcSv ^uo/x€va)v, as in the 
Greek frag. 

* One expects the gen. case of " trees " but both Arm. and 
the Greek frag, have the nom. 

^ Or "streamed down." The Greek frag, has Karappa- 
yijvai. 

* The Arm. uses the same word twice for " seasons." 
The Greek frag, has twv Kaipwv kox tcjv exT/aicov cbpwv. 

^ Xopelai Kal TTcpnToXqaeLS, as in the Greek frag. 

" 17 Tov iraTipos bvvafjLis, as in the Greek frag. 

^ Lewy reconstructs the Greek of this clause (not preserved 
in the Catenae) as e^eS/jeuovros' fiev ws dpfjuaTi ttttjvco avfnravTi tcS 
Kocfiu), rjvioxovvTOS 8' avTOV cos /SeAriCTr' civ vo/xiaetev. On the 
concept of the world or heaven as a winged chariot, which 
Philo in QG iii. 3 ascribes to Plato (cf. Phaedrus i346 e), 
see Quls Rer. Div. Heres 301 Kal tov ttttjvov ap^ia, tov avfi- 
TTavTa ovpavov, rjvi.ox€2 ;^p6u/>i€vov avTf^ovaio) Kal avroKpaTopi 
/SaCTiAet'a. 

^ The Arm. differs slightly in syntax from the Greek frag., 
which has 17 TedavnaTovpyrjuevrj rrpd^LS. 

^ As Lewy notes, the Arm. = KadeoTos edos, while the 
Greek frag, has /ca0' cKauTov edos. 

^ With Lewy I emend Arm. taretcorsd " annual (seasons) " 
to tareroM " elements," on the basis of the Greek frag.'s 
6771 TcDv aToix^ioiv- 

327 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

forms the elements of all things as it chooses." For sulphur 
and fire are light * by nature, and for this reason they are 
borne aloft," but the innovation of the curse ^ changed 
their movement into the opposite one, from up (to down),* 
and forced the lightest things to be borne like the heaviest. 
And it is fitting to enter into the difficult problem why 
He not only destroyed the inhabitants, for they were 
unrighteous and impious, but also overturned and burned 
down cities and homes and all the buildings. In regard to 
this it should be said that there is a certain principle^ 
in the nature of places and sites, and that there are some, 
on the one hand, that are privileged " and honoured, and, 
on the other, some that are the opposite. For where wise 
men ^ dwell there are places called venerable and honour- 
able, (such as) council-halls, shrines and temples.* But 
where licentious, intemperate, impious and unrighteous 
men (dwell), there are defiled, polluted and impure (places), 
stained by the pollution of those who live there without 

" Here the Arm. closely follows the wording of the Greek 
frag., which has nva bvvafiiv avroKpaTrj koI avrc^ovaiov {cf. 
the quotation from Quis Rer. Div. Heres in note h^ p. 327) 
fiCTaaroixeLOvaav, cos av TrpoeXrjrai, ra avfXTTavTa. 

^ Kov(f)a, as in the Greek frag. 

" dvo) <j)opevTai. The Greek frag, has dvo) (f>oiTa. 

^ TO 8c TTjs dpds K€Kaivovpyrifj,€vov, as in the Greek frag., 
except that the Arm. has the ptc. in the accus. instead of the 
nom. case. 

" The words " to down " are supplied from the Greek 
frag., which has kcitco. 

^ Ao'yos Tis. Philo seems to mean " principle of con- 
gruence " or the like. 

" Aucher renders, " ita ut hie praerogativa praevaleant 
cum utilitate," and adds in a footnote that Arm. awar 
" booty " here seems to mean " utility " or the like. It is 
more likely, however, that awar, which elsewhere = rrpovofji-q, 
is here used merely as a synonym of haxabaSxout'iun, which 
= TTpovofiia. 

^ oi ao<f>oi. 

* Construction uncertain because of the curious word- 
order. 

328 



i 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

virtue and in vice." For these reasons that (place) which 
is honourable flourishes and, in addition, continues to be 
adorned, while the place of unrestraint is overturned, 
overthrown and destroyed with its resident ^ men and 
populace. Moreover, it is also defiled. But the divine 
word <^ is an example to future generations ^ not to seek 
to do anything unworthy, (like) those cursed by calamities 
and burned by fire, in order that they may be admonished 
by seeing the sufferings of their fellows, and keep them 
in mind and be fearful lest they suffer their sentence, and 
that they may be kept from the same impious behaviour. 
For if men saw this, not with bodily eyes but rather with 
the mind," they would certainly be converted to virtue.^ 
If they cannot be persuaded by reason," at least they may 
assume moderation '' through violent and necessary fear. 
And some will say that there are two examples on earth, 
(namely) Paradise and the region of the Sodomites, of 
which one is the immortality of the virtues, and the other, 
complete destruction through evil.* The former (existed) 
at the beginning and was contemporary with the creation 
of the world ; the other was at the end.' For virtue is 
prior and elder and (is) the activity of nature at the be- 

" Text slightly emended. The Arm. has the ablative 
instead of the locative case of the word meaning " vice," 
probably by attraction to the preceding noun, 

* Aucher renders, " legitimis " but Arm. orjnawor here 
translates evvofios in the sense of " residing in " rather than 
" lawful," 

* o delos Adyos, i.e. Scripture. 

^ The punctuation is uncertain. Aucher, while noting this 
fact, renders, " imo et ab ipso dominico verbo abomina- 
tionem subit, ut pote futurae deinde generationes moneantur, 
etc." 

* TcD vcD. 



eis aperijv. 



" v7t6 tov Xoyov. 

* aa)<f>poavvT]v. 

* Aucher inadvertently omits the rendering of this clause 
(from " of which one " to " evil "). 

^ At the end of what period is not clear. 

329 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

ginning," while vice is a child and a minor, being born 
later to a foolish and unjust soul. 



■'^52. (Gen. xix. 26) Why did his ^ wife look backward 
and become a pillar of salt and not some other material ? " 

The literal meaning '^ is very clear. For the angels had 
commanded (them) not to turn backward, and she trans- 
gressed the command, wherefore she paid the penalty, 
though it was not the same as that of the Sodomites. 
For it ^ was destroyed by sulphur and fire, whereas the 
woman was changed into the nature ^ of salt. All these " 
indicate unproductiveness and unfruitfulness, for when 
the region was burnt up, the salt-plain was no less unfruit- 
ful.'' Thus, (Scripture) wishes (to admonish) * you by 
producing even more wonderful miracles.^ Just as in the 
case of Sodom, that which was light by nature * was made 
to bear downward like those things which are heavy ^ by 
nature, so did salt, one of those things which were made 
for well-being and endurance,"* become a cause of ruin and 
destruction. 

And now" the reason must be told why the angels 
commanded (them) not to turn backward. They knew 

" The context makes it likely that " activity " is one of 
the predicates of " virtue " rather than the subject of an 
independent clause. 

* i.e. Lot's. 

" This verse is briefly commented on in Leg. All. iii. 213 
and more fully in De Fuga 121-125, but neither passage is 
a direct parallel to the present one. 

^ ro pTjTov, * i.e. Sodom. ^ (f>vat,v. 

" Exactly what " these " are is not clear. 

'^ The meaning of the sentence is somewhat doubtful. 

* The missing verb is supplied in Aucher's rendering. 
' davfiaTovpywv. 

^ i.e. the sulphur and fire, see QG iv. 51. 
^ Aucher inadvertently renders, " levia " instead of 

" gravia." "* els acDTrjplav koL Sia/xovr^v. 

** To several sentences in the following paragraph there 
are Greek parallels in Procopius and the Catenae. 

330 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

that some might perhaps rejoice at seeing these troubles." 
But to rejoice and exult over the misfortunes of others, 
while it may be just, is not humane.* For the future is 

unforseeable," and punishment is ,<* and suddenly it 

overtakes (men) everywhere, as do impotence and heaviness. 
But others might perhaps be soft and weak and might 
suffer from the misfortune more than they can (bear), 
being moved to pity and compassion and being overcome 
(by their feeling) for their friends and acquaintances and 
those with whom only a short while before they had been 
living,* because it is — — ,^ and they are united by the 
greatest mutual tenderness and compassion. And so, 
there were two reasons for their being forbidden (to look 
backward, namely) that they might not rejoice greatly 
nor grieve greatly at the punishment inflicted upon those 
who were suffering deservedly. And there was a third 
(reason), which I shall at once explain." (Scripture) says, 
" Do not, O men, look at '' God when He punishes, for 
it is enough for you simply to know that they suffered the 
punishment which they deserved. But to investigate and 
examine ' how they suffered is an act of impudence and 

** i.e. of the Sodomites. 

'' Similarly Procopius and the Catenae, xo-t-p^i-v im rals rwv 
€xOp(i>v drvxiai'S €t Koi biKaiov { + noT€ Catenae), aAA' ovk dvdpco- 

TTIVOV. 

•^ aST/Aov, as in the Procopius frag., which lacks the words 
that follow in Arm., down to " But others." 

^ Arm. anpatkareli can mean only " irreverent " or 
" shameless." Aucher renders, " inexorabile," which fits the 
context, though it appears to be a guess. Probably the Greek 
had aTTapaiT-qTos . 

* The last part of the sentence reads more briefly in Pro- 
copius lyTTCo/xevoi <f>iXa)v kol avvrjdcias. 

f Arm. anari means " unmanly " and also " enormous." 
Neither meaning fits here. Aucher omits the phrase. 

" The last clause is missing in the Procopius frag., which 
resumes here (the Catenae resume with the next sentence). 

'' Procopius and the Catenae have /X17 ^faravoeiTe. 

* Procopius and the Catenae have only one verb, nepLepyd- 
t,€adai. 

331 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

shamelessness <* and not of reverence,* with which it is the 
part of the rational nature " to live most carefully, con- 
stantly and familiarly.** The above is the literal meaning.* 
But as for the deeper meaning,^ the wife of the mind is 
symbolically sense-perception," which becomes insolent 
not only in evil men but also in those who progress,'^ and 
it inclines toward sense-perceptible things which are 
external rather than the things seen internally by reason.* 
And for this reason it turns back, in appearance to Sodom, 
but in truth to all the visible possessions, and it returns 
to those things which are with measure and without 
measure and to the varieties of their exhalations ^ and to 
the properties *= of pleasant odours and tastes and sub- 
stances,^ and it changes into an inanimate thing "* by 
separating itself from the mind, for the sake of which it 
was animated." 



53. (Gen. xix. 27-28) Why did Abraham " go early in 
the morning to the place where he had been standing 
before the Lord and look toward Sodom and Gomorrah " 

** Procopius and the Catenae have TrpoTTereias koI dpdaovs. 

* evXapeias, as in the Greek fragments, which end here. 

" T-^? XoyiKTJS <f)VG€tOS. 

'^ Aucher renders somewhat differently, " non vero timoris 
(Dei), quocum conversari diligentius et constantius familiare 
est naturae rationali." 

" TO pt]t6v. ^ TO 77-pos Siavoittv. 

" 17 Tov vov yvvrj avfi^oXiKcos iariv alad-qais. 

^ rots TrpoKOTTTovai. 

* VTTO TOV Xoyov. 

^ els ras twv dvadvfiidaecov Sia^opa?. Is Philo perhaps 
thinking of the Heracleitian saying (Diels 4 ed., Frag. 12) 
Zt/vcov Tr)v tpvx'qv Xeyei aladrjTiKrjv dvadvfiiaatv ? 

* ei? rds IhioTTjras- 

' Or " humours." "• dtpvxov. 

" Aucher mistakes the meaning of the last clauses in 
rendering, " convertens se ac mutans in res spiritu carentes, 
reposito intellectu, eo quod jam animalis fere merus erat." 

" Lit. " Sodomites and Gomorrahites." 

332 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

and the surrounding region, and behold, a flame went up 
from the earth like the flame of a furnace " * ? 

Wonderfully has (Scripture) described piety,'' for it is 
the part of the wise man " to stand and not to weary but 
continuously and unceasingly to pray when punishment 
is inflicted upon undeserving <* men. O God-worthy 
example of holiness and humaneness ! * For he says, " If 
thou seest some men going astray,^ do not be afraid and 
do not give up." And fearing the authority of the power 
that punishes and destroys," he made supplication to the 
Father. And in supplicating Him, without turning back- 
ward ^ but with great prayers placating, venerating and 
worshipping * Him, he ran to meet Him with prayer 
because of the uncertainty of the future. For just as He 
is kind and gentle, so too He is terrible ; He is kind in so 
far as He is God, and terrible in so far as He is Lord.^' That 
is the literal meaning.* But as for the deeper meaning,' 
the mind "* is firm," as the one God is firm. And behold, 
when it has become unalterable and unchangeable, all 
the things which it sees on looking around, which are 
all sense-perceptible, corporeal and subject to passion — all 

" So the Lxx except that for " flame of a furnace " it has 
drills Kafuvov. Heb. has " smoke " instead of " flame " in 
both parts of the comparison. 

^ evad^eiav. " tov ao<f>ov. 

<* Or " unworthy " ? — dva^iois. 

* CO OeonpeTTovs tvttov {vel sim.) ttjs ooiottjtos koI ttjs <f)i\- 
avdpcDTTias. 

^ I follow Aucher's rendering, " deviantes," though the 
Arm. verb regularly means " to scatter." 

" i.e. God's attribute of justice, the Suva^is KoXaar'qptos or 
jSaatAt/c^, see QG ii. 51 notes. 

'' Aucher freely renders, " indesinenter." 

* Aucher renders the last verb, " de salute anhelando." 
The original was probably depairevajv, in the religious sense. 

' The two chief divine attributes of mercy and justice 
correspond to the appellatives deos and Kvptos respectively, 
see QG ii. 51 notes. 

* TO pTJTOV. ' TO TTpOS SldvOiaV. 

"* o vovs. ** jSejSoioff vel sim. 

3S3 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

these substances it imagines as exhalation, furnace and 
smoke. For the feverish body is a furnace, and the 
exhalation (rising) from the senses is like vapour and smoke 
(rising) from the earth. And the passions " which surround 
us like a flame * and bum us up are fire " and wind. And 
these it is not possible to examine closely and to know 
and see (that they arise) from vice and evil, for they are 
certain and clear only to the wise man,'' especially the 
appearances of the several parts mentioned. 



■^^54. (Gen. xix. 29) Why is it that " God, after wiping 
out those inhabiting the environs of Sodom,* remembered 
Abraham, and sent Lot out of the midst of the destruc- 
tion " n 

You see how the literal meaning " is. For Lot was saved 
not for his own sake so much as for the sake of the wise 
man,* Abraham, for the latter had offered prayers for him. 
But as for the deeper meaning,' when the Father remembers 
a perfect family,^ He also saves its kinsmen * and the pro- 
gressive man.^ Excellent and wise, moreover, was it that 
" He sent Lot out from the midst of the destruction " 
but not out of all (destruction). For the way of life of the 
progressive man does not proceed rightly "* in every respect, 
but he limps somewhat and falls." And the middle parts 
are those that guide and are the right ones of those that 

" TO. TrddT]. 

* Exact meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, " quae vero 
flammis circumdant nos." 

" Variant " odour." ** tw ao(f>ip. 

* LXX €V to) cKTpiipai Kvpiov (Heb. " God ") Trdaas rds noXeis 
TTJS TrepioiKov. 

f LXX and Heb. add "when the Lord (Heb. "He") 
devastated the cities in which Lot dwelt." 
^ TO prjTOV. ^ Tov ao(f>ov. 

* TO TTpos Sidvotav. ^ TeXeiov yevovs. 

* Tovs crvyyevelS' ' tov trpoKOTTrovra. 
"» 6pda)S. 

*» Aucher, taking the ptc. as transitive, renders, " im- 
pingit." 

334 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

lead." Wherefore he has good hope of moving in the right 
direction and of being (rightly) ordered toward other 
things. For when his most proper parts ^ are sound, he 
is able to give a share of salvation " to those that are still 
ailing. 

55. (Gen. xix. 30) Why does Lot, fearing to dwell in 
Segor," go up to the mountain and dwell in a cave with 
his two daughters ? * 

As for the literal meaning/ it is fitting to say this, that 
he did not think it sound or safe to be near cities that had 
been burned up. But as for the deeper meaning," when 
the progressive mind '' becomes still purer, it removes still 
farther and separates from the guilty and unlivable way 
of life * and, to speak truly and properly, from destruction. 
And the mind has two connatural daughters,' (namely) 
counsel and consent.* 



*56. (Gen. xix. 31-32) ' Why is it that " the elder 

" The above is a literal translation of the Arm., which 
makes little sense to me. Aucher, bravely ignoring syntax, 
renders more smoothly, " partes autem ejus sunt mediocres 
in principatu conductrices in rectitudine." 

'' TO, KvpiiOTara ixepr). " KOLVioviav acoTTjpias. 

^ So Lxx : Heb. So'ar (A.V. " Zoar "). See the note on 
" Zoor " in QG iv. 50. 

* Philo condenses the verse, which reads " and Lot went 
out of Segor and dwelt in the mountain, and his two daughters 
with him, for he was afraid to dwell in Segor, and he dwelt 
in the cave, he and his two daughters with him." 

^ TO prjTOV. " TO TTpOS Stttvoiav. 

^ 6 TTpoKOTTTcov vovs . Onc might expect -q irpoKovTovaa i/ivxt]t 
" the progressive soul." * dno rov ivoxov koI djSttoTou ^iov. 

' avfX(f)VTOvs dtryarepaS' 

* In Be Poster. Gaini 175 Lot's daughters appear as 
symbols of jSouA^ and avyKaTadems. 

' These verses are differently explained in De Poster. Gaini 
175-177. A small portion of this section is paraphrased by 
Procopius. 

S8& 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

(daughter of Lot) said to the younger, Our father is an 
old man, and there is no one " who will come in to us as is 
proper " for the whole earth. Come now " and let us give 
our father wine to drink and let us lie with him and raise 
up seed from our father " ? 

This undertaking <* against the present custom of 
marriage is somewhat unlawful and an innovation but it 
has an excuse.* For these virgins, because of their ignor- 
ance ^ of external matters and because they saw those 
cities burned up together with all their inhabitants, 
supposed that the whole human race (had been destroyed 
at the same time) " and that no one remained anywhere 
except the three of them. Wherefore, in the belief that 
(they were showing) foresight (and) that (the earth) ^ 
might not be devastated and remain desolate and that 
the human race might not be destroyed, they rushed into 
an audacious act * to overcome their helplessness in this 
matter and their difficulties. That is the literal meaning.^ 
But as for the deeper meaning,* this (passage) must be 
said (to pertain) to counsel and consent,' for these are the 
daughters of the mind,"* counsel being the elder, and con- 
sent being the younger. For it is impossible for anyone 
to consent before taking counsel. And these are neces- 
sarily and naturally bom to their father, (namely) the 
mind. For through counsel the mind sows worthy, fitting 

" Lxx and Heb. " there is no one on earth." 

* LXX d)s KaOrjKei, : Heb. " as is the way." 
'' LXX Seupo odv. 

** Or " argument " — iinxetpTjfia, 

^ Aucher renders more freely, " aggressum interim pro- 
positum ad morem spectans matrimonii, iniquum est, et 
novarum rerum molitio enormis ; veniam tamen habere 
videtur." ^ Or " inexperience." 

" This last phrase is included in parentheses in the Arm. 
text, presumably because it has been supplied by Aucher. 

^ I follow Aucher in supplying the missing noun. 

* TTapp-qaiav vel sim. 

' TO prjTOV. * TO npos Siavoiav. 

' ^ovXijs Koi avyKaTadeaeoys. See QG iv. 55 last note. 

*" TOU vov. 

336 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

and persuasive things in those who are not discordant in 
aiming at the truth." But consent is that which in respect 
of appearances^ makes way for the several senses." For 
what can counsel do by itself without the mind, and what 
(can) consent (do) ? For by themselves they are ineffective 
and unproductive, unless they are moved by the mind 
to their proper business and activities.'* 



57. (Gen. xix. 37) Why did the elder (daughter) on 
bearing a son call him Moab, proclaiming aloud ' what 
ought to have been concealed, (namely) " he is from my 
father " ^ ? 

The literal meaning ' is (an occasion of) exultation and 
glorification for those who think rightly. For she did not 
cease (talking) and remain quiet as if (it were) a reproach 
but prided herself in thought as if on a great achievement,'^ 
and with delight said, " I have a deserved honour, which 
the father, who is the mind in me,* sowed. And having 
been sown,^ he did not disintegrate *^ and pass away but 
having been born perfect,' he was found worthy of birth 

** iv Tols /lit) aavfi(f)uivoLS ovolv iv rco aroxo-Ceadai t'^s dXrjdelas. 

^ Aucher renders, " juxta propositum." 

" eKaaraLS rals aladrjaeai. 

^ eiS TO. imTTqbiia Trpay/xara Koi evepyeias vel sim. 

* Aucher renders, " vocitando super eum." 

^ Lxx €K Tov TTarpos nov. Here, as elsewhere {e.g. Leg. All. 
ill. 81), Philo follows the popular, biblical etymology of 
Moab, as '\i = me-dh " from the father." 

" TO prjTOV. 

^ Karopdwaecjs vel sim. Aucher renders, " de magna 
probitate." 

* Perhaps in the original the prepositional phrase " in 
mfe " was connected with " sowed " rather than " the mind." 

{ Apparently the unspecified subject is the son born to 
Lot's daughter (^ovX-q). 

* Arm. vizem has a variety of meanings, including " to 
miscarry," " to flow," " to be borne," " to be thrown." 
Aucher renders, " non abortus fuit inaniter." 

* Or " complete " — reXeios. 

337 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and nurture." " And what should be the irreprehensible 
and irreproachable ^ progeny of the mind and counsel if 
not good and excellent counsel.*^ Wherefore (the child) 
who was born was a male. 



58. (Gen. xix. 37-38) Why does the elder (daughter) 
call the son born (to her) " from my father," while the 
younger says, " Ammon,** the son of my people " * ? And 
of the former (why is it that Scripture) says, " This is the 
father of the Moabites,^ " and of the other, " This is 
the father of the Ammonites unto this day " ? 

Because that which reflects is called " mind," " and its 
counsel is directed '' toward the good, wherefore also 
counsel* naturally exclaims, " from my father." For it 
is only from the mind that counsel (and) imagination ' 
are acquired by me. And consent '' is nothing (in itself) 
but gives way to imagination. But to give way and not 
to retire ' is a maternal and very feminine thing. For this 
reason she speaks of the child that is born as " Ammon," 
as no longer being " from the father " but " from the 

*• rpo(f>7]s. 

* The two Arm. adjectives probably render the single 
Greek adj. d/carayvcooTos' vel sirti. 

" The same Arm. word, xorhourd {^^ovXt], XoyiofMos etc.), 
is here used of the offspring of vovs and ^ovXtj as of jSouAiy 
itself. ^ Arm. and lxx " Amman." 

* So LXX, 'A/x/tiav, o vlos Tov yevovs fiov. Heb. reads more 
briefly " The son of my people " (ben-'ammt), omitting the 
ethnic name. 

^ LXX and Heb. add " unto this day." 

" vovs. '' Lit. " is thought." 

* jSoyA'iy, symbolized by the elder daughter of Lot, see the 
preceding sections. 

' /SouAt) (/fat) (f>avraaia : variant " counselling imagina- 
tion," Aucher renders, " cogitare junctim cum imaginatione," 
with a query in the footnote. 

^ avyKardOeais, see the preceding sectjons. 

* Or " to feel shame." Perhaps we should emend xoHeln 
to xorheln " to reflect " or " to take counsel." 

338 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

people." For to give way to imagination, which is consent, 
is to be close to, and near to, the senses," and sense- 
perception is in generation and change.'' 



59. (Gen. xx. 1) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And Abraham moved « from there to the land in the 
south, '^ and he dwelt between Kadesh * and between ^ 
Shur," and he dwelt as a sojourner '' in Gerar " ? 

The statement * includes the dwelling and the sojourning 
of the virtuous man,^ the dwelling being that between 
Kadesh and Shur, and the sojourning that in Gerar. 
Naturally does (Scripture) wish to reveal the powers * 
which are in these names, for " Kadesh " is to be inter- 
preted as " sacred," ' and " Shur " as " wall." "* Within 
the borders of these two is the region of God-loving 
thoughts." And in this dwell those who are provided with, 
and surrounded by, virtues " as if by an inexpugnable and 
indestructible wall ; and they are nourished by the sacred 
laws, and rejoice throughout the days of their life with 
the house-master of wisdom,* drinking from ever-flowing 

" rais alad-qaeai. 

'' Text uncertain ; the above is the reading of one ms. 

" Lxx iKivrjaev : Heb. " journeyed." 

^ LXX eis yrjv npos Ai'^a : Heb. " to the land of the Negeb " 
( = " dry land " in the south of Palestine). 

* Arm. and lxx " Kades." 

^ Philo follows the lxx in retaining the Heb. idiom " be- 
tween . . . and between ..." 

" Arm. and lxx " Sur." 

'* Arm. uses two words to render lxx TrapcpKrjaev. In 
biblical Greek Trapot/co? = Heb, ffer "resident alien," later 
" convert." * -f) -n-podeois. 



Tov anovoaLov 



Baiov. * TOLS Suva/xets. 



^ Heb. qddeS (qddos) " sacred," " holy " ; cf. De Fuga 213 
Ka8T7? Se ayia. "* See QG iii. 27 for the same etymology. 

" Or " thoughts dear to God " — Aoyia/zcDv 9€o<I)lXwv. 

" dperais. 

* avv to) olKoSeaTTOTT) rrjs ao<f>las. Cf. De Somniis i. 149 
where Philo calls God the " house-master of the world." 

339 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

fountains. And these the divine word " has led to one 
place. And like sojourners they dwell in Gerar,'' which 
is the region of God-loving thoughts. 



60. (Gen. xx. 2) Why does Abraham again " say, con- 
cerning his wife, " She is my sister " ? 

Always and everywhere it was a kind of counsel of 
homage,'^ that among strangers he called his wife " sister." 
Wherefore anyone who says that this (was done) through 
levity of character * with unwashed feet ^ and with a 
changed countenance and with complete practice " is 
deserving of condemnation.* For they cannot reflect and 
bear in mind that * no one is so stupid and silly (even) 
among those who go far in wrongdoing ^ (as to think) that 
he in whom there is perfection ^ would, as it were, wish 

" o delos Xoyos. 

" Philo connects the name " Gerar " with Heb. ger 
" sojourner," " resident alien." 

* As in Gen. xii. 13 ff., not commented on by Philo in QG^ 
but cf. De Ahrahamo 89 ff^. lxx here (Gen. xx. 2) departs 
from the Heb. in adding that Abraham was afraid to say that 
Sarah was his wife lest the men of the city kill him on her 
account. 

^ The Arm. seems to render jSouA^ tij depaireiast but one 
would expect aomripias " safety." 

* Syntax and meaning uncertain. The verb " says " is 
in the 2nd pers. sing., and the phrase " through levity of 
character " may depend upon it rather than upon the verb 
here supplied. Aucher renders, " qui levitate morum similia 
dixerint." 

f dviirrois ttogi, i.e. " impromptu " or the like. 
" Arm. lit. =iTpdyiJiaai reAeiois but the meaning escapes me 
(see next note). Aucher renders, " re peracta." 

* Perhaps we should ignore the conjunction " and " before 
the phrase " with complete practice " and render, " is com- 
pletely deserving of condemnation." 

* Taking Arm. k'anzi, which usu. ="for," as here=2« 
" that.'; 

^ ot dSiKiq. TTpoKOTTTovai. * i.e. Abraham. 

340 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

to remain in sinful transgression and to celebrate '^ many 
times those things which when spoken only once bring 
shame and disgrace. But let not such a streak of impiety 
come upon us as that we should think unworthy things 
of the patriarch, father and founder.* For a most noble 
(occasion of) glorification are those things which are seen 
by nature." For the virtue-loving mind ** calls virtue 
" sister " but not " wife," because it seems to be not only 
a protector * of wisdom ^ as if of a wife but by calling it 
" sister " it shows that eagerness and zeal for this are 
common to all who are genuine and sincere in their desire 
for excellence." 



61. (Gen. xx. 2) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Abimelech, the king of Gerar, sent and took Sarah " ? 

Passing over the opinion of some who believe that the 
wise man '* was a betrayer of the laws of marriage, for the 
king, being impure and licentious and unrestrainedly 
lascivious, wished to bring shame upon the laws relating 
to strangers, and took the wife of another, we say that 
the question is one of virtue,* of which all wicked and evil 
men claim to be champions ^ so far as appearance is con- 
cerned,* for few are they who desire it and by labour and 
great effort succeed in acquiring it. 



62. (Gen. xx. 3) What is the meaning of the words, 
God went in to Abimelech ' in his sleep at night, and 

" Lit. " to sing in speech." 

^ apxriy^Tov, rendered by two Arm. words. 

" This sentence is unintelligible to me. 

^ 6 (f)t\dp€Tos vovs (or BLavoia). 

" TTpoardTrjs vel sim. ^ ao<f>iaS' 

" KaXoKayadias. ^ tov ao(f>6v^ i.e. Abraham. 

* dpcTTJs, symbolized by Sarah. 

^ TTpoardrovs vel sim. 

* Aucher renders, " quatenus ad vulgi opinio nem." 

* LXX €ia^A0ev o Beos irpos 'AjStfieAcx* 

341 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

said, Behold, thou shalt die '^ because of the woman whom 
thou didst take, and she is living with a man " * ? 

The literal meaning <= is clearly signified. But as for the 
deeper meaning,** it presents something like the following. 
The foolish man who violently insists ' that he possesses 
virtue ^ is convicted " by the divine Logos,'' which enters 
his soul and examines and searches him and forces him 
to confess that this * is the possession of another man 
and not his. And most excellently is it written, " in his 
sleep at night." For the foolish soul spends its life care- 
fully shut up ^ in darkness and night and deep sleep, and 
it has no part at all in wakefulness.'^ 

63. (Gen. xx. 4) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Abimelech did not touch her " ^ ? 

The literal meaning"* indicates holiness and purity. 
But as for the deeper meaning," this must be said. The 
foolish soul does not wish to touch or come near virtue, 
and is unable to do so because of its peculiar nature." 

■'^64. (Gen. xx. 4-5) What is the meaning of the words, 

<* Lit. " thou diest," as in lxx and Heb. 
^ LXX avTT] be eariv avvcoKijKvla avhpi : Heb. " she is a 
married woman." 

'^ TO prjTov. 
^ Tj SidvoLa. 

* Aucher renders, " falso se persuadet." 
^ dpeTTJv, symbolized by Sarah. 

' iXeyxerai. 

^ VTTO Tov deiov Xoyov. 

* i.e. virtue. 

^ Aucher, taking, the ptc. as active, renders, " omnino 
includens." 

* dypvTTVLas. 

^ LXX ovx rji/jaTo avT-fjs : Heb. " did not approach her." 

'" TO prjTOV. 

" TO 7r/30? hidvoLav. 
" 8ia Trjv Ihlav <f)vaiv. 

34,2 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

" And Abimelech said, Lord, wilt Thou destroy a nation 
(that is) in ignorance " and righteous ? " * ? 

I do not know whether ignorance is compatible with 
righteousness. However, there are those who say that 
(this) is not one of the very clear-cut cases " so that it is 
possible to confirm and clearly define the notion and 
distinguish that which is not germane. For I would say, 
" My good man, not like a voluntary sin's being unrighteous 
is an involuntary (sin committed) through ignorance by 
that very fact righteous,"* but, it seems to me,* it is half- 
way between both, the righteous and the unrighteous, 
which by some is called ' indifferent,' for no sin is the effect 
of righteousness." ^ But this is what he says concerning 
this, " With a pure heart and with righteous hands" have 
I done this." Of these statements one is true and the other 
false, for it is true that (it was) with a pure heart, but false 
that (it was) with righteous hands. For I would say to 
him, " Is not that which is actually done ^ enough for 
thee of unrighteousness .'* " * 



65. (Gen. xx. 6) What is the meaning of the words, 

" The Lxx has the ptc. dyvoovv while the Arm. has the 
noun " ignorance " in the instr. case. 

* The Heb. reads more briefly " Wilt Thou kill even a 
righteous nation ? " 

" Lit. " one of the very pure ones " — rcbv Mav Kadapwv. 
^ So the Greek frag., ovx cos to eKovaiojs dfiapTaveiv carlv 
aSi/cov, ovTco TO aKOvauos kol /car' dyvoiav ivdvs SiKaiov. 

* The Greek frag, has ra^a ttov. 

^ So the Greek frag, (which ends here), indopiov dfx<t>oiv, 
SiKaiov Kal dbiKov, to vtto tivcov KaXoiifxevov d8id(f)opov. djxdp- 
TTjfia yap ovSev cpyov SiKatoavvrjs. 

» Lit. " with hands of righteousness." i,xx (Gen. xx. 5) 
has e'v BiKaioavvT) ;feipcuv. 

^ Lit. " that which is through deeds." 

* In view of Philo's earlier statements about Abimelech's 
licentiousness, one would expect him here to admit that he 
had righteous hands, since he had not touched Sarah, but 
not a pure heart. But see the next section. 

343 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

" And God said to him in his sleep," Indeed I knew that 
with a pure heart thou didst this, and I spared thee from 
sinning against Me. Because of this I did not let thee 
come near her " * ? 

All the things that stand in these words are truly divine 
words and commandments.* Now to be pure in mind ** 
belongs to him who sins unknowingly and in an unwilling 
manner, not in a willing one. And those are to be spared 
whom (Scripture) has shown to be grieved,* and those 
are to be held indifferent ^ who have unwillingly done 
wrong. And, in the third place, those who have acted 
unlawfully in divine matters, sin not only against these 
but also against the Deity, to Whom care and overseeing 
are proper, and to Whom is all grace," and Who reverses 
the first impulses of the soul and guides it by His pro- 
vidence '*■ lest it drop headlong into wrath and anger, and 
fall into lawlessness. 



66. (Gen. xx. 7) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Now give back his wife to the man, for he is a prophet * 
and will pray for thee.' But if thou dost not give (her) 
back, know that thou wilt die, and all that is thine " ? 

The literal meaning * contains a defence ^ against the 
event that the betrayer of marriage might suffer retribu- 

" So Lxx : Heb. " in his dream." 

'' Philo here closely follows the lxx. 

" ovTOJS clal deioi Xoyot Koi ivroXcu. 

<* Kadapov TO) va> (or rrj 8iavoia). Aucher omits " mind " 
in his rendering. 

* Meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, " parcendum au- 
tem esse illis quos monstravit aegre ferendos." 

^ ahiaj)6povs. " irdoa vapLS. 

'^ TTpovoLa. Aucher renders somewhat differently, " quae 
primos animi impetus rebellantes retrovertit per providen- 
tiam." * 7Tpo(f>'qTr]s, as in lxx. 

' LXX and Heb. add " and thou shalt live," as does Philo 
in the parallel comment Quis Rer. Div. Heres 258-259. 

^ TO prjTov. 

^ dnoXoyiav (rendered here by two Arm. words). 

344 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

tion," and especially and peculiarly (a man) of prophecy.'' 
Knowing that he " would remain without defiling and 
coming near her, and that his wife would be kept pure, he 
did not hesitate to call her " sister," (a name that was) 
sweet, tender, fitting and appropriate among the natives, 
and not " wife." Altogether excellent also is the manner <* 
of speech of the divine command, " Give back his wife," 
not " sister " or " Sarah," which was as much as to say, 
" Give back the wife with her body preserved whole, 
sanctified and holy, not ravished or stripped, and just as 
she came to her husband from her virgin state, and return 
her pure and undefiled. If thou dost not return her as a 
wife, a penal j udgment will be set up and increased upon 
thee and upon all thy house by death." But as for the 
deeper meaning,* those who profess wisdom, righteousness 
and virtue in general,^ just as they can live only with a 
virtuous mate as wife, so they can live an immortal life of 
soul. But any who drag her " off and lacerate her, wishing 
to shame her, are not able to shame or lacerate her, but 
out of self-love and in the senselessness of mad impulses 
are altogether deprived of virtue, and destroy themselves. 
And, says (Scripture), if thou wert not placated ^ before, 
and it seemed pleasant to thee to appear to be seized by 

* Meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, " littera praesefert 
apologiam juridicam contra eventus, ita ut satisfactio 
reddatur legi matrimonii," and in a footnote on " legi," adds, 
" Verba sunt proditori matrimonii : quod si ad Abraham 
referatur, indicat eum per vim sibi factam vel invitus [sic] 
prodidisse alienigenis uxorem suam : si vero ad Abimelech, 
demonstrat vim ab illo factam, qui tulit Sarram, nolente 
Abraham© : sequentia quoque praeferunt ambiguitatem 
sensus." 

'' Or perhaps " and (this is) special and peculiar to 
prophecy." 

" i.e. Abimelech. Aucher, rendering somewhat carelessly, 
has, " quod intacta remansura erat." 

** Lit. " face " — irpoacoTTov. 

* TO TTpos Siavoiav. 

f ao(f>iav koX BiKaioavvrjv ofiov koL ap^Trjv. 

o i.e. virtue. ^ Variant " pleased." 

345 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

a mad impulse and passion, at least change, and do not 
take " for thyself what belongs to others. For virtue is a 
stranger to foolish men if she is thought worthy to be 
possessed as a wife and not as a sister. For she can indeed 
l>e a kinswoman * to the progressive man " as to a brother, 
but only to the perfect man '^ as a real wife.* 

^67. (Gen. xx. 10-11) Why, when Abimelech asked 
(Abraham), " What was in thy mind ^ that thou didst this ? ", 
did he reply, " Because I thought ° that God ^ was not in 
this place, and that I should be waylaid and slain " ^ } 

Not all the truth is to be told to all men, wherefore also 
now the wise man manages the whole (affair) with an 
alteration and change of names.' For he knew that as 
for his wife, she would not be corrupted. This, however, 
he does not admit but only what it was proper for his 
interrogators to hear, in order that they might be delighted 
by the fact that he seemed to be showing that that region 
had a desire for piety * and for respect toward strangers, 
and that they might be even more mindful of piety and 
hospitality.^ 

68. (Gen. xx. 12). What is the meaning of the words, 
<* Lit. " cut off." * avyy^vTjs. 

" TO) TTpOKOTTTOVTl. ^ TCO TcXciw. 

" Lit. " a wife as a wife." 

^ Lit. " seeing what " : so lxx, tl eVtScov, retaining the 
Heb. idiom. 

" LXX et77-a, retaining the Heb. idiom "I said"="I 
thought." 

'^ LXX deoae^eia, Heb. " fear of God." 

* LXX and Heb. " that they would kill me because of my 
wife." 

' So the Greek frag, (which consists only of this sentence), 
ov Travra dXrjdrj Xcktcov airaaiv' odev /cat vvv 6 darelos (the 
Arm. word used usu. = 6 ao<f>6s) oXov oIkovo^icl to vpayfia 
fieTadeaei koI aTTaXXayfj tcDv ovofMOLTCov, 

^ TTJs ^eoCTCjSeta?. 

' Trjs (f>iXo^€vlas. 

34>6 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

" And in truth she is my sister by the father but not by 
the mother. And she became my wife " " ? 

The literal meaning * is excellently clear. But as for the 
deeper meaning/ (Scripture) says something most natural,'^ 
for it introduces virtue ' as in truth being motherless ^ and 
having no part in the female sex " but being sown only by 
the Father of all,'' who needs no material substance for 
His * generation. But the virtue of the virtuous man has 
the rights ' of both sister and wife, of a sister because there 
is one Father for both. Who begot all things, and of a wife 
because everything that comes about through conjugation * 
is called "wife."' And so, the righteous man"* is a 
consort " of righteousness, the ignorant man " of ignorance, 
the sincere man ^ of sincerity, the pious man « of piety, 
and, in a word, the wise man ^ of wisdom. 



^69. (Gen. xx. 16) Why does Abimelech say to Sarah, 
" Behold, I have given a thousand (pieces of) silver * to 

<* This verse is allegorized in similar fashion to the first part 
of this section (down to " generation ") in Dg Ebrietate 61 
and Quis Rer. Div. IJeres 62. * to prjTov. 

'^ TO irpos Siavoiav. 

'' (f)VaLKU>TaTOV. 

'' dper-qv. 

^ dXrfdcbs dfi,T]Topa. 

" Cf. De Ebrietate 61 dijXeos yeveds d/xeroxos. 
^ Cf. Quis Rer. Div. lleres 62 eV Ttarpos rod Ttavroiv Oeov 
^lovov yevvTjdelaa. 

* Or " its " (i.e. virtue's). Cf. De Ebrietate 61 ov yap e'^ 
vXrjs rrjs alad-qrijs avviOTaixevrjs. 

' Si/caico/xara vel slm. 

* Kord av^vyiav. 

' So lit. the Arm. 

"• o SiVaios. " avfJL^ios. 

" Or " foolish man." 
^ Or " sound man." 
' o €va€^-qs. '' 6 ao(f)6s. 

* So Heb. : lxx ^lAia BlSpaxf^a (bibpaxfj^ov regularly renders 
Heb. " shekel," which is here understood). 

347 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

thy brother. Let this be for the honour " of thy face " 
and of all women who are with thee," and speak the truth 
about everything " ** ? 

He is deserving of approval who has imposed also upon 
himself a penalty for an involuntary sin * for the consola- 
tion and assuagement and the honour of the face (of 
Sarah). But the expression " speak the truth about every- 
thing " is the injunction of an unphilosophical and un- 
learned man.^ For if human life were properly directed " 
and admitted nothing false, it would be proper to speak the 
truth to everyone about everything. But since hypocrisy 
of an evil kind '' acts with authority as if in a theatre,* 
and arrogance is concealed with the truth,^ the wise man 
requires a versatile art from which he may profit in imitat- 
ing those mockers * who say one thing and do another in 
order to save whom they can.' Now it is not right for 
this to happen in all cases. For it is profitable for a 

<» Or " price " — TLfxrjv. 

^ So Lxx : Heb. " covering of the eyes," i.e. an " amende 
honorable." 

" LXX KoX TTOLcraLS tols fiera aov : Heb. " and for all which 
is with thee." 

^ So LXX : Heb. is somewhat obscure but probably means 
" and in everything thou hast been justified." 

* VTrkp aKovaias anaprias. 

^ d<f)LXoa6<f>ov Kol IhioiTov TTapdYyeXixa, as in the Greek frag., 
which begins with this sentence. 
f €uc68ei, as in the Greek frag. 

* Lit. " hypocrisy of evil " : the Greek frag, has merely 

VTTOKpiOtS. 

* The Greek frag, has a»s iv iKarepo) Swaarevei : iKarepa) 
is evidently a scribal error for dedrpu). Whether Swaarevei 
was the reading of the Arm. translator is less clear. 

^ Variant " with art " or " with artifice " : The Arm. is 
obscure and is probably an inaccurate rendering of the 
original. The Greek frag, reads more intelligibly /cat to 
ipevSos TTapaTT€Taapi.a rijs dXrjdelas earL 

* Prob. an inaccurate rendering of tovs viroKpirds which 
the Greek frag. has. 

' So the Greek frag, (which ends with this sentence). 

348 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

counsellor of evil to speak falsely about everything to his 
hearers," while a salutary nature is peculiar to virtue." 



70. (Gen. xx. 17-18) Why is it that, after Abraham had 
prayed, " God healed Abimelech and his wife and his maid- 
servants, and they bore, for God had closed up " every 
womb in the household of Abimelech because of the wife-'' 
of Abraham " ? 

When the Father wishes to do some kindness to someone, 
He considers this a special grace to the wise man,* as is 
the case now. For it seems that because the wise man 
offered up prayers He granted forgiveness ' of the involun- 
tary sins of the household, even though no one (of them) 
prayed. Moreover, (Scripture) teaches a doctrine that is 
beautiful for those who give judgment and for those who 
are judged, (namely) that the former should not first strike 
down, or be beforehand in punishing sinners, but should 
at the very start softly persuade and reconcile the one who 
seems to have been wronged ; and as for the others, they 
should supplicate the court not to inflict punishment upon 
all (of them) for always. 



71. (Gen. xxiii. 1) ' Why was the life of Sarah a hundred 
and twenty-seven years ? 

Each of the numbers which are here contained has a 

« Aucher, construing differently, renders, " quoniam con- 
sultoris malitiae est omnia falso dicere ad aucupandos 
auditores." * acoTrjpla t^vais ihla iarl rfj ap^Tfj, 

" Lit. " closing up, closed up," retaining the Heb. idiom. 
Lxx here has only awiKXeiaev. 

** LXX and Heb. " because of Sarah, the wife." 

* iSi'av x^-P'-^ "^^ ao<j>cp {i.e. Abraham). 

' Lit. " forgetfulness " — aixviqariav. 

"In the extant text of the Quaestiones there are no sections 
on chaps, xxi and xxii of Genesis. Chap, xxi relates (a 
second time) the birth of Isaac and the flight of Hagar (see 
above, §§ 18 ff.) ; chap, xxii tells of the sacrifice of Isaac 
(see De Abrahamo 167-177). 

349 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

sacred and separate <* status,'' (namely) seven, twenty and 
a hundred. Moreover, it has a wonderful unity and 
harmony of parts. For the seven after the one " by a 
double proportion produces a hundred and twenty-seven, 
as follows : 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64,'* which make a hundred 
and twenty-seven.' 



72. (Gen. xxiii. 2) Why does (Scripture) specify the place 
where (Sarah) died, (saying), " She died in the city of 
Arbok f which is in the valley " ; this is Hebron ^ in the 
land of Canaan " ? 

The translation of " Arbok " is "of four," » and 
" Hebron " means " being joined with " or " associating 
with women " ' and " Canaan " is, as it were, " their 
appearance."*' 



*73. (Gen. xxiii. 2-3) Why does (Scripture) say, " Abra- 
ham came to bewail Sarah and to mourn, and Abraham 
arose from his dead " .'' 

Carefully and deliberately ' does (Scripture) say that he 
arose, not from Sarah, but " from his dead." And he 
came there to bewail and mourn, not his dead, but " Sarah." 
And this is somehow most natural,*" for it is proi)er for the 
virtuous man to separate and dwell far from a body that 

" Or " consecrated." ^ Adyov. 

" i.e. the digit 7, see De Opif. Mundi 91. 
^ The numbers are written as numeral letters in the Arm. 
« The sum of the seven terms in the geometric progres- 
sion by 2. 

f So Lxx : Heb. " in Kiriath Arba." 

" So LXX, 17 e<7Tiv ev to) KroiAcu/xari : Heb. omits the clause. 

" Arm. K'ebron : lxx Xe^pdov : Heb. Hebron. 

* Heb. 'ar6a'=" four." 

^ Cf. Quod Deterius 15 avivyr] 8e Krai avveraipls Xe^pwv 
KaXcLTat avitfioXiKUiS rjucov to awfia. 

* In De Sobrietate 44-48 " Canaan ''=adXos. The present 
etymology is obscure. 

^ Or " cautiously." "* (ftvaiKCJTaTov rt. 

350 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

had died naturally by itself," and to mourn for wisdom * 
as though it seemed in actual fact " to be separated from 
virtue."* For there is no mourning among incorruptible 
things," and wisdom is incorruptible, as is all virtue. But 
in respect of those things which men are able to possess, 
and which (sometime) fail and are lacking,^ they must of 
necessity be grieved. But excellently and carefully does 
(Scripture) show that the virtuous man did not resort to 
wailing or mourning but only came there for some such 
thing. For things that unexpectedly and against his will 
strike the pusillanimous man " weaken, crush and over- 
throw him, whereas everywhere they merely bow down '' 
the man of constancy * when they direct their blows against 
him, and not in such a way as to bring (their work) to 
completion, since they are strongly repelled by the guiding 
reason,' and retreat. And so it is not fitting for a man 
devoted to moral excellence *= to stand (fixed) in prayer when 
something happens against his will, or to be entirely rapt 
and moved and drawn toward this, but he should some- 
what gradually go toward it, and retire before the end is 
reached. This holy and consecrated law was written as a 
warning against those sins that are about to be committed, 
so that when men are moved by those things which are 
external, such as the possessions of others, or by the 
divisions ' of women or by theft or by plunder or by adultery 
or by similar evils, they may not perpetrate them but shall 
think it sufficient "* to have been struck by these impulses, 

" Aucher omits the rendering of the reflexive pronoun. 

* T17V ao<f)Lav (symbolized by Sarah). * epyoj. 

'^ Construction and meaning uncertain. Aucher renders 
similarly. 

* eV a<l>ddpTois. ^ i.e. material things. 
" rov fxiKpoi/jvxov. * Or " deflect." 

* TOP j3e/3aiov vel shn. 

' Lit. " by the charioteer, reason." Cf. Leg. All. \. 73 
rov r)vioxov, Xeyco Se tov Xoyiafiov. 

* KoXoKayaOias. 

'■ Or " dissensions." The exact meaning is not clear. 
"• Variant " proper." 

351 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and shall move away and take their stand upon the im- 
movable and firm mind." 



*74. (Gen. xxiii. 4) * Why does (Abraham) say, " I am 
an immigrant and sojourner among you " " ? 

But does not every wise soul '^ live like an immigrant and 
sojourner in this mortal body, having (as its real) dwelling- 
place and country * the most pure substance ^ of heaven, 
from which (our) nature migrated to this (place) by a law 
of necessity ? " Perhaps this was in order that it might 
carefully inspect terrestrial things, that even these might 
not be without a share in wisdom to participate in a better 
life, or in order that it might be akin ^ to created beings 
and not be continuously and completely happy. Wherefore 
in concluding the expression of his thought,* he says not 
ineptly ^ " immigrant and sojourner," but adds, " among 
you." For truly the lover of wisdom does not dwell, or 
go about, with any vain or empty things, even though he 
has grown together with them, (but) is far removed from 
them in thought. Wherefore the wise man is truly and 
properly said not to sail, or journey, or be a fellow- 
citizen, or live, with the foolish man, since the sovereign 
and ruling mind * does not unite, or mix, with anything 
else.^ 

" VTTcp Tov a/ciVT/TOV Kol jScjSaiov vovv. 

^ This half-verse is briefly commented on in Be Confus. 
Ling. 79. 

" LXX TrdpoLKOS Koi irapcmSifjfios eyo) elfxi /x€0' u/ia>v. 
** TTttcra ao<j}ri 4'^Xl' * TrarpiSa. 

^ KaOapcoTaTrjv ovaiav. 
" Lit. " by a necessary law." 

* Aucher more freely renders, " sive ut noscat se cogna- 
tum." 

* Lit. " In sealing the thoughts of his opinion" (or " will "). 
^ ovK diTo oKOTTov vd slm. Aucher curiously renders, " non 

simpliciter." *^ o riyeficov vovs. 

» The last two sentences are paralleled in somewhat 
abbreviated form in a Greek frag, from Dam. Par. 754 
(Harris, p. 69), identified by Fruchtel ; see Appendix A. 

352 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

75. (Gen. xxiii. 4) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Give me the possession of a grave," and I will bury my 
dead before me " ? 

The literal meaning * is clear and well known, but as 
for the deeper meaning," we may explain it allegorically "* ; 
it is as follows. As it seems, the wise man * does not seek 
a grave, for the body is the grave of the soul,^ in which it 
is buried as if in a grave, but " the possession of a grave," 
that is to say, authority and lordship over it," for,'^ he 
says, " I shall become master and receive authority, and 
not be subjected to authority and no longer be, as it were, 
buried among them as formerly,' but rather will I bury 
(them) far from me." 



*76. (Gen. xxiii. 5-6) ^ Why do they say to him, " A 
king from God * art thou among us " ? 

In the first place, (Scripture) wishes to show that all 
men, and not merely rational wise men,' admire and 
honour him who is a follower of pure and non-fraudulent 
wisdom."* And not only (is he regarded) as a ruler but as 
a ruler of rulers and a divine one, and as a king of kings, 

" Though the Arm. lit. = KXrjpov rd^ov, Philo probably 
read KrijoLv Td(f>ov, as our text of the lxx reads ; similarly 
Heb. and Arm. O.T. have " possession of a grave." Philo 
omits " among you " which Heb. and lxx add after " grave." 

** TO prjTOv. " TO TTpos Bidvoiav. 

^ dXXr]yopovvT€S. * o ao<f>6s or doTelos. 

^ TO acofia Td<f>os rijs ^vx'fjs icrri. 

" i.e. the body. 

'' Aucher notes that from here to the middle of § 122 there 
is a lacuna in Cod. A of the Arm. version. 

* Aucher renders somewhat differently, " non amplius, 
sicut illis ante contigebat, dixerim, quasi vero sepeliar." 

^ This passage is briefly commented on by Philo in De 
Mut. Norn. 153, De Somniis ii. 244, De Abrahamo 261, and 
is alluded to in De Virtutibus 216. 

*= So LXX, ^aaiXevs Trapd Oeov : Heb. " a prince of God." 

' ao<f>ol XoyiKoL 

"* OS Kadapds Kai dBoXov ^i^Acor^s iari ao<f>ias. 

SUPPL. I N 353 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

being excellent and virtuous," and as being elected, not 
by men, but by God.^ And, in the second place, (Scripture) 
lays down a most natural law," which some of those who 
philosophize '^ have rejected. This law is that no one of 
the foolish * (is) a king, even though he should be master 
of all the land and sea, but oidy the wise and God-loving 
man,^ even if he is without the equipment and resources 
through which many obtain power Avith violence and 
force. ^ For whereas the man ignorant of the art of the 
pilot or of the physician or of the musician has trouble ^ 
with the rudders or with the compounding of drugs and 
ointments * or with flutes and lyres, since he is unable to 
use any of them for its natural purpose, to the pUot, on 
the other hand, and the physician and the musician they 
may be said to be fitting and suitable. And this is proper, 
since there is a certain kingly art,^ and it is the most 
noble of the arts.^" For he who is ignorant and unversed 
in the needs ^ of men must be considered a layman,*" while 
only he (can be considered) a king who is knowing and 
experienced." In the third place, moreover, (Scripture) 

<» Or " noble " : Aucher " generosus." 

^ XeipoTovrjOeLS . . . vvo Oeov. The same phrase is applied 
to Moses in De Praemiis 54, where Philo makes a similar 
contrast between the ideal and the actual king. 

" VOIJLOV (f)VOt,K(l)TaT0V. 

<* Tcov (})LXoao(f>ovvTO)v : Aucher " nonnulli sophistarum." 

* T(x)v d(l>p6va)v ouSei?, as in the Greek frag, (which begins 
here). 

^ Or " God-beloved " — deotfuAijs, as in the Greek frag. 

" The Greek frag, differs very slightly, 8i' wv ttoXXoI Kparv- 
vovrai ras Bwaareias. 

^ Following the Greek frag., which has napeXKov irpdyfia^ 
misunderstood by the Arm. translator as TrapaSciy/iart/ca 
TTpdyfjiaTa or the like. 

* The Greek frag, has only <f>appLdKa}v avvdeais. 
' re^vij Tts ^aaiXiK-q, as in the Greek frag. 

* T€xvd>v dpLariq. 

' Or " affairs " — tcDv xP^'-^'^ o^"' ^s in the Greek frag., 

xpriaeoi^. *" The Arm. uses two words to render Ihiwr-qv. 

« The Greek frag, (which ends here) has only t6v imar-qfiova. 

354 



GENESIS, BOOK IV ') 

also teUs us this in addition, that the judgments of God 
are greater than those of men. For men consider him to 
be their ruler and master who has an abundance of power 
in respect of corruptible materials," whereas God inspires 
with all wisdom ^ him for whom no inanimate and irrational 
materials " have any value, when He sees his soul greatly 
purified and his mind ^ free and unenslaved, and him who 
has wisdom He inscribes among the greatest rulers and 
kings. And in the fourth place, there falls under the 
necessary order of connexion " that which pertains to 
constancy,^ for the elections » of men are inconstant and 
transitory, changing their direction, now up, now down, 
in accordance with (changing) customs, events and fortunes, 
while those of God are constant, and because of their 
incorruptibility, they make themselves available to law- 
observant men.'' 



77. (Gen. xxiii. 6) Why do they say, " In our choice 
monuments * bury thy dead " ? 

The literal meaning ^ is easy to explain. Because of the 
honour in which he was held they agreed to give him a 
choice burial-place. But as for the deeper meaning,* in a 
wicked man the body lives when it is animated by desire 

*• €v ^daprais vXaLs (for this standing expression see Leise- 
gang's Index Philonis, p. 794, col. a). 

* ainu) Ttdaav ao<j>Lav i^TTvei. Arm. hndem means " re- 
sound " and also " inspire " (like sndem). Aucher renders, 
" omnino eum sapientia adornat," which is more nearly 
correct than his alternate rendering (in his footnote), " sicut 
sapientiam celebrat." 

" ovTLva Tcjv aifjvxcov koI akoyoiv vXiKO.. 

^ TTfJV l/'t'X^V . . . Koi TOV VOVV. 

* els Tr)v Kara elpyiov rd^iv avayKaiws. 
^ Ttpos jSe/Sai'toCTiv vel sim. 

" at x^i-poToviai. 

^ Aucher renders inaccurately, " exhibentes illis legi- 
timam constantiam." 

* So Lxx, €v rots' ckXcktoIs fJLvrjfieiots rjfjLoiv. 

^ TO prirov. * TO rrpos Sidvoiav. 

355 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and sensual pleasure " and whatever else it delights in, 
whereas in a virtuous man ^ it is dead, for he is a man of 
frugality and is self-controlled and endures the hunger of 
continence, " so that it is not wide of the mark to say that 
the soul of the wise man,*^ having a body that is inanimate 
and heavy, like a bronze statue, is always carrying a corpse/ 
And so those who are opposite characters say,^ " Give 
over to us the care and concern for this," that it may have 
the choice of everything and be worthy of remembrance ^ 
through food and drink and clothing and whatever else 
belongs to a sumptuous, luxurious and enjoyable life. But 
he is displeased by these words, and biding his time, takes 
greater care,* mollifying them all ^ through prostration,*' 
and conciliating and embracing ' them so far as he thinks 
it suitable and proper by way of invocation,"* and that he 
may not send them away before he has removed " his dead, 
not giving the body into their hands, and taking possession " 
of the burial-place but not the burial-place (itself).'' 
Moreover, it is proper to observe also that the characters 

" cindv^ia kol rjSovfj ipvxcoOev. 
^ iv ra> aTTOvBaiio. 

" Aucher renders somewhat less literally, " praeferens in 
se famem mediocritatis et temperatae continentiae." 
<* Tj Tov ao(f>ov (or daTeCov) ipvxrj- 

* vcKpo^opcl. Cf. De Agricultura 25 <t7 *pvx'^'> ovk airori- 
derai v€Kpo(f)opovaa. 

f Prob. ol ivavrloi rpoirot, meaning the Hittites as types 
of materialists. Aucher renders less literally, " porro exempla 
contraria ponuntur, dicentes." 

" i.e. the body. 

* Philo plays on the similarity of fiv^f^r) and (jLvq^ieiov. 

* The sense is not altogether clear. 

^ Aucher more freely renders, " adversarios." 

* 8id TTpoaKvvTJaecos. Cf. Lxx of Gen. xxiii. 7 'A^paafi 
iTpoa€Kvv7)a€v Tw Xaw TTJs YV^> "^^^^ vioZs XcT, on which Philo 
comments in Be Somniis ii. 89-92. 

* KaTa<f)iXwv. 

"* Kara irpoaKXTjaLv vel sim. : Aucher " ad alliciendum." 

»» Aucher " deponat." 

" KTrjaiv. * See above, § 75. 

356 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

who speak " call the burial-place a " monument," ^ but the 
wise man calls it " the possession of a monument " or ** the 
property of a burial-place." Why ? Because the former 
consider only the body and the various (aspects) of the 
body worthy of remembrance,'' while he (so considers) not 
this but lordship over it and possession of it, as was said 
before."* 



78. (Gen. xxiii. 8-9) ^ Why does (Abraham) say, " If 
you have in your mind ^ to bury my dead before me," 
listen to me and speak of me " to Ephron, the son of Sahar,* 
and let him give me the double cave ' belonging to him, 
which is in the portion of his field. *^ For as much silver as 
it is worth ' let him give it to me and to you "• as a possession 
of a monument " " ? 

Having shown his wisdom and presented his case by first 
prostrating himself," he says, " You who do not use speech " 

" Aucher renders less literally, " quod qui loquuntur sicut 
exempla." 

* fiv-rjuelov. " See note h, p. 356. 
<* In § 75. 

* The " double cave " mentioned in these verses is briefly 
allegorized in De Poster. Caini 62 and De Somniis ii. 26. 

^ iv Tji ipvxfj vficov, as in lxx. 

" ttTTO TTpOaCOTTOV fJLOV, aS in LXX. 

'^ So LXX, XaX-qaare Trepi e/xoiJ : Heb. " intercede for me." 

' LXX Saap : Heb. Sohar (A.V. " Zohar "). 

^ TO CTTTT^Aatov TO SlttXovv, as in LXX : Heb. " the cave of 
Machpelah " (the last word from the root meaning " to 
double "). 

*^ iv fiepiSi Tov dypov avrov^ as in lxx : Heb. " which is in 
the limit (or " end ") of his field." 

^ LXX dpyvpiov tov d^lov : Heb. " for full silver." 
"* The Arm. " and to you " is prob. an error, lxx has 
ev u/xiv : Heb. and Arm. O.T. have " in your midst." 

" So LXX, ei? KTTjmv iJ,vT][ji€Lovt see above, § 75. 

" Construction and meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, 
" sensu rerum usurpato, quern praecedenti adoratione jam 
intimavit auditoribus." p Xoyw. 

357 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

for deception but for the (benefit of the) soul and mind,** 
confess this, (namely) that we are clothed with a dead 
body and that we should bury this and not permit our 
passions ^ to arise and be revived and flourish, but keep 
them out of sight, because " they are an obstacle to the 
impulses ^ which arise from reflexion/ Speak, therefore, 
in the council of the soul ^ on my behalf and for my 
appearance," and make haste that whatever is the value 
of the price in silver, that is to say, what has the worth 
of reason,'' may be given to me,* as I said, not for a burial 
monument but for the possession of a memorial." ^ 



79. (Gen. xxiii. 10) What is " Ephron," and Avhy is it 
that " he dwelt among the sons of Heth " ? 

" Ephron " is to be interpreted as " dust," * while 
" Hittite " ^ means " being out of one's mind." "* And 
(Scripture) by "dust " indicates corporeal natures," while 
by " being out of one's mind " (it indicates) madness and 
folly." For among foolish and mad men the body has the 
true and chief rank," receiving the service and attendance 

* €19 ^vxrjv Kol vovv. ^ TO. Trddrj. 

" Aucher curiously has " ut," introducing a purpose 
clause. 

•* Tois opfials. * Kara tov Xoyiafxov vel sim. 

^ Prob. iv rco ttjs ^vx^js ^ovX^vr-qpiw, cf. De Vita Cont. 27 
eV Tip eavTTJs {sc. rrjs i/'i'X^S') avvcBpiu) Kal ^ovXeimjplcp. 

Construction and meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, 
" et apparente mihi (sic).'" '' tov Xoyov. 

* Philo does not make it as clear as does Scripture that 
the money is given by Abraham, and the burial-place is 
given to him. ^ See § 77. 

* xovs (as if from Heb. 'aphar). The same etymology is 
given in I)e Con/us. Ling. 79. 

* XeTTttioj. 

"' €KaTaaLs (as if from Heb. hatfi " panic fear "). Cf. De 
Somniis ii. 89 where Philo etymologizes tovs vlovs rov XeV 
as i^iaravTes. 

" alvLTTCTai acofjiaTiKas ^vatis. 

" fiavlav Kal dtftpocrvvrjv. " TO^tv. 

358 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

of those who know nothing of any proper and genuine 
good, and do not make an effort to know it. 

*80. (Gen. xxiii. 9, 11) « What is the " double cave " " ? 

The literal text " does not require any exposition, for 
there are altogether two burial caves under the mountain,'' 
one outside and the other inside, or two walls,* one, which 
encloses, and the other, which is enclosed.^ But as for the 
deeper meaning,^ it must be judged as follows. The human 
body bears a likeness to a double cave. For it insatiably 
desires that which is external, making insatiable lust ^ its 
guide and ruler. On the other hand, in respect of internal 
things it conducts itself with reason,* using patient self- 
control.^ For he is foolish who gives up internal things 
for the sake of external things, and psychic things for 
sense-perceptible ones,* and exchanges that which is in 
accordance with patient self-control for unbridled lust. 
But the virtuous man ^ makes use of a hedge and a wall, and 
a screen between "* psychic things and the forms among 
phenomena " and things that are seen. While the double 
cave exists in an evil man, the body too is unclean and 
lewd. But when it dwells within, it changes itself into a 
god-loving soul," receiving holiness and purity and the 

" For other Philonic passages on the double cave see § 78. 

* TO otHjXcuov to SittXovv : Heb. "the cave of Machpelah " 
(see § 78 note). " 6 prjTos Xoyos. 

^ The Greek frag, has Suco elalv avrpcoSiis vncopeiai. 

* Arm. bak means " colonnade " and " court " or " pre- 
cinct." The Greek frag, has -rrepi^oXoL. 

^ The Greek frag, (which ends here) has d ^ev irepiexoiv, 
6 Se Trepiexd^tevos'. 
" TO TTpos SidvoLav. 
^ dacAyeia or " profanation " — Pe^rjXwaei vel sim. 

* Kara vovv OLKOvofieiTai vel sim. 
^ iyKpaT^ia VTTOfxovrjs. 

^ ijjvxLKa. avrl aladiqruiv. 

^ 6 aiTovhalos. ™ The preposition is supplied. 

" Meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, " et habentibus 

visum apparentium." " etV ^uxV d€o<f>iXrj. 

359 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

possession " of a blameless life. Wherefore, I believe, the 
Creator and Constructor made the tabernacle ^ double, 
marking off the inner from the outer part by a veil,'' and 
calling the inner part the " holy of holies " and the outer 
part merely " the holy (place)." But all these are entirely 
psychic and intelligible forms,** while the double cave has 
a share in the body, although they * are indeed the pos- 
sessions of the god-loving mind.^ 



*81. (Gen. xxiii. 11) Why is it that though Abraham 
sought only the cave, Ephron gave him the field as 
well ? " 

As for the literal meaning,'' one would say that out 
of admiration for the man and for the wisdom which he 
saw him display,* he thought it right to lavish upon him 
very abundant favours.^ But as for the deeper meaning,* 
he thought it right to attach ' the field symbolically ™ to 
the virtuous man " in order that the body might have the 
things necessary to pleasure " and their equipment. And 
he does not refuse, being of liberal character, as he is rich,^ 
but clearly says, " I will give you all the treasures in my 
possession and everything which has honour and power 

" Lit. " portion," but here prob. = /cr^trtv as in the lxx, 
see the preceding sections. 

* T17V aKT]vr]v. 

" KoXv^xfiari, see De Vita Mosis ii. 87. 

** ipvxi'KOL Koi vo-qra €i8r). 

« What " they " refers to is not clear. 

^ Or " thoughts " — XoyiafjLwv. 

" LXX TOP dypov Koi to arr-qXaiov to ev avTco aol SiSco/xt. 

'' vpos TO prjTOV. 

» The Greek paraphrase in Procopius reads more briefly, 
opcov avTOv rrjv ao(f>iav. 

^ The Arm. here is closer to the Greek frag, (which ends 
here), olofievos Seiv d<f>d6vovs CTriSaxpiXeveadai, \dpi,Tas. 

* TO vpos Sidvoiav. 

^ Meaning somewhat uncertain. 
"* avfi^oXiKws. " Tw OTTOvhaicp. 

<» Tats iJSovats. *" Lit. " full." 

360 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

among men, nor will I be caught by any of those who 
falsely bear the name of good," but handling them * as is 
proper, I will show everyone what necessary power " is in 
all of them." 

82. (Gen. xxiii. 9, 11, 17, 19) Why is it that before his 
acquiring the burial-place, the cave was said to be " in the 
field," while after his acquiring it, the field (was said to be) 
" in the cave " ** ? 

(Scripture) says something most natural.* For so long 
as the mind ^ does not rule over the body, the body falls 
under the power of, and is supported " by, external things, 
by wine and meals and food and other things that grow 
from the all-bearing earth as if from a field. But when it '* 
assumes power, it compels the body, which has long been 
in servitude, to show its power and not to fall under the 
power of external things but, on the contrary, to contain ' 
them and rule over them, not being a part of them (any 
longer). 

83. (Gen. xxiii. 19) Why does (Scripture) say that the 

" Tcbv iJjevBwvvfxwv dyadiov. But the meaning of the clause 
is uncertain. Aucher renders, " neque ab ullo falsi nominis 
bonorum deprehendar." 

^ Apparently the possessions are meant. 

" dvayKaia bvvafus. 

^ Although Aucher is correct in distinguishing between 
the Arm. prepositions i nerk'oy^vrro, and i nerk's=€v, he 
has completely mistranslated the sentence and missed its 
point in rendering, " spelunca dicebatur sub agro esse, et 
post acquisitionem agri, intus in ipso agro." What Philo 
refers to is the fact that in Gen. xxiii. 9, 11, the cave is said 
to be in the field, while in vs. 17 (obviously corrupt) the field 
is said, at the beginning of the verse, to be in the cave, 
o dypos 'E<^/3a;v, os '^v ev tcv SittAcS aTrrjXaio), 

" (f)vai,K<x)TaTa. 

^ 6 vovs- 

Or " overshadowed." Aucher " detentum." 

^ i.e. the mind. • irepUx^iv, 

361 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

burial-place was " opposite Mambre," " or why does it 
say that " this is Hebron " ^ ? 

" Hebron " is to be interpreted as " union " " or " the 
companionship of women," '^ as has been correctly said. 
For behold, in some sense,* in the case of those who have 
a double cave, it is possible to join and fit together com- 
panionship and sincere liking, and to make the body 
genuinely (devoted) to the soul,^ the one as the ruler, and 
the other as the minister, being persuaded (to do) ^ what- 
ever the queen may announce, in order that she " may 
give a likeness of her power, through which it * may have 
power over external things and rule over sense-perceptible 
objects.^ 



84. (Gen. xxiv. 1) Why does (Scripture) say, " And 
Abraham was an old man advanced (in days),* and the 
Lord blessed Abraham in all things " ? 

" i.xx dnevavTi Mafi^pTJ (Heb. " Mamre "). 

* Lxx avTT) ioTiv XejSpcov ev rfj yfj Xavaav. 

" av^vy-q- The same etymology is given in Quod Deterius 
15 and De Poster. Caini 60, see also QG iv. 72. 

** The alternate etymology aweTaipis is given in Quod 
Deterius 15. * rpoTrov tlvo.. Aucher " exempli gratia." 

^ The Arm. \it.=yvi^Giov rrj iltvxfj- Aucher renders, 
" fidele . . . cum anima." 

' This obscure clause apparently refers to the soul as 
the ruler, and the body as the minister or servant. Aucher 
renders inaccurately, " uno principem, altera satellitem 
persuadente." 

* The fern, pronoun seems to be required by the context, 
as referring to the soul. 

* Apparently the body is meant. The Arm. verb is an 
infinitive but Aucher renders it as a 3rd pers. plural. 

^ T(ov aladrjTcov. The passage is obscure, and seems to 
Overlook the reference to Mambre, which in De Migratione 
165 is allegorized as the contemplative life. 

^ LXX TTpeajSurepo? TTpo^e^-qKcos rjjjiepoJv. The same phrase 
is quoted in De Sobrietate 1 7, also with the omission of ly/tepcDv. 
There too Philo explains that the wise man is figuratively a 
•npea^vrepos, 

362 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

It does not seem that this admits of explanation as 
chronological age, since one would be at a loss * to call 
him an old man who was more short-lived than all who 
were before him.*' He has precedence in virtue who is 
worthy of old age and honour." Wherefore it says above, 
" an old man advanced," (meaning) increase in worthi- 
ness,** of which the consummation is piety,* (and) excellent 
judgment ^ in all aspects of life, in thoughts, deeds and 
words. » 



85. (Gen. xxiv, 2) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The eldest servant of his house and ruler of all his 
things " * .? 

The literal meaning * is clear, for (Scripture) indicates 
that the man ^ was a sort of steward or manager of his 
master's possessions.* But as for the allegorical and natural 
meaning,^ it must, it seems, be considered to be as follows. 
The status of a servant among us and of a minister and 
attendant is held by discourse "* which is an utterance of 

" OLTTopijaeid tls av. 

* Aucher can hardly be blamed for his inaccurate render- 
ing, " qui paucis temporibus superat annos ejus (anteriores) ", 
since the Arm. translator probably misunderstood the Greek 
original ; cf. De Sobrietate 17 on ax^^ov tcjv irpoyovajv eairrov 
TTOVTOiv 6 ao(f>6s 'AjSpaa/Li oXiyoxpovLcoTaros elaayer ai. 

" Here again the Arm. translator seems to have mis- 
understood the Greek ; cf. De Sobrietate 16 ws Be koI 
vpea^vTCpov ov tov yrjpq. KaT€axrjpi,€vov aXXa tov yepcos Kal TLp,7Js 

^ KoXoKayadias. 

*" Oeoae^eia, which in De Congressu 130 is called dyaOov 
reXeiov. ^ ev^ovXia. 

" Kara. Xoyiap-ovs koX epya Kal Xoyovs. 

* LXX Toj iraiSl ainov, tco Trpea^vrepo) ttjs olKias avrov, ra> 
dpxovTi rrdvTcov rcDv ainov. * to pnqrov, 

' Abraham's steward (Eliezer). 

^ olKOVOjJiOV rj iTTLTpOTTOV TcDv TOV KVpLoV. 

^ Construction and meaning uncertain. 
"* Philo here refers to the Stoic term Xoyos -npo^opLKos. 

363 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the mind, which <* is more perfect * than speech, and is the 
ruler and master. This uttered discourse is the eldest 
(servant), for (it receives) the authority of natural behaviour 
over corporeal and invisible objects from the reason as if 
from a king." For discourse ** uses and manages all these 
things with virtue.* 



*86. (Gen. xxiv. 2) Why does he say, " Place thy hand 
under my thigh " ^ ? 

Being about to bind him by an oath " concerning the 
betrothal," he bids him place his hand close to the place 
of generation,* indicating a pure association and an un- 
polluted marriage, not having sensual pleasure as its end 
but the procreation of legitimate children.^ And allegoriz- 
ing,*= we might say that (Scripture) accurately ^ calls 
" thigh " that place in the soul which does not flow "* but is 
firm in solidity and stability. Upon this he bids him with 

** i.e. the mind — o voOs. ^ TeAetdrepos'. 

" Aucher renders less literally, " principatum habens ex 
natura tamquam a suo rege, sive ratione super corporalia 
instrumenta et objecta." 

^ It is not clear whether speech (d iTpo<f)opt,K6s Xoyos) or 
reason (d ivbiddeTos Xoyos) is meant ; probably the former is 
meant. 

« Aucher renders less accurately, " haec enim universa 
per virtute ornatum ministrum disponit ratio." 

•^ LXX dis Trjv x^tpci aov vtto top firipov fiov, 

" e^opKiaeiv. 

^ Of Isaac. Cf. the Greek frag, from Procopius im 
fivrjarelav koL ydfiov TTCfiTTcov. 

* Procopius /card ru>v yafjiiKcov 6pydv(ov. 

^ So, almost literally, the Greek frag, (which ends here), 
KaOapdv ofjLtXiav koI yafMov dv€mXT]TTTOV alviTTOfievos ovx riSovqv to 
t4Xos dXXd yvrjaiovs exovra TraiSa?. The last phiase was 
originally, as Wendland notes, yv-qoiojv TratScuv ydveaiv. 

* dXXrjyopovvres. 

' aKpi^uiS or eTU/xou?. 

"* pur] peovra. Philo here gives a fanciful etymology of 
pL-qpos as if from /x^ and pelv. 
364 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

reason " place his hand for the sake of reverencing and 
honouring that place to which nature has given as a special 
honour undeviating and unchanging forms ^ in order that 
it may not, so to say, receive lightly what in the same 
manner has a flow, " but may remain unchanged and truth- 
ful in its agreements. 



87. (Gen. xxiv. 3) Why does he adjure him by heaven, 
uttering a double invocation, and by earth with a single 
one,'' for he says, " I adjure thee by the Lord God of 
heaven and the God of earth " * ? 

Heaven is the best of the parts of the world ,^ wherefore 
it has been allotted the highest place, being of the purest 
substance," and full of stars, each of which is a godlike 
image.'* And the last * (part) is the earth, to which was 
allotted the lowest place for the reason that animals and 
the plants surrounding them are mortal and corruptible. 
Rightly, therefore, does he give first honour and privilege ' 
to the best (part), uttering a double invocation to the 
powers of the Father, (namely) the creative and kingly.* 
But from the lesser he removed one (appellation) ^ for the 

<• The text seems to be corrupt ; the original prob. made 
the thigh a symbol of reason (o Xoyos). 

'' drpeTTTa /cai dfjLCTadera et8r] vel sim. 

" The above is an uncertain rendering of what Aucher 
rightly calls a " locus obscurissimus." He himself renders, 
" qui itidem ac similiter habet fluxum, non ut dixerit quis- 
quam, pauca receperit." Apparently the \6yos irpo^opiKos 
is the subject of the last clause. 

** Philo refers to the expression " Lord God of heaven," 
contrasted with " God of earth." 

* LXX i^opKLOUi a€ Kvpiov rov deov tov ovpavov Koi rov Ocov 
(some Mss. omit tov deov) ttjs yfjs. 

^ TOV Koapiov. " Trjs KadapcoTaTTjs ovaias, 

^ dyaXpLa dcoeiSes or eiKcbv deoeiS-qs. 

* TO icrxarov </iepo?>. ' TTpOTip.iav koX irpovopLiav. 

* rals 8vvdpL€ai tov rraTpos, tjj iroi-qTiKfj koI tjj ^amXiKjj. See 
QG ii. 51 notes. 

' That of " Lord," signifying God's kingly power. 

365 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

reason that heaven and the natures * similar to it, being 
always undeviating and unchanging, are never sated with, 
nor fail in, the service of the Father, but serve God as the 
Creator and obey Him as king,* while we earth-born and 
corruptible creatures cannot deny God, for He who comes 
to create '' is necessarily imagined as the efficient cause,*^ 
but still we do not acknowledge His kingship and govern- 
ment (as) the true Lord,* some because of impiety,^ and 
others because of perverse and sophistical ingenuity.* 
And so, the whole school ^f philosophers '' is not ashamed 
and does not blush to rule out * the providence and care ' 
which are given by the Father to His offspring. This was 
also the opinion and belief*^ of the Egyptian king, who 
took it upon himself to say, " I do not know the Lord," ' 
by which he shows that " I know God, indeed, because of 
natural necessity,""* in so far as he perceives and admits 
that he was made by the Creator, but he denies that he 
knows the Lord, believing that the world and what is in the 
world are without providence and care. 

*88. (Gen. xxiv. 3) Why does he instruct, not his son, 

" at <f>va€is. 

* Because the double appellation " Lord Ciod " is associated 
with heaven in the present verse, Philo argues that heavenly 
beings worship God as king (" Lord ") and Creator (" God "). 

" i.e. under the name of " God." 

** e^ dvdyK'qs (f)avrdt,€TaL <a>9> to ttoltjtikov oXtlov, 

« Because Scripture uses only " God of earth " not " Lord 
God of earth." ^ 8i' dae^eiav. 

" 8ia KaKorexvov ao^tar^iav Kai evpeaiXoylav vel shn. 

^ Prob. alpeais is rendered by two Ann. words here. 
Aucher supplies " prava " in rendering, " prava ilia sen- 
tentia sectarum philosophorum." 

»■ Lit. " to cut off.'' 

^ TT]v TTpovoiav Ktti eTTt/xeAeiav. 

* Here again Aucher supplies the word " pravus." 

' Ex. V. 2, on which Philo comments similarly in Be 
Ehrietate 19, 77-79. 
"• hid <f>vaLKr)v avdyK-qv. 

366 



GENESIS, BOOK IV '0 

not to take a Ganaanite wife, as later his parents (in- 
structed) Jacob," but the servant ? * 

Truly the literal meaning " contains an anxiety of doubt 
and the thought of deliberation.'' For since Isaac was of 
mature and marriageable age,* and was not under the 
dominion of the servant, one of two things (was bound to 
happen) : either he would obey or he would oppose (him). 
Now, in case of his obedience, it would be natural for his 
father to be his sponsor/ And if he did not obey, the 
ministration of the servant would be superfluous.* And 
to say that because Abraham had migrated from the land 
of the Chaldaeans on account of a divine oracle, he did not 
consider it right to send his son (there), is very silly and 
foolish. In the first place, for this (same) reason it would 
not have been right (for him) to undertake the matter and 
be a sponsor at all in a family connexion from which he 
had been told to depart, nor for Jacob to go there to betroth 
himself, since he was an imitator of his father, and very 
well understood the instructions that had been given him.'^ 

* In Gen. xxviii. 1, on which see QG iv. 242. 

* So the Greek frag, from Procopius, Atari Se /lit) to) vlco 
irapayY^XXei. fi-q Aa/Setv Xavavlriv (lxx oltto tcov dxr/aripoiv t<x)V 
X.avavai(iiv) (LoTrep varepov tco 'laKoj^ oi yovets, dXXa rco rraiSi; 

" TO prjTov. 

** AoytCT^ov €7rt,aK€i/j€co9 vel Sim. Aucher " consilium con- 
sideratione dignum." 

* So the Greek frag., /catVot tcAciou rvyxo-vovros 'laaaK Koi 
■qXiKLav cxovTos yd^iov. 

^ The Greek frag, reads less specifically /cai el /xev e/xeAAe 
neideadai, cIkos '^v avrcp n&XXov irapeyyvdv. On the meaning 
of " sponsor " see note below. 

''So the Greek frag., el Se aTret^eiv, TTeptTTrj rov iraiSos ^ 
hiaKovia. 

^ The Greek frag, (which ends here) reads more briefly 
TO yap elirdv on, xpT^a/LtcS rrjs yjj? i^eXdcov, Tre/xTretv els avrrjv ovk 
rj^iov Tov vlov [el Kal evXoyov, ofxcos dvapeaKeL TiaC], Sta to firiS* 
dv TOV 'laKco^, el tovjo t^v dXrjdes, vtto tcDv yovecov evravda 
TrepL^drivai. Of the clause in Procopius bracketed by Harris, 
Wendland rightly remarks (p. 79), " es erinnert wenigstens 
dem Sinne und dem ganzen Tone nach an Philo." 

867 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

However, there remain for him ** not a few questions. 
For it is not as if (speaking) to a servant-boy '' that 
he says, "Be an attendant " in going forth, in order 
that my son may not take a wife from that land," but 
as if (speaking) to the chief sponsor,** for he says, 
" I adjure thee not to take for my son a Canaanite 
wife." 

And so, necessarily allegorizing, we might most natur- 
ally say * that Isaac has no need of exhortation,^ for he 
had never taken a wife from among the Canaanites. And 
I say this, not concerning man and woman, but concerning 
the traits of the soul," to which the symbols of the names 
here used refer. For Isaac is the mind,'' the self-teacher 
and the self-taught,* the distinct among the indifferent,'' 
rejoicing always and daily in his Father and God and in 
all His works. And he does not become dissatisfied with 
anything that happens in the world, but knows that all 
things happen in accordance with nature through divine 
providence * and are for the wellbeing and eternity of all 
things.* He does not, therefore, take a Canaanite wife, 
by which I mean that he does not have the traits of the 

" Or " concerning it," i.e. the matter. 

^ The two Arm. words used here prob. render iraiSL 

* VTTOVpyOS or BLaKOVOS. 

^ The Arm. lit.=Ta> Kvpio) rijs iyyvTjs, i.e. the guarantor 
of the marriage-settlement, in this case Abraham's servant 
acting for the father of the bridegroom. 

* avayKaloi^ ovv dXXTQyopovvres <f>vaiKWTaT* av ei7rot/xev. 

^ The two Arm. words used here render rrapaKXrjGLs or 
■napapivdia. Aucher renders, " solaminis," but the context 
calls for " exhortation " rather than " consolation." 

" irepl rcov Kara rrjv ^v^riv rpoTTOiv. 

^ 6 vovs. Although Phiio usually treats Isaac as a 
symbol of laughter or joy, he sometimes refers to him as 
d dcrrelos or d ao(f>6s, as in De Somniis i. 171, Z>« Fuga 
200. 

* d avTopLadris nal 6 avroBiBaKTOs, cf.^Be Somniis ii. 10. 
' d Bia(f>€pu)v €v rots aBia(f>6pois, cf. De Fuga 152. 

* Kara <f>vat.v deia Ttpovoia. 

' els rriv aatTrjpiav koI dtSid-n^Ta rravTcov. 

368 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

above-mentioned school," because " Canaanites," when 
rendered into the Armenian * language, means " those out 
of their mind." " 

Now it is still to be feared that perhaps the uttered word,'* 
which he has called " servant," may use sophistic inven- 
tions * and so deceive and trick and get the better of ^ him 
who was by nature well-pleasing (to God)." Wherefore 
he holds him by a horrid and dreadful oath as if placing 
reins upon him in order to soften and make milder those 
things which, when spoken, cause consternation '' and 
overcome * him who is unable to stand upright, as is 
fitting, and to be firm in speech.' He says, " Go there, 
whence I emigrated " * — for it is one family and nation ; 
that is, the migration came about through the command 
of God.' " From there shalt thou take a wife for my son." 

•* TTJs TTpoei,p'qii€VT]s aipdaecos, i.€. the school of philosophers 
who deny divine providence, see above, § 87. 

* Here, as elsewhere, the Arm. translator substitutes 
*' Armenian " for " Greek." 

" ol e^iaravrcs, see § 79 and De Somniis ii. 89 where Philo 
gives this etymology for " Hittites." Evidently he here 
equates Hittites and Canaanites, cf. QG iv. 242. Elsewhere 
he etymologizes Xavdav as aaAos or as " merchants," cf. QG 
ii. Qo. 

^ 6 Kara TTpo<f>opav Xoyos. 

* ao(f)i(JTt,KOLS (.vprniaai. 

^ Aucher " in delirium vertat." 

" i.e. Isaac, as symbol of the mind. 

'* Or " stupefaction." 

* Aucher " pervertere." The change of number in the 
two Arm. verbs in the relative clause is to be disregarded 
in view of the context which requires a neuter plural {ja 
elprj^eva or the like) as subject of both verbs. 

' Aucher, referring to the sentence in a footnote as 
" locum intricatissimum," renders, " qui nequeat condignam 
firmitatem tenere in verbo." 

* The Lxx of Gen. xxiv. 4 reads aAAa ds tt)v yijv pLov od 
iyevofXTjv rropevar) /cat els Tr)v ^uAt^v pLov /cat X-qp-ipj) yvvaiKa roi 
yta> pLov Taaa/c iKeWev. 

' This statement seems to be parenthetical. 

369 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

But he takes from him an admonition (concerning) the 
character of his spouse," (namely, from) him who was shown 
to have emigrated, or in accordance with custom and usage, 
especially as the Chaldaeans practise astronomy, first of 
all, of invisible and incorporeal nature.* 



89. (Gen. xxiv. 5-&) Why, when the servant inquired, 
" Shall I, if the woman is unwilling to migrate here, take 
thy son there ? ", does he say, " Look to it (and) take care 
that thou do not return my son there " '^ ? 

While the literal meaning '^ is clear, the deeper meaning * 
is in accord with philosophical opinion.^ For he admonishes 
the word " to look to it and take care not to move the con- 
stant character ^ from that worthiness * which is in accor- 
dance with the laws of good conduct.^ For what is more 
worthy than to be pleased with that (which comes) from 
the Creator of the universe and Father of all, and not to 
find fault with anything at all, as is the habit of inconstant 
men and those who do not have a stable character of habit * 
but because of petty things that happen and partake of a 

" This obscure sentence is somewhat differently rendered 
by Aucher " alterum monitum ut vitae consortem in moribus 
accepit." 

^ dopoLTov Kol dacofjLaTov (f>va€a)s. The last sentence is also 
obscure. 

* Lxx e?7rev 8e vpos avrov 6 nals, M17 ttotc ov ^ovXerat, rj yvvrj 
TTopevd-qvat /j,€t' ijjLov OTrLau) els ttjv yrjv Tairnrjv aTToaTpetpo) rov vlov 
aov els TTjv yrjv odev i^fjXdes eKeldev; elirev he irpos avrov 'A^padfi, 
Upoaex^ aeavTco fxr] dTToarpeifji^s tov vlov fiov eKel. 

^ TO prjTOV. * TO rrpos Stavotav. 

■^ TOIS (f>iXoaoSovfi€VOLS. 

" TOV Xoyov (i.e. rov /caret 7Tpo<f)opdv Xoyov), symbolized by 
the servant of Abraham. 

^ rov ^e^aiov rporrov vel sim. 

* d^iconaros vel sim. 

^ Arm. hadoyout'iun usu. = euSo/cia or depaireia. Here it 
seems to mean " conduct pleasing (to God)." Aucher 
renders, " legis gratissimae." 

* The Arm. translator perhaps confuses edos and ^dos. 
370 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

blameworthy nature." accuse and incriminate that which " 
is not to be accused or incrimmated ? 



90. (Gen. xxiv. 7) " Why does he say, " The Lord God 
of heaven and God of earth ^ will send His angel before 
thy face,* and thou shalt take a wife for my son Isaac " ^ } 

Thus do I see that he is a prophet and legislates oracu- 
larly concerning things that are to come." For law is an 
invention of nature, not of men.'' As the god-loving mind * 
changes its residence to another land (away from) every 
sense-perceptible land,^ it is immediately seized *= and 
prophesies. For whence does he know that the servant 
will be able to complete his journey through the guidance 
of the angel if not from ^ some divination and prophecy ? 
But perhaps someone will say, " What need did the servant 
have of an angel to go along, since he bore with him the 
command to complete the marriage with a virgin of their 

<» Or, construing differently, " but play the part of fault- 
finders concerning the petty things that happen." 

" Or " Him Who." 

" Philo briefly comments upon another part of this verse 
(see next note) in Leg. All. iii. 42. 

•* " And God of earth " is found in lxx but not in Heb. 
In both texts there follows a long clause, here omitted by 
Philo, reading, " Who took me from the house of my father 
and from the land where I was born. Who spoke to me and 
swore to me, saying, ' to thee and [Heb. omits " to thee and "] 
to thy seed will I give this land.' " 

* LXX eyiTTpoadiv aov, rendering Heb. I'phanSka^ lit. " to thy 
face." 

^ LXX and Heb. add " from there." 

" 7rpo(f)'qTir)s eort Koi vofioOerei eVi^eia^tuv to. [xeXXovrd re Kal to, 
yevqcjoixeva. 

^ v6p,o? yap eWi <f>va€a)S evprjfjia dAA' ovk avd piorruiv . 

* o (f>i\6deos VOWS'. 

' <d7r6> Trdcrrjs alGOrjrrjs yrjs. 

* Karexerai. H. A. Wolfson, Philo ii. 70, compares Plato, 
Ion 534 B. 

' Lit. " in accordance with " — Kara. 

371 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

family ? " " To this it must be said, " Not ineffectual,'' 
Sir,'' did He wish the human mind to be in nature, but to 
be active,"* and the several things that occur to it to be 
acts,* even though it ^ performs everything externally." 
For this reason the steersman will not abandon the rudder 
even though the ship may be enjoying a favourable wind, 
nor will (a soldier) " desert the post where he has been 
stationed by the wisdom of the laws of science and know- 
ledge,'' nor will the farmer give up * the cultivation of the 
land even though the rains are on time, and the tempera- 
ture of the air is in accord with the season of the year. And 
let not any other thing be regarded with astonishment 
as (happening) automatically,^ nor anyone choose and hold 
on to treacherous and evil inactivity. For it is unpleasant 
that someone who does not wish * to do anything or make 
any effort should get (precious) stones and all kinds of 
inanimate things for himself.' But many wish only to 
enjoy an increase of sensual pleasure "* without engaging 
at all in human affairs. That is the literal meaning." But 

" Text slightly uncertain. '' dvrjvvrov. 

" Lit. " O Thou." Aucher amplifies this into " benigne 
lector." 

<* ivepyelv. * i.e. to be realized in act. 

^ It is not clear whether the mind or nature is the subject. 

" Apparently this noun is to be supplied, as is done by 
Aucher. 

'^ Aucher renders, less literally, " a lege sapientiae atque 
ingenii secundum peritiam." 

* Arm. yaytnesci " will make clear " is apparently a 
corruption of yaresci or the like. Aucher renders, " praeter- 
mittit." 

^ auTo/iciTcos. The sentence is obscure and probably 
corrupt. Aucher renders differently, " neque alius quis- 
quam oculos figat, ut per se prosper itas adveniat." 

* Reading kameal (ptc.) for kamel (inf.). 

* The sense is not wholly clear to me nor, apparently, to 
Aucher, who renders, " difficile namque est ut quis nihil 
facere ac laborare volens, saxum vel quidquid inanimatum 
sibi acquirere possit {iiely imitari velit)." 

"• rjSovrjs. " TO prjTOV. 

372 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

the passage also contains an allegory " in harmony with 
what has been said before. For inasmuch as the uttered 
word,** which in comparison with " the mind has been 
called " servant," ** at once was in doubt and gave an 
appearance * of weakness and deceit, the Saviour ^ joined 
and fitted to it another word," not deceived or defrauded,* 
which He calls " angel," (as) the interpreter of the divine 
oracles and commands. And when he comes along and 
teaches man, he compels him not to vacillate in his reason- 
ing ' or move about and be confused. 



91 . (Gen. xxiv. 8) What is the meaning of the words, 
" If the woman does not wish to go with thee,^ thou shalt 
be clear of this oath.* Only, thou shalt not return my son 
there " } 

Someone may be at a loss and in doubt how it is that 
after it has been made altogether certain that the woman 
will come with the angel of God accompanying him on 
the way,^ he now says doubtingly, " If the woman does 
not wish to go with thee, thou shalt be clear of the oath." 
But may it not be that this (difficulty) is to be solved in 
the form of an allegory ? "* You need but say " that if the 
angel of God is not there, it would seem that the woman 
might not wish to go along. Wherefore he says, by way 
of sealing and confirming the matter, " If she does not go 
with thee as if perhaps wishing to go with a companion, 
she may wish to go along with the divine word." "^ And even 

" dAAt^yoptav. * d Kara TTpo<f>opav Xoyos. 

"^ rov vov. ^ TTOLS, see above, § 88. 

« Or " showed suspicion." 

' d awT-qp. ^ dXXov Xoyov. 

'' Aucher renders, " infallibile ac infallax." 

* AdycD. Aucher " verbis." 

^ Philo agrees with Heb. against lxx in omitting, after 
" thee," the words " to this land." 

*^ LXX Kadapos earj drro tov opKov tovtov {v.l, opKov pLOVy as 
in Heb.). 

' cfvvohoLTTopov avru>. ^ rpoTrco dXXrjyopias* 

♦» i.e. the reader need only suppose;. <> avv rep deiu) Adya>. 

373 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

though she may not have faith in this youth,** she (will 
have faith) in him who instructs ^ and leads to the elected 
way and the completion " of a great work. And the work 
is the divine, holy and consecrated marriage of the soul, 
the harmony of the self-taught reason.*^ Wherefore he will 
be unchangeable who is wise by nature without teaching.* 



92. (Gen. xxiv. 10) ^ Why does the servant take with 
him ten camels of the camels of his master and of all his 
goods ? ^ 

The decad is a most perfect number,'' and the camel is a 
symbol of memory,* since it ruminates, grinding and chew- 
ing its food over and over. And such is the affection ' of 
remembering former (experiences), for whatever the mind *= 
receives through the activity of thinking,^ it is moved by 
these and turns from side to side until it is reduced to order 
and takes its proper place and is stabilized by the two 
things "* being joined and settling together. For this 
reason he is said to take, not " of the good parts " but " of 

<* i.e. Abraham's servant, symbolizing " the uttered word " 
(see above). The variant " in this honour " makes no sense. 

^ i.e. the angel, symbolizing " the divine word " or Logos. 

" The Arm. has " incompleteness," apparently in error. 

** dpfiovia Tov avrofxadovs (or auroSiSa/CTOu) Xoyiafiov. Cf. 
De Somniis ii. 10. 

* OS ^uffet dv€V SiSaaKaXlas icrrl ao<f>6s. 

* In De Congressu 111-112 Philo allegorizes this verse 
similarly ; cf. also De Poster. Caini 1 48- 149. 

^ LXX KoX eXa^ev 6 Trats SeKa Kafx-qXovs o.tt6 tcov Kafi-qXcov tov 
Kvpiov avTOV Kol oiTTO TTavroiV Twv dyaOcov tov Kvpiov avTOV fied' 
eavTov (Heb. " in his hand "). 

^ TeAeioTttTos dpidyios. For parallels in Philo see Staehle, 
p. 54. 

* avpi^oXov ^vrjffqsy as in De Poster. Caini 148, or dvapLvqaecosy 
as in De Congressu 111. 

^ TO Trad OS. * o vovs. 

* KaTo, TOV TTJs Biavoias Xoyiafiov vel sim. 

"* Apparently the two things are the mind and sense- 
impression. 

374 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

all (his goods)," since the whole life of the virtuous man * 
is completely full of happiness,^ with no part left vacant 
and empty for the bringing in and admitting of sins. But 
it is well that (Scripture) adds, " he took of all his goods 
with him," for many others make use of good things as 
of alien possessions without profiting therefrom, such as 
sophists and word-chasers." For though they have been 
taught the laws of philosophy, which are beautiful and 
worthy of zeal and virtue,** they do not become any better, 
but while correcting the lives of others, they leave their 
own souls uncared for and untended, inasmuch as they do 
not have in themselves and with themselves a geimine 
philosophy " but one that is on their lips and is superficial. 
And this is like an ill-favoured woman being dressed in 
precious purple. The garment is not an ornament to the 
wearer ^ but a reproach, which very clearly shows her 
lewdness.^ 



93. (Gen. xxiv. 10) What is " Mesopotamia,'' " where 
he goes, and what is '* the city of Nahor " * ? 

In the literal sense ^ " Mesopotamia " is the land of 
Babylonia, lying between the two rivers Euphrates and 
Tigris,* from which fact it was appropriately * named. 
And as for *' Nahor," it is clear that this was first the name 
of a city in Babylonia, which, as happens in many cases, 
was changed into another name. But as for the deeper 
meaning,"* it is proper to say that " Nahor " is to be trans- 

" Tov oTTovhaiov. Aucher renders, less exactly, " sapientis." 

** €vBatfJbovLas. * d)S ao<j)iaraX koX Xoyod'^pai. 

^ Tovs voixovs Trjs <t>iXoao(f)ias tovs KaXovs Koi OTTOvbrjs re Kai 
dperrfs a^t'ou?. 

* yvTjcriav (rendered by two Arm. words) (f)iXoao<f>iav. 

^ Lit. " to the one having (it)." 

" fjLaxXoavvqv. 

" The Arm. renders lxx MeaoiroTafxia as " between the 
rivers " : Heb. " Aram Naharaim." 

^ Arm. Nak'or : lxx Naxcop : Heb. Nahor. 

^ TO) pTjTO). ^ Arm. Aracan and Dklat*. 

' iriificos- "* TO irpos 8t,dvoiav. 

375 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

lated as " rest of light." " And the light of corporeal eyes 
is the sun or the moon or the lamp used for fire, while 
wisdom is the light of the soul." And for this to rest and 
be quiet and still is not profitable, * but movement "* is pro- 
fitable for him who possesses (it) and for those who are 
near him. And he becomes wholly good when moved by 
wisdom toward those things which are suitable and related 
to him,^ while (he becomes) lame and imperfect when he 
is motionless. For these reasons, though the city of Meso- 
potamia is confined by its own streams as if by torrents,^ 
he proceeds with unimpeded and free steps, while those 
who oppose the movements that take place in accor- 
dance with nature" in the soul that becomes knowing 
and wise when illuminated — in them are many things, 
some of which are due to us ourselves, others to exter- 
nal causes, which like river-streams flow round the mind * 
and confine it.* 



94. (Gen. xxiv. 11) Why does (Scripture) say, " He 
caused the camels to rest outside the city beside a well 
of water at evening, when the (women-)drawers of water ^ 
came out " ? 

The literal significance * is clear, for it is the custom of 
wayfarers to spend the night by springs in order to rest 

" (fxjOTos avdnavaLS. The same fanciful etymology is given 
in De Congressu 45, as if Heb. Nahor were a compound of 
ndh " to rest " and 'or " light." 

^ TO 8e TTJs ^vxrjs (f>(os ao<hia eartv. Cf. De Congressu 47 
(f>a)S 8c ^vx^^ rjXioeiSdcrTaTOV eTTiarijixr]. 

<= Text slightly uncertain. <* klvtjgis. 

« The Arm. text is obscure but not more so than Aucher's 
rendering, " namque fit nota familia sua bona per sapientiam 
mota ad sibi decentia." 

^ This clause too is syntactically unclear in the Arm. 

" Kara <f>vaiv. * tov vovv. 

* Philo seems to mean that the wise man seeks " the quiet 
of light " by responding to the right kinds of movement in 
the soul. 

^ Lxx at vBpevofjLcvaL. * to prjTOv avfifioXov. 

376 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

themselves and their asses for the needs of the journey. 
But as for the deeper meaning," it is as follows. When the 
memory * rests and is inactive, it turns, as it were, to 
sleep, and rests outside the city in sleep '^ by nature. For 
every one of us appears (to be) a city, the body being like 
a building,'* and the soul like an inhabitant.* When the 
memory happens to be awake, it wakens the mind by 
entering the city, that is, by dwelling within us. But when 
sleep overtakes it — and sleep is forgetfulness ^ of memory — , 
it necessarily removes its dwelling from that place, namely 
from us, until it is once again aroused. For what is forget- 
fulness but the going out (of memory) ? And most excel- 
lently does (Scripture) say that memory turned to sleep 
not only " outside the city " but also " beside a well of 
water," indicating that forgetfulness is not perpetual or 
daily, since the spring is near by, from which the memory- 
form ^ is drawn " and enters the soul, and sleep, which by 
another name is called " forgetfulness," is shaken off. And 
when wakefulness comes in, of which the true name is 
" memory," it remains by the spring to which the drawers 
of water come out at evening. Now, who they are (Scrip- 
ture) does not tell, for the subject of investigation (here) 
is not women or water but the mind of the God-loving 
man,* which desires a water-course.^ And the time of its 
resting is the setting of the sun, when the senses are far 
gone ^ and there is no longer shadow and shade from its 

" TO TTpos Stdvoiav. 

'' 17 fi-v^fXT). On the camels as a symbol of memory see above, 
QG iv. 92. 

* Variant " at home." 



d 



OLKOi 



Soflfj. 



* olKrjTopi. Cf. De Poster. Caini 61 Ktpvxrjy awfxaTiKats 
crv(,VYiaL9 VTTO^dXXovaa avrr)v olKrJTopas €X€i rovs Aex^e'vra?. 

■^ \-qdrj. " TO fjLvrjfxovLKOv elBos. 

^ Reading Arm. oroganeal (ptc.) for oroganel (inf.). 

* Trept Tou vov rov <f>LXodiov. 

^ Arm. vtak — x^ifiappovs, Xifxvrj^ vBpayotyos, etc. 

^ Arm. zarancem—TTpo^i^-qKivai, XrjpcLv^ i^iardvai, etc. 
Aucher renders, " defatigatis jam sensibus," and adds in a 
footnote, " vely antiquatis jam sensibilibus." 

877 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

rays." For then it ^ receives impressions * of a more lucid 
reason <* from the things seen, and, behold, it arrives at 
the divine spring, and this is wisdom,* which takes the 
appearance of water by its power/ And some persist in 
drinking with the edges of the lips, some only so much as 
is sufficient to satisfy their thirst, while still others hasten 
the more eagerly to rejoice in it, being insatiably impelled 
to those things which belong to virtue.'' 



95. (Gen. xxiv. 12-14) Why does the servant, beginning 
with the prospering of the journey, prophesy what is to 



come 



? h 



The literal meaning * is that since the angel of God was 
his companion on the journey and was near by, he was 
perhaps enthused ^ by him and began to be possessed.* 
But as for the deeper meaning,^ they "• are types of God- 
loving characters, each of which the reason " carefully 

<* This last clause is not quite clear. 

^ Apparently the mind is the subject. 

''■ <f>avraaLas. ** Or " Logos " — Aoyou. * ao(f>Ca. 

f' TTpos (or Kara) Swa/xiv. The meaning is not clear, possibly 
" in accordance with the power (or " capacity ") of those 
who use it." " dpeTijv. 

^ This is Philo's somewhat awkward summary of the lxx 
Koi elTTev, Kvpie 6 Oeos rov Kvpiov 'A/3paa/Li, evohoiaov (Heb. 
" cause it to befall ") evavriov €p,ov ar]p,epov koX TTolrjaov lAeo? 
/xerd Tov Kvplov fiov 'Aj3pad/Lt. iSou iyo) iarrjKa irrl Trjs Trrjyrjs 
rov vBaros, at 8e dvyarepes tcDv oIkovvtcov rrjv ttoXlv cKnopevov- 
rat dvT\fjaaL vbcop Koi earai -q Trapdevos rj dv cyco clttoj, 'Em- 
kXlvov rrjV vSpiav aov tva ttloj, koI ctTrrj fxoi, Ilie ov, Kal rds Kafi'q- 
Xas oov TTOTiu) ecoj dv Travacovrai Trcvovaai, Tavrrjv r^Toipiaaas ro) 
TTaiSi aov 'Icrad*c* Kal iv tovtco yvci)aop,aL on €TTOL7jaag eXeos rto 
Kvpicx) p,ov 'A^padfi. 

* TO prjTOV. 

^ Reading astouacareal (ptc.) for astouacarel (inf.) = 
ivOovoid^ojv or iiTideid^cov. 

^ Karex^odai. ^ to Trpos bidvoiav. 

^ i.e. the persons and objects mentioned by the servant. 

« Or " the passage (of Scripture) " — 6 Xoyos. 

378 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

exainiiies and fully investigates." And when it finds that 
they are united, it rejoices at their being complete, as it 
hoped. Now, there are three types. One is being a virgin ; 
the second, that she inclines the water-jar ; and the third, 
that she gives (them) to drink. For the sign of a virgin 
is a pure and sincere intention," which honours the sincere 
and incorruptible nature without passion. Moreover, the 
inclining downward of the water-jar (signifies) length of 
teaching and participation," not for all whomsoever, for 
death rather than profit.** And it is not for those whose 
custom it is to act like the envious sophists,* who with what 
they have drawn in from things formerly heard take water 
with the greatest difficulty, being able to draw only a little.^ 
For he who in tasting desires to draw " the measure of the 
water-jar is anxious not to spill it altogether on the ground,'' 
and lifts up * the drink for the sharing (of it) and for love 

*» Aucher renders differently, " ad scrutanda singulorum 
verba et veraciter adimplenda." 

^ The two Arm. words probably render irpoaipeais. 

" (xfJKOs (or fiaKpoT-qTo) bibaaKokias koL Koivcovias. Probably 
TTJs ao(f)Las or rrjs dpeT-fjs is to be understood. See the 
parallel in De Poster. Caini 146. 

"^ The Arm. text is obscure and evidently incomplete or 
corrupt. Aucher renders, " non cunctis simul, ne mortis, 
quam utilitatis sit causa." The sense seems to be that wisdom 
is not for those who prefer death to the help to be obtained 
from wisdom. 

" Tols (f)dov€pols ao<j>t(rrais. See the next note. 

f The text is obscure, partly because of the multiple mean- 
ings of the Arm. verb tanem, here rendered " to draw." 
Aucher renders, " qui per auditum anteriorum, quae intus 
accepere, hauriunt aquam tantam ut paucissimam in se ferre 
queant." InDe Poster. Caini 150 Philo speaks of the grudging 
and mercenary spirit of the sophists, who withold from their 
pupils much that they ought to tell them. 

» Here again the Arm. verb tanem is ambiguous. Aucher 
renders, " qui vero post gustum desiderat in mensura 
hydriae secum dortare " [/. " portare "]. 

^ Text slightly uncertain. 

* Variant " opens." 

379 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of man," as one might be able to harmonize on a musical 
instrument, and there would be a most excellent and 
wonderful harmony. 

96. (Gen. xxiv. 15) Why does (Scripture) say, " It came 
about before he finished speaking in his mind " * ? 

First, it makes clear that there are two (kinds of) dis- 
course," one which resides within, in the understanding,** 
and (another) which we utter.* And each of these has a 
special sound ^ ; that which we utter has that of nouns and 
verbs," while that which is in the understanding has that 
of thoughts, reflection and comprehension," for (Scripture) 
very emphatically proves this by showing that he spoke 
what had been decided in his mind. And in the second 
place, it vividly represents the fact that before every utter- 
ance and thought* there come the surpassing kindnesses 
of God,^ which seem to be swifter than anything in creation. 

97- (Gen. xxiv. 15) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And Rebekah ^ came out, who had been born to 
Bethuel " ' .^ 

•* €1? Koivoiviav KoX <f>iXavdpiomav. 

^ LXX /cat €y€V€TO 7Tp6 Tov ovvTeXeoaL avTov XaXovvra e'v rfj 
havola (Heb. lacks the words after " speaking "). 
" XoyoL. ** €V Tw Xoyiafio). 

* 7Tpo<f>4pofi€v. On the distinction between the Xoyos eVSia- 
dcTos and the Xoyos 7Tpo(f>opiK6s see above, QG iv. 85 notes. 

^ iSiov (fydoyyov or " tone " — Tovov : Aucher " vocem." 
Although the inner Xoyos, strictly speaking, has no " sound," 
it is articulately expressed, as Philo states in Quis Rer. Div. 
Heres 4. 

" 8t' ovofiaTwv Koi prfpAroiv, i.e. words in general. 

'' 8ia XoyiapLOiv kox iwoicjv kol avveaecos vel sim. 

\ Lit. " mind." 

^ ai delai x^ptTcs ai virep^aXXovaai, cf. De Abrahamo 39 at 
Twv xo-pLTcxJv vTrcp^oXal. Aucher renders, " praecedunt gratiae 
Dei praevenientes et praetereuntes." 

* LXX 'Fi^eKKa, Heb. Ribqdh. 

* LXX Ba^ou^A, Heb. EHhu'Sl. 

380 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

Just as in the world the heaven has special honour 
greater than that of all other things, always being the 
same in itself," so too the soul of him who philosophizes 
genuinely '' is inflexible and unchangeable. And truly 
equal to the heavenly nature is she whom in their ancestral 
language the Hebrews and Chaldaeans call " Rebekah," 
which name is to be translated as " constancy " " since she 
suffers neither diminution nor increase. And (Scripture) 
tells her lineage, saying that she was born to " Bethuel," 
which should be interpreted as " daughter of her God."<* 
And who is to be considered the daughter of God but 
Wisdom, who is the first-born mother of all things * and 
most of all of those who are greatly purified in soul .f* 

98. (Gen. xxiv. 15) Why is (Rebekah) said to carry the 
water-jar " on her shoulders " ' .'^ 

(Scripture) is wont to make a bodily symbol of the 
shoulders," for they are the beginnings and origins of the 

* Aucher " semper se suaque aeque habens." 

* -q i//vxri rj rod avodcos <f>i.Xoao(f>ovvTOS. 

* As Aucher notes, Arm. yarout'lun usually = " resurrec- 
tion " {dvdaTaais or eyepais), but here it is evidently a nominal 
formation from the verb yarem " to adhere," as the context 
and other passages in Philo show. In De Somniis i. 46 
" Rebekah " is etymologized as rj utto/aovt^, in Be Fuga 45 
and De Cherubim 41 as iinyiovri (touv KaXoJv). 

^ Cf. De Fuga 50-51, where the name " Bethuel " is inter- 
preted as dvyaTtip deov, i.e. ao(f>ia, as if from Heb. bath 
" daughter" and 'el " God." Here " daughter of her God " 
indicates an etymon bitto " his daughter." 

* Cf. De Fuga 109 firfxpos Se ao<}>ias 8i' ^9 rd oXa -^XOev els 
yeveaiv, and De Virtutibus 62 ao<j}iav hk rrpea^vrepav ov p,6vov 
rrjs efirjg yeveaecos dXXd Kal ttjs rov Koap-ov vavros ovaav. 

f LXX KoX Ihoi) 'PejSe/CKa . . . exovaa rrjv vhpiav €ttI tcuv a>p,cov 
(Heb. " her shoulder "). 

" Cf. Quod Deterius 9 eV Suxc'/x" <S/*o? • • • tXtjtikov orjixeiov 
TTovou, De Mut. Nom. 193 Sux^V • • • ep/xT^veu^ei? ioTLv wpLos, 
TTOvov avp,poXoVf De Vita Mosis ii. 130 tov yap wfxov ivepyeias 
Kal TTpd^ecos noielrai, avfi^oXov. 

281 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

arms and forearms and also of the hands, through which 
the works and activities of life are accomplished. And 
the water-jar is a vessel of water, and this is a symbol of 
education " ; and water (is a symbol) of those things which 
are seen through wisdom.* For the water-jar contains 
water, and knowledge (contains) law, counsel and con- 
templation. " And animals and plants are nourished ** with 
water, while the sovereign mind * (is nourished) with those 
things which are seen through wisdom. And so the .God- 
loving souK bears heavy things most lightly, (namely) all 
things pertaining to knowledge." 



■^^99. (Gen. xxiv. 16) Why does (Scripture) use a double 
expression in calling her a virgin, saying, " She was a 
virgin very fair of face. She was a virgin whom no man 
had known "''.'' 

It wishes to show clearly that she had two virginities, 
one in respect of the body, the other in respect of the in- 
corruptible soul." And she was fair to see and to know.^ 
Do not, however, think that it now presents to us fairness 
of body in respect of that which is called beauty of form,*^ 

" ay/xj3oAov ttjs TratSeia?. 

* Kara ao^iav. Cf, De Poster. Caini 146 eTraivereov ovv koI 
'Pe^eKKav, . . . dcf)' vifjrjXorepov ;^a>/3ioi» KadeXovaa to ao(f>Las 
dyycLov em tov ^paxiova, ttjv vSplav qpeycL tco fiaOrjTjj as t/cavo? 
€K€Lv6s e'cTTi Bc^aodai BtSaaKoXias. 

" rj eiriarripif] <7repiexet> tov vojxov koX rds jSouAds koX rds 
decopias vel sim. 
** TTOTi^ovrai. 

* o "qyeixoviKos vovs. 
^ rj (fjiXoQeos ^vxri- 

" TTOvra rd iTnanqpLOViKd. 

^ Lxx Tj 8e irapdevos (Heb. " young woman ") ^v KaX-q rrj 
oipei a(f)68pa. TrapOevos ■^v, dvrjp ovk eyvco avT-qv. 

* 17 )Li€v Kara to acJofxa, -n 8e icaTO, rrjv d(f>9apTOV ijfvx'^v. 

^ Or perhaps, as Aucher renders, " erat enim tarn visu, 
quam intellectu pulchra." 

* /CttTCi Ti)v XfyofievTjv €Vfj,op<f>Lav. 

382 



I 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

which consists of the symmetry of parts and beauty of 
form * such as even harlots have. These I would never call 
fair, but on the contrary, foul,^ for this is their proper 
name. And, it seems to me, just as bodily properties are 
seen in mirrors, so those of the soul (are seen) in the face 
and countenance. But a shameless look and an elevated 
neck and a continuous movement of the eyebrows and a 
womanish walk " and not blushing at, or being ashamed 
of,*^ any evil at all is the sign of a lewd soul,* which clearly 
pictures and describes the forms of its invisible disgraces 
on its visible body.^ But he in whom the divine words " of 
wisdom and virtue * dwell, even though he may be more 
deformed of body than Silenus, is necessarily fair.* Since 
it is good for him to be revered through his own modesty, 
it follows that he will conform to that which is acceptable 
to those who look at him.^ Wherefore (Scripture) adds to 
her virginity * what some may think superfluous but is (in 
fact) necessary, namely " a man had not known her," for, 
it says, what is she whom a man has known ? But may 
it not be that by " man " it does not present one who is 
such in body and soul but a model character,* who does not 

« Sic. 

^ Or " lewd." 

« The Greek frag, has j3a8ia/ia a€ao^j]iJ,ivov. 

'^ The Greek frag, has only ipvOptdv. 

* Greek frag, tffvx^s aiVxicrTT/s. 

^ This is close to the wording of the Greek frag, (which 
ends here), tovs d^avei? toDv OLKeicov 6v€i8a>v tvttovs €yypa(f>ovar)s 
Tw (f>avepa> adofiaTL. 
' " Or "' oracles." 

* ao(f)iag Koi dper-^s. The syntax is not clear. Aucher 
renders, " sapientiae studio atque virtutis." 

* KoXos ioTi i^ avdyKrjs. 

^ The text is obscure. Aucher renders, " bonum est enim 
ei proprio pudore venerabiliter conformari acceptation! 
videntium." 

* rfj Trapdevia avrrjs, i.e. to the (second) reference to 
Rebekah's virginity. 

* rpoTTov uTroSeiy/ittToj vel sim. ; Aucher " morem exem- 
plarem." 

383 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

permit himself to corrupt the uncorrupted, or to defile the 
undefiled, soul but has the courage to think it impious to 
sow the corrupt seeds of sensual pleasure in the mind," 
and, instead, receives the unadulterated seeds of divinity 
which the Father of all is wont to sow in us from above, 
(namely) those that are incorporeal and intelligible.^ 



*100. (Gen. xxiv. 16) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Going down to the spring, she filled her water-jar and 
went up " * .'' 

(Scripture) gives the intention of the Law •* symbolically.* 
For whatever soul is shown to descend from its own beliefs 
(is shown) to ascend from there quite soon, just as, on 
the contrary, whoever is haughty, boastful, puffed up and 
swollen descends and is destroyed ^ ; so that it is most 
natural to enter into the practices of education.^ For the 
descent of the soul is its ascent through belief,'' and its 
ascent and elevation are the ebbing of arrogance.* But 
it is impossible for one to fly upward to the heavenly place 
of virtue ' who has not filled his whole soul like a water-jar * 

" TO. TTJs rjSovrjs (f>dapTa avepfiaTa elg tov vovv aTTcipeiv. 

^ TO. dacofiara kol voepd. 

" This sentence is more fully commented on in Be Poster. 
Caini 136-138 and more briefly in De Fuga 195. 

^ T7]v TOV voixov yvu)fjLT]v. Auchcr renders, " legem volun- 
tatis," adding in a footnote, " ad verb, voluntatem legis 
(fortasse ut legitimam)." 

® aVfJL^oXlKUiS' 

f Or " is dissolved " (or, perhaps, " is deflated "). 

" The Arm. lit. =c5crT€ elvai ^va^KOJTOTOv ti koX els to. rrjs 
TratSeta? emrrfheviiara elaepxofxevov. The Greek frag. (Harris, 
p. 100, identified by Friichtel) has merely ^uCTt/ccoTara ravra 
SeSei/CTai. 

'' Similarly the Greek frag., KarajSao-iv fiev tpvxrjs ttjv St' 
OL-qa€ios avdpaaiv. 

* The Greek frag, (which ends here) has similarly dvoSov 
he KOI vi/jos rrjv dXal^oveias VTrovoaTijaiv. 

* TTpOS TOV OVpdviOV dpeTTJS TOTTOV. 

* vBpiav. 

384 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

from the divine spring, which we declare to be the eternal 
wisdom of knowledge." 

101. (Gen. xxiv. 17) Why did the servant run to meet her '' ? 

There are two praises " of the servant : one is his running 
toward her, and the other is his meeting (her). For (thus) 
is clearly shown, in the first place, the eagerness of the 
progressive man '^ and the learned man's attainment of 
the good,* and, in the second place, that it is considered 
a pleasure and delight and joyfulness of mind by those 
whose (desire) God has entirely approved ^ and whom He 
has made perfect in the knowledge of wisdom " by His 
wisdom, which like a spring He has opened up and poured 
out with lavish generosity. For there are those who are 
slothful in respect of good deeds and voluntarily hold back 
from them. And there are those who are seized with envy 
so as not to rejoice (in the good) and even turn their faces 
away from those who are (held) in honour and are in a 
state of prosperity. Such men does sacred Scripture '' 
rebuke by praising the opposite way of life. 

^102. (Gen. xxiv. 17) Why does he ask for a little water, 
saying, " Give me a little water to drink from thy water- 
jar " ' } 

" The text is perhaps in disorder. Cf. De Poster. Caini 
188 <'P€j3€K<cav> vSpevcranevrjv ovv ano aortas, r'^s dcias TTrjyTJS, 

TOiS iTTLOT-qfJLaS. 

^ Lit. " run toward her," as in the Arm. O.T., rendering 
Lxx els avvdvTriaiv avrijs. The sentence is commented on 
in passing in De Poster. Caini 138. 

" One expects " descriptions " or the like. 

'^ TOV TTpOKOTTTOVTOS. 

« Aucher renders somewhat differently, " et peritia [abl. 
case] perveniendi ad bonum." 

f The text is defective, since the noun-object is lacking. 
Aucher renders, " quorum Deus votum integerrime acceptans 
adimplevit." " /car' eTnarqp.'qv ao(f>Las. ^ 6 Upos Xoyos. 

*' Philo indirectly comments on this phrase in De Poster. 
Caini 139-147. 

SUPPL. I o 385 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

It is proper to interpret (this as meaning) that one should 
not desire anything that is beyond one's capacity,*' for 
everything that has measure is praiseworthy.^ Wherefore 
in another passage sacred Scripture " (orders) '^ the 
measuring of the spiritual food that came forth from the 
ether and heaven like a spring and was called " manna " * 
by the Hebrews, that it might not be too much for anyone 
or too little. For it is necessary that teaching should be 
more abundant for the intelligent man, and less for the 
foolish man because of the fine equality of proportion.^ 
In another place " (Scripture) also says that one should 
offer sacrifices in accordance with the power of the hands,'^ 
alluding to what has been said, lest there be too little or 
too much, the little being suited to little men and the great 
to great men ; this is that equality which is most useful 
to life.* And so, he appropriately asks for " a little water," 
thereby measuring ' his own nature, for this is little, being 
that of a servant. And to kindle the spirit of uttered dis- 
course * with a more perfect nature, the Father did not 
leave any part empty but completely filled the vessel of 

" So the Greek frag., a|iov airohix^aOai to /ti^Sevo? opeyeadai 
Twv v-nkp Bvvafuv. Aucher renders inexactly, " oportet non 
desiderare ut recipiantur ampliora suis viribus." 

'' vdv yap ro avfiixerpiav cxov, eVaiveTov is the reading of 
the Greek frag., which breaks off here and is resumed below, 
" For it is necessary, etc." 

" d Upos Xoyos. 

^ There is no main verb in the Arm. 

* Arm. mananay. Cf. I)e Sacr. Abelis 86, Quis Rer. Div, 
Heres 79 et al. on manna as spiritual food. 

^ For eV rais dvaXoylats the Greek frag, (which again breaks 
off, to be resumed briefly below) has eV rat? dvayKais. 
" Cf. Lev. xii. 8. 
'^ i.e. in accordance with one's means. 

* The Greek frag, (which ends here) has koi tovto ye ean 
TO jSico^cAeoraTov taov. 

^ Reading Arm. dap'eal (ptc.) for dap'el (inf.) ; so also 
Aucher, who renders, " mensurans." 

* ra> 7Tpo(f>opiKU) Xoyoiy symbolized by Abraham's servant ; 
see above, QO iv. 85. 

386 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

spirit, knowing that it naturally does not seek drink from 
her who has it," but from the water-jar," to teach us that 
it is not mortal man who pours out blessings " but the 
grace of God,*^ which is too high for man * and of which 
he prays to be thought worthy to partake, and that He give 
him to drink that which He had earlier put into (the 
vessel)/ 



103. (Gen. xxiv. 18) Why does she say in addition, 
*' Master," (although she was) almost the mistress of the 
servant ? " 

This is an indication and proof of theoretical matters,'' 
from which one ought to see that the passage * is not about 
mortal man but about the characters ^ of good men, who 
are zealous for immortality. And so, wisdom ^ rightly 

" i.e. from wisdom or virtue, symbolized by Rebekah. 

* The passage is obscure, and the correctness of the above 
rendering is uncertain. Aucher renders, " adhaec vero quia 
secundum verbum pronuntiativum, quod animam refovet, 
perfectionis erat naturae, nullam reliquit partem vacuam, 
sed totum ex toto vas animae implendum pater novit. 
Naturaliter, non ex habente, sed de hydria potum petit." In 
a footnote he adds " Vel^ implevit pater. Quod noscens 
naturaliter, etc." 

" Lit. " waters with good things." 
^ XOipt-s deov. 

* So Aucher, " quae super hominem apparet." Perhaps 
the Greek original meant " which appears to man from 
above." 

^ Meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, " de qua rogat 
sibi largiri dignare, et illam, quam prius introducit (in os 
animae) potare facere." 

" Lxx 17 Se eiTrev, Ilie, Kvpie. The sentence is briefly 
allegorized in De Poster. Caini 138 to mean that " only the 
wise man is free and a ruler, though he may have ten thou- 
sand masters of his body." 

'' deojprfTiKiov (or opaTiKiov). Aucher renders, " specula- 
tivae sententiae." 

* o Xoyos. ^ Or " types." * 17 ao<f>ia. 

387 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

desires to give to another some of the drink « which she 
has taken. For grudging envy does not touch the god- 
loving soul. And she calls him " Master," not with regard 
to the empty dignity of slavery or freedom, but with regard 
to the eagerness of will of the recipient. For he is not 
constant in ignorance and indiscipline * but truly concerns 
himself with discipline and knowledge,'' for he labours on 
behalf of genuinely noble things. 



^104. (Gen. xxiv. 18) Why does she hasten to lower the 
water-jar upon her arm ? "^ 

This is in harmony with the preceding. For (Scripture) 
wishes to reprove the character of the sophist « and to 
praise the true and genuine seeker of wisdom. For he who 
is trained in words ^ and uses one after the other, helps 
(only) one soul in training himself, but does not bring any 
profit to those who come to him. Because of their speed 
and their being produced one after the other his words 
when spoken do not enter their ears but are, as it were, 
poured away outside. This is what those men do who 
transfer water or wine all at once into a jar with a narrow 
mouth, for more is spilled than is put into (the jar). But 
he who genuinely philosophizes and shares (his wisdom) 
humanely," gives profit through his words by inclining 
himself and making allowance for the character of the 
learner. For the pupil's capacity to learn is not like the 
teacher's capacity to teach,'* since the one is perfect, and 
the other imperfect.* Wherefore it is fitting to bear in 

« i.e. drinking-water. 

* Aucher renders more freely, " non enim doctrinae dis- 
ciplinaeque odium fert." 

" iraiSeias Koi iniaTiqfirjs. 

** LXX Kal €07r€va€v koL KaOeiXev ti7v vhpiav iirl rov ^paxiova 
avT-qs. The sentence is allegorized in similar fashion but at 
greater length in De Poster. Caini 140-147. 

* Tov ao^iariKov rpoTTOv. ^ Xoyois. 

' 6 dvodojs <f>LXoao<f>ovfi€Vos koI koivcovwv (fnXavOpcoTTCDS. 
'^ So the Greek frag, (which begins here). 

* innbrj 6 fi€v reXeios, 6 8c dreX-qs eWt, as in the Greek frag. 
388 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

mind and to weigh " the capacity of the one who is being 
educated.* 



105. (Gen. xxiv. 18-19) What is the meaning of the words, 
" She gave him to drink until he ceased drinking " " ? 

(Scripture) shows the teacher's amiability and friendli- 
ness toward the learner from the fact that she not only 
gave him to drink but until he ceased drinking. And it 
is an indication of the fact that one should not super- 
ficially ^ take account (of the learner's needs) * but should 
take cognizance of the impulse ^ of the disciple and pupil, 
and completely satisfy all his zeal." For, as I was saying 
a little before,* one should not take either more or less 
water than one's capacity (to use). For where there is too 
much, it is spilled outside, and where there is too little, 
it does not fill but leaves an empty place in the soul of the 
learner. 



106. (Gen. xxiv. 19) Why does she say, " And for thy 
camels I will draw water until they have all drunk " ? 

(Scripture) dwells at length on the benevolence of the 
teacher who wishes not only to hand over and entrust 
scientific knowledge * (to the pupil) but to put it in order ^ 
and make it stick to him, since she gives drink to his 

" The Greek frag, has only one verb, aroxa-ieadai,. 

* T']7v Tov TTaiBevofievov bvvafjLiv, as in the Greek frag, (with 
change of case). 

" So the LXX, Koi eTTOTLaev avrov lojs erravaaTo ttlvcov. The 
Heb. is slightly different, " and she gave him to drink and 
{i.f. until) she ceased giving him to drink." The verse is 
somewhat differently allegorized in De Poster. Caini 147. 

^ ovK eViTroAaia)?. 

* The meaning of the Arm. text is not altogether clear. 
Aucher renders, " cujus indicium est baud obiter facere 
enarrationem." ^ T171' opfxi^v. 

" rrjv ctttouStjv. 

* In QG iv. 102, 104. 



* Ta €TTLaT7]ixoviKd. ' KoofieCv vet stm. 



389 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

memory," of which the camels are symbols. For genuine 
teachers and instructors '' direct their teaching not to 
display but to the profit of their pupils, and compel them 
to repeat from memory what has been said by them," thus 
firmly impressing upon them what they have heard. 



107. (Gen. xxiv. 20) Why does (Scripture) say, " She 
hastened and poured out the water-jar into the drinking- 
trough " <* ? 

In man the drinking-trough is a symbol of hearing,* 
for it is through hearing that the flow of words comes into 
the mind and soul.^ Excellently, moreover, is it- said that 
she poured out the whole water-jar, for thereby (Scripture) 
clearly shows that the good is far removed from envy and 
grudgingness, for without storing up and keeping them 
for itself, it gives up the various kinds of knowledge " and 
hides nothing, as some sophists '' do. And the reason for 
this is that some men because of small-mindedness * 
suppose that there are only those things in nature which 
they alone know. But the good man, on the contrary, 
knows that he knows little or nothing rather than the 
illimitable greatness of nature,^ wherefore he has learned 
to take water from the divine spring, as though having 

" ras iivTjiiasy plural as in the parallel, De Poster. Caini 
148-150. 

* Aucher amplifies in rendering, " fideles magistri, 
genuinique doctores." 

" «.». the teachers. 

** So LXX, KoX €G7T€Va€V Koi i^€K4vO)a€V TTjV vhpiaV im TO 

TTOTiaTrjpiov. The last word is taken by Philo, in the parallel, 
De Poster. Caini 150-152, as a synonym of Se^a/xcvr; and as 
a symbol of the learner's soul or understanding. 

* Tov aKoveiv. 

^ els TOV vovv (or ttjv Stavotar) Kai. ti^v tjivx^v. 
" Ttt Trjs €TTicm^HT)S etSr;. 

* aotfucrrai. * Si' oXiyoiJjvxi'O-v. 

* TO aTreipov tt^? <f)va€u)s fieyedos. Cf. De Poster. Caini 152 
TTOVV evriQeis oaoi irpos ro vepas rjaTivocrovv €TnaTrj^irjS d(f)i,K€adai 
hievoTJOTjaav. 

390 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

nothing of his own and receiving (everything) from the 
pure and unfailing wisdom of God.* 



108. (Gen. xxiv. 21) Why is he no longer called " boy " ^ 
but " man," for (Scripture) says, " The man examined and 
studied her and stood silent so as to know whether the 
Lord God would bring success to him " " ? 

Because while he was preparing to learn and was at the 
beginning '^ of instruction,* he was considered to be of the 
boys and minors,^ but when he began to progress," he was 
considered a rational man,'' who was indeed able to use 
uttered discourse.* And this progressive man is a type of 
character ^ and sees, as it were, a most beautiful image * 
and the nature of a wise teacher of the wisdom of know- 
ledge.^ And also because he stood silent a long while,"* 
giving place to that which spoke in him without mouth 
or tongue or instruments or voice, (namely) the divine 
Logos," understanding and seeing that path which leads 
to virtue and happiness," and whether he will reach it. 
For in truth there is no prospering ^ for anyone else (or) 
for those (engaged) in material i^ ings,« whether as private 
citizens or as kings.*" 

" €K TTJs aKparov koL dSiaXeiTTTOv ao<f>ias Beov. * Trais. 

" The Lxx reads slightly diiferently o 8e dvdpcoTTos /care- 
ixdvdavev avrT]v (Heb. " contemplated her") koI TrapeaLcona tov 
yvwvai rj ei'dSto/cev Kvpios ttjv oBov rj ov. 

^ Lit. " had a beginning." « StSaa/caAtas. 

^ eV TOis dr^Xiai. " coj iyevero TrpoKOVTcov. 

'' dvdpoiTTOS XoyiKOS. 

* TO) TTpoffyopiKw Adyoj, see above, Q(t iv. 85 notes. 

^ TVTTos rjdibv vel sini. '' Or " picture." 

'■ The Arm. lit. = ao<f>ov SiSaa/caAou <f)vaiv ao<f>ias i7naTi^fx.rjs. 
This can hardly have been the original. 
'"' Or " sufficiently." 

" Tip deicp Xoytp. " els dper'qv Koi evBaijioviav. 

^ evobetv vel sim. ' ev tols vXlkoIs. 

'■ Aucher renders less accurately, I think, " alias vero 
prosperitas in nullo constitit eorum, quae in materiis sunt, 
sive privata sive publica aut regia." 

391 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

109. (Gen. xxiv. 22) Why, after all the camels ceased 
drinking, did the man give ear-rings of gold and bracelets " 
to the virgin ? 

This is something most natural,* for he who learns has 
also learned by remembering the words, " And do thou 
drink," " which was (the same as) learning.^ And his seeing 
the camels watered was the equivalent of revivifying his 
memory." And he returned thanks and gratitude to his 
teacher very genuinely and appropriately,^ for in return 
for what he had heard he gave the ear-rings as an adorn- 
ment to her ears, for the word was hers who was teaching, 
and the ears were his who received the teaching. And in 
return for what she had done, (he gave) a memorial (con- 
sisting of) bracelets, an adornment of memory and deeds. 



^110. (Gen. xxiv. 22) Why does (Scripture) speak of ear- 
rings of a drachma in weight " and of bracelets of gold of 
ten drachmas ^ but not of five and five of gold ? * 

Altogether excellently has it apportioned the two into 

<* Scripture specifies two bracelets. In De Congressu 113, 
where the verse is briefly allegorized (see also the next 
section), Philo transfers the number two to the ear-rings. 

* ^vaiKWTaTOV tl. 

" Cf. Gen. xxiv. 18. Philo does not comment on this 
phrase in dealing with the verse in QG iv. 103-105. 

<* As Aucher remarks in a footnote, the syntax of the whole 
section is " nimis abstrusa obfuscataque." 

" laov TO) t,o)TTvp€Lv Trjv fjLvqfjLrjv. On the camels as a symbol 
of memory see above, QG iv. 92 notes. 

f Aucher " cum munere familiarissimo." 

" Lxx dva SpaxfJ-rfv {v.I. biSpaxiJ'Ov) oXktjs : Heb. " a beqa' 
(half-shekel) its weight " : Arm. O.T. " a dahekan (usu. = 
drachma or denarius) in weight." In De Congressu 113 
Philo has 8vo fiev ivcoTLa dva hpaxfJ'rjv oXK'qv. Here the Arm. 
translator probably uses k'ank'ar " talent " in the sense of a 
drachma. 

* LXX Svo ipeXia . . . bcKa xP^^<^v oXktj avrov, SO also Heb. 
In De Congressu 113 Philo has ipeXia 8e SeVa ;(puaaiv. 

* i.e. ear-rings and bracelets of five drachmas each. 

392 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

one " in order to change the bad nature of the dyad and 
adapt it to that of the good monad. And it has taken the 
dyad and left it undivided,* for ten is divisible into two 
fives. And the decad is better than the pentad, for the 
former is a most perfect, complete and superior number 
and is appropriate to the divine mysteries,'' while the 
number five is the measure of the senses,'* and the senses 
bear the same relation to the mind * as does the traveller to 
the king.^ And it would be folly to change the better into 
the worse. Now, what sort of nature the decad has both 
in respect of intelligible substance " and in respect of sense- 
perceptible (substance) '' has already been stated in the 
book On Numbers.^ Now, however, this much must be 
said, that both in the world and in man the decad is all.^ 
In the world, together with the number seven (of planets) 
and the eighth sphere of fixed stars and those sublunary 
things of one species which are changeable among them- 
selves,^ the divine Logos ' is the governor and adminis- 
trator '" of all things, since it has melodically harmonized 

** Apparently Philo means that it replaced the equation 5 : 5 
by the proportion 1 : 10, where 10 is considered a kind of 
unity, as in Be Congressu 105. 

^ dhiaiperov. " Or " thoughts." 

^ Twv alad'^aewv. * npos tov vovv (or ttjv Bidvoiav). 

^ 6 oSoiTTopos vpos TOV jSoCTiAea. On the Philonic concept 
of the king's highway of spiritual progress see Joseph 
Pascher, H BA2IAIKH OAOS . . . bei Philon von Alex- 
andreia (Paderborn, 1931), chap, iii, " Der mystische Wan- 
derer aufdem ' Konigsweg.' " 

" Kara vocpdv ovaiav. ^ Kara ttjv aladr]TLKT^v. 

* €v Tw Ilepi ^ApLdfiwv. This lost book of Philo has been 
reconstructed in outline by Staehle, pp. 1-18. 

^ Apparently in the sense of all-important or the sum total. 

* Such as earth, water, air. 

' d delos Xoyos. In De Congressu lO.S-105 the tenth part 
of the universe is said to be the alone truly existent God. 
The other nine parts are, as here, the seven planets, the sphere 
of fixed stars and the sublunary world ; these constitute the 
" seeming sense-perceptible God." 

"* KV^€pvrjTT]S KoX OlKOVOfMOS VBI slm. 

393 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the chorus of the nine musical (intervals)." And in our 
body and soul there are also seven irrational parts ^ and 
the mind, which is a single part." Now, the divine Logos 
is concerned with these nine (parts) ,^ being the leader and 
ruler of harmony, and by it the nine parts are harmonized, 
and melodies and songs sound as one. Therefore Moses 
admits that the decad is holy, naturally leaving the ennead 
to creation," and the decad to the divine Logos. And 
rightly is it holy, for it echoes divine things, trumpeting ^ 
the theme of forgiveness " in concordant and antiphonal 
chants leading to one and the same mixture of harmony. 
And necessarily does (Scripture) apportion one to the ears 
and ten to the hands,'' for one is the beginning of the 
numbers,* and ten is the end ; and these are symbols of 
things. For it is proper to hear first and then to act, since 
we learn not for the sake of learning but for the sake of 
doing.^ And one is proportioned and united to hearing, 
for both of them are a beginning, one of numbers, and the 

<* Philo seems here to liken the ninefold visible world to an 
harmonic progression or scale of nine notes. 

* €7TTa dXoya fJ-eprj. 

" i.e. body and soul =2, + seven irrational parts =9, +the 
mind = 10. 

** The meaning of Arm. darnam (usu. =crTp€^ea0at or 
avacrrp^eadai) is not clear here. Aucher renders, " itidem 
de istis novem distinctionibus disponit." 

* i.e. to created things. 

f Or " playing " (a stringed instrument), but the rendering 
given above is favoured by the context, see the next note. 

" a(f>€mv. The Arm. glossator's guess that Philo here refers 
totheDay of Atonement, ushered in by the blowing of trumpets 
and falling on the 10th day of Tishri (Lev. xxiii. 24, 27), is 
confirmed by the parallel in De Congressti 107. 

^ Philo refers to the one-drachma weight of the ear-rings 
and ten-drachma weight of the bracelets. 

* i.e. of the digits. 

* So the brief Greek frag, printed by Mai, aKovaai Set 
rrpwTov, elra ipydaaadar fiavOdvofxev yap ov tov fiadetv X'^P"' o.XXd 
rod TTpd^ai. In De Congressu 113 Philo allegorizes the two 
numbers a little differently. 

394 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

other of learning," while the decad (is the beginning) of 
doing, for it is the end of the numbers and is the act of 
teaching, through which we learn. And the monad differs 
from one as the archetype surpasses and differs from the 
copy, for the monad is the archetype while one is a likeness 
of the monad. ^ Why ? Because one can admit the com- 
pletion " of many (as in the case of) a herd or chorus or 
family or nation or army or city, for each of these is one. 
But the monad does not come from many, for it is unsharing 
and has no association ** and is without complexity * because 
of its aloneness, as its very name shows. Now this monad 
is what Moses writes of in the beginning when he com- 
mands that half a didrachmon be brought as first fruits.^ 
And this " was a very appropriate ornament to be fitted 
to the ears of Rebekah (who was a symbol of) alertness '^ 
and perseverance,* that she might listen and bear in mind 
the unity ' of the divine Logos. 



111. (Gen. xxiv. 23) Why does he say, " Whose daughter 

" i.e. one is the beginning of the series of digits, and hear- 
ing is the beginning of learning. 

* This agrees closely with the passage from Joh. Lydus 
given in the Appendix. 

" T-qv TeXeior-qra : Aucher " perfectionem." 

'^ Koivcovidv. * dvev avfnrXoKrjs vel sim. 

f Cf. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 186-189 on Ex. xxx. 13-15 
where a tax of half a didrachmon (Heb. shekel) is prescribed 
as a " ransom " for souls during the taking of the census. 
On that biblical passage Philo comments that the half 
didrachmon " is both a drachma and a monad." First fruits 
(as tithes) are included in his allegories of the number ten 
in De Congressu 95. Here Philo seems to combine the two 
allegories. " i.e. the ear-ring of one-drachma weight. 

^ Lit. " raising up " : Aucher " perseverantiae." 

* The two Arm. nouns probably represent a single Greek 
noun, iTTLfjLovijs or vTTOfiovrjs, which are the allegorical ex- 
planations of the name Rebekah given elsewhere by Philo. 

^ Or " monad," here fancifully connected with imfMovq or 

VTTO^OVq. 

395 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

art thou ? Tell me whether there is to thy father a place 
for us to stay " " ? 

The literal meaning ^ is very easy to understand. But 
as for the deeper meaning," he is struck speechless and 
astonished by the beauty of the veritably true virgin '^ and 
her unstained, intact and holy soul, which * remains con- 
stant in doing good and worthy deeds. And he is at a loss 
to tell whether perhaps it was one not a mortal who begot 
her, and so he asks, " Whose daughter art thou ? " " For," 
he says, " I see that no one who is created and born is 
worthy to be thought the father of such fair virtue," ^ as 
though saying, " Instruct and correct my ignorance by 
revealing thy lineage and the source " of thy beautiful 
youth. '^ " Since he * was embarrassed by modest shame 
lest he seem to boast too greatly and freely in believing 
that her lineage was heavenly and marvellous, he asks 
again immediately, " Is there indeed a place and space 
for us with thy Father in the ether and heaven or, still 
higher, with their governor, the divine Logos ? ' For, 
being there, we should leave all mortal and corruptible 
things * behind. Or shall we be altogether kept back and 
shut in, planted and rooted in the earth and with heads 
bent down as if we were trees on a cliff } " 



112. (Gen. xxiv. 25) What is the meaning of the words, 
" There is straw and much fodder with us and a place to 
lodge " ' ? 

° So LXX, €t Icttiv Trapa Ta> TrarpL aov r ottos rjfuv KaraXvaaL. 
^ TO prjTOV. " TO npos Siavoiav. 

"^ TTJs ovTcos dXrjdovs TTapdevov. 

* Or " who " (i.e. the virgin). 

/ dpcTrjs. » Ivit. " planting." 

'' Variant " beautiful humanity." 

* The Arm. glossator, who takes Eleazar to be the implied 
subject, seems to me to be right as against Aucher who takes 
Rebekah to be the subject. 

' Ta> KV^epvrJTT) avrcov, rw ^ei'o) \6yip. 

* TravTtt TO. dvrjrd Koi (f>dapTd. ^ LXX tov KaraXvoai,, 

396 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

Since some of the soul is rational and some irrational," 
she mentions also those things which are fitting for the 
irrational part and are suitable and necessary,* (namely) 
straw and fodder and whatever is the food of animals." 
And she gives a special place to the rational part for dis- 
solving and breaking up and destroying '^ the passions,* 
inasmuch as each of them is poisonous. 

118. (Gen. xxiv. 26) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The man, being well pleased, prostrated himself before 
the Lord ^ " ? 

When the man who has been disciplined " hears that 
which he has especially desired, (namely) that he is not 
homeless and not kept outside but has found a place and 
space and has received the word of virtue,'' he is very well 
pleased and receives (it) willingly, and in gratitude for 
this prostrates himself. 

114. (Gen. xxiv. 27) Why does he name, not his Lord 
or God, but that of Abraham, saying, " Blessed is the 
Lord God of my lord Abraham " * ? 

First of all, he lays upon servants (the obligation) to love 
their lords and to honour their lords and hold them in 
greater esteem than themselves. In the second place, he 
wishes to show clearly the advantage (that comes) from 
teaching ' to him who has been properly and genuinely '^ 

" Ti]s 'Ifvxrjs TO nev XoytKov, to 8c dXoyov. 

* Aucher renders somewhat more freely, " dicit adesse 
ilia quoque, quae conveniunt bruto ad fruendum cum decora." 

" Toiv dXoycov. 

^ Here, as Aucher notes, Philo plays on the double mean- 
ing of KaraXvaai. * to, ttolOt] : Aucher " cupiditates." 

' So the Lxx, Koi €v8oKrjaas (Heb. " and bowed ") d dvdpco- 
TTOS TTOoa^Kvvqaev Kvpiu). 

" Prob. iTTacbevdr). '^ top rrjs a.p€Ti]S Xoyov. 

* So LXX, 'EvXoyTjTos Kvpios 6 deos rov KVpiov fiov *Aj3paa/x, 
' eV SiSaoTKoAtas. 

* oiKeicos Kai yvqaicjs vel sim. : Aucher " familiariter ac 
fideliter." 

397 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

taught. And profiting from that great saying, " Know 
thyself," he chose and thought it best to be called, not a 
servant of God,* but an attendant of the intercessor.'' And 
the intercessor is a servant of the Creator of all and Father. 
But he who transgresses this order,'' which nature has 
arranged, perpetrates a great injustice** by setting before 
himself a disorder of confusion." 



115. (Gen. xxiv. 27) What is the meaning of the words, 
" He has not abandoned His righteousness and truth to ^ 
my lord " " ? 

Very naturally '' does (Scripture) show that these very 
same virtues,* righteousness and truth,^ are especially and 
pre-eminently *= divine. For among the human race there 
is nothing pure ^ but (only) what is mixed. For there is 
mixed with it in slight measure both falseness and un- 
righteousness. And the righteousness and truth among 
men are, to speak properly, likenesses and images,"* while 
those with God are paradigmatic principles and types " 
and ideas." Deservedly, therefore, does he give thanks 
that he ^ had both (virtues) and that God gives him both 
virtues uninterruptedly and daily, and that there grows " 

" In the Arm. the negative directly precedes " of God." 
^ The Arm. uses two words to render TrapaKXi^Tov. 

* rd^iv. ** aSiKtav. 

* Aucher renders more freely, " proposita sibi morum 
dissolutione perturbata." ^ Lit. " from." 

^ Lxx ovK iyKareXeiTrev ttjv SiKacoavvrjv (variant eXeos, cf. 
Heb. hasdo " His kindness ") Kal T17V aX'qdeiav drro rod Kvpiov 

jMOV. 

^ <f>vaLK(Lrepov. * avrds rds dperds. 

^ Both nouns, here and below, are in the plural. 

* 8ia<f>6pws : variant " symbolically." 
^ d-Kparov. 

"* 6ijLol6t7]T€S (or fiifJL'qfjLaTa) koL CLKOves. 

" The Arm. lit. ^TTapaSeiyixariKal dpxal koI tvttoi. Possibly, 
however, Philo wrote dpx^TVTToi. 

" ISeai. * i.e. Abraham. 

« Or " wells up " or " bubbles up." 

398 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

in his soul an estrangement from falsehood and unrighteous- 
ness and a familiarity * with truth and righteousness. 



116. (Gen. xxiy. 28) What is the meaning of the words, 
" The young woman, running into the house, told her 
mother " * ? 

A virtuous soul is a lover of the good '' and has a status 
that is greatly inflexible and unchanging. For when it 
perceives that someone is not quickly satiated with desire 
but is constant and genuine,** it rejoices and makes haste 
and does not restrain * the swiftness of its joy but tells the 
whole maternal household of wisdom ^ with a sober and 
j>rudent festivity of joy and dance and still other lavish 
displays of welcome, such as he shows who is not strange 
and spurious in his desire," in order that those who hear 
it may rejoice and become joyful. 



117. (Gen. xxiv. 29) Who is the brother of Rebekah, 
whose name is Laban ? 

Our soul has a natural brother who is rational and one 
who is irrational.'' Now to the rational part is assigned 
Rebekah the virgin, (who is) constancy * and perseverance ; 
and Laban (is assigned) to the irrational part, for this 
(name) is to be translated as " whiteness," which is a 
figure of the honours (shown) to the splendour of sense- 

" dXXoTpicDais /iev . . . oi/ceioTT^? 8e. 

* Lxx (like Heb.) reads a little differently koL Bpafiovaa rj 
TTots ttTT^yyeiAev els tov oIkov ttjs fxrjTpos avrijs Kara ra p-qfxaTa 
Tavra. 

" <f>iXd'yad6s (or (fyiXoKoXos) iari rj airovhaia ^'^Xl' 

^ Aucher " fidelis." 

« Lit. " bear " or " contain." ^ ao4>ias. 

" Aucher, construing less accurately, I think, renders, 
" quae omnia illis, qui genuinum habent desiderium, de- 
monstrat." 

'' o /txev XoyiKos, 6 8e dXoyos. 

* The Arm. lit. = dvaaTacri? or eyepais, but see QG iv. 97 
note c. 

399 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

perceptible things." For one should know very well that 
just as there are three different kinds of literal elements 
of speech,'' namely vowels, semi-vowels and consonants," 
so also is it with our nature. For the mind ^ is like the 
vowel, and the senses * like the semi-vowel, and the body 
like the consonant. However, I shall begin my exposition 
from the end.^ For just as the consonant by itself alone 
has no sound at all but (only) when combined with a vowel 
achieves a literal sound," so also is the body by itself alone 
unmoving ; and it is moved by the rational soul " through 
the several organic parts toward that which is suitable 
and necessary to it. Again, just as the semi-vowels make 
lame and imperfect sounds, but, if they are combined with 
vowels, make fully articulated speech,* so also is sense- 
perception (only) half effective ^ and imperfect, and it 
occupies a position midway between the mind and the 
body, for it has a part in each of them ; it is not inanimate ^ 
like the body, and it is not intelligent ^ like reason."* But 
when the mind" by extending itself" is fused with, and 
engraved on it," it prepares it to see and hear rationally 

« Construction and meaning are not clear. Aucher 
renders, " indicium claritatis rerum secundum sensus." The 
interpretation of " Laban " as " whiteness " and as a symbol 
of sense-perception is found in several other passages in 
Philo, e.g. T)e Fuga 44. 

** Cf. De Agricultura 136 to. aroix^la ttjs iy-ypaixfidrov 

(f>U)V'fjS. 

" ^oji^evra Kai 17/Lii^cova Kai a^cova, cf. De Congressu 150. 
^ 6 vovs. ' 17 atadrjats. 

f i.e. from the last of the three terms. 
" See above, note 6. 

'' V7t6 TTJS XoyiKTJS xflVXfjS. 

' €vapdpov <f>o)vi^v. 

' rifiUpyos. Aucher " semivivus." 

^ OApVXOS. 

' voepd or voi^t^. 

"* d Xoyiafios. ** d vovs. 

" eKTeCvcov eavrov. 

p i.e. sense-perception. Perhaps the original was " when 
the impression {rvnos) is fused with the senses by the mind." 

400 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

and at the same time to speak with reason and to perceive 
rationally. However, in the same way as the vowels by 
themselves alone and also when combined with other 
(sounds) produce sound, so also is the mind moved by 
itself alone without anything else, since intelligible things 
are received and grasped by themselves alone," and it is 
also the cause of the movement of other things, giving 
release '' like the leader of a chorus." But, as I have said, 
the senses (are moved) to bodily perception by the rational 
part and are, as it were, effectively brought to their natu- 
ral ^ functions by the voices of the organic parts/ 



118. (Gen. xxiv. 30-e31) Why does Laban, after seeing 
the ear-rings and the bracelets on his sister, say to the 
youth,^ " Come, enter," blessed of the Lord.'^ Why dost 
thou stand without ? " ? 

In the first place, this is meant to show clearly that 
whoever belongs to the characters which measure all 

<» The last clause was probably a gen. absolute construc- 
tion in the Greek original. Aucher, construing differently, 
renders, " et meris, tarn per se solum sine ullo alio movetur, 
ab intellectualibus per se adjuta." 

* The Arm. word and its cognates usu.—dcfyeais. Aucher 
renders, " vigorem " and in a footnote suggests " permis- 
sionem sive motioneni." 

* Aucher " tamquam dux cohorti." 
'^ Variant " logical." 

« Philo apparently means that the meeting of the senses 
and external objects, which results in perception, is like the 
meeting of vowels and consonants, which results in speech. 

^ Lxx TTpos Tov dvdpcoTTov '. Hcb. " to thc man." Philo 
omits most of vs. 30 on Rebekah's report to Laban and the 
latter's coming out to Eleazar. 

" LXX A.€vpo, etaeXde : Heb. " come in." 

^ So Heb. and Arm. O.T, : lxx evXoyrjros Kvpios. wSince 
Philo has the lxx reading below, it is probable that here the 
Arm. translator or a copyist has accommodated his text to 
that of the Arm. O.T. 

401 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

things by the senses " is always of necessity bribed " by 
something sense-perceptible, •= and is unable to judge ** in 
purity and holiness without gifts.* But when he sees gold, 
he calls it to him, and when (it) is called, he becomes more 
subservient. And this is something most natural.^ And 
when he sees the ornament of the ears, (namely) the monad, 
and the ornament of the hands and deeds, (namely) the 
decad," he is struck by the holy appearance of lordship,'' 
and gives thanks and says in a loud voice, " Blessed (be) 
the Lord." ' With Him is good teaching, and (for Him) ^ 
good works are performed, as is indeed fitting, by offering 
the first fruits ^ ; and the first fruits of words ' (is) the 
word in accordance with the monad, for just as the monad 
is holy among numbers, so also is the word (holy) in 
teaching. And (the first fruits) of deeds (is the word) '^ in 
accordance with the decad, for just as the decad is the end " 
of numbers, so also is the deed " in learning. 



119. (Gen. xxiv. 31) Why does Laban say, " I have pre- 
pared the house and a place for the camels," although 
Rebekah had (earlier) added the " lodging," saying, ^ 

<• Laban is a symbol of the sensual character (tvttos or 
rpoTTos). Aucher renders, " quicumque secundum sensum 
praefert argumentum aliquod exemplare." 

^ The Arm. = hcopoKoirelTaL^ a word not elsewhere used by 
Philo. Possibly the original here had BcopohoKei. 

" VTT* alad-qTLKOV Tivos. 

^ For datel = KpiWiv, two Arm. mss. have dasel = raTTctv. 

* dv€v 8(i)pwv. ^ (jyvaLKOJTarov tl. 
« See above, QG iv. 110. 

'' The Arm. lit. —rrj ayia (or Upa) KVpiorrjTOS <f>avTaaia. 
Perhaps the original was rfj ayia koX dela ^avraaia. 

* See p. 401, note h. 

' The context makes it necessary to supply these words. 

* TO. TTpoiroyevvrniara or ras aTrapx^-S (tcDv Trpcorcov Kaprrwv). 
^ Xoycxiv. 

"* Here too the context requires a supplement. 
" TO TcAo?. " Lit. " the doing." 

" In Gen. xxiv. 25, see above, QG iv. 1 12. 

402 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

" And there is much fodder with us and a place to 
lodge " ? 

(Scripture) reports a very great difference of superiority " 
between the mind of the virgin, which makes use of nothing 
sense-perceptible,'' and the class of the type which receives 
the sense-perceptible/ For the loosing"* and inactivity of 
those things which are subject to generation and destruc- 
tion are to instruct us to prepare a place in the soul in this 
fashion. But the other says that he is prepared, not for 
loosing, but for the reception of irrational natures,* for 
he is unable to deny what he experiences/ 



120. (Gen. xxiv. 34) Why does the elderly man begin in 
this way, " I am the boy " of Abraham " ^ 

The deeper meaning '' of that which is said is very easy 
to discover and see.* For a young boy has the same 
position in relation to a mature man as does uttered dis- 
course ' to the inner (discourse) in the reason.*^ But the 
literal meaning ' gives the praise of him who is past old 
age."* For whereas others make the error of declaring 
themselves to be of (such and such) a family or country, 
he (declares himself to be) of his lord, whom he considers 

" St,a(f)opav vTTep^oXrjs /xeyiCTTTyv. * aladT]TiKco. 

" Construction and meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, 
" et inter exemplum ejus qui sensibilia recepit in cogna- 
tionem." Possibly the original was " the type of those who 
receive the class (yevos) of sense-perceptible things." 

^ Philo here, as earlier, plays on the double meaning of 
/caraAuetv, i.e. " to loose " and " to lodge." 

* aXoycov <f>vG€cov. ^ Or " bears." 

' Lxx TTotSi i.e. " servant " (as in Heb.). See above, QO 
iv. 108, ^ TO vpos Sidvoiav. * Or " conjecture." 

* On Abraham's servant as a symbol of the Xoyos iTpo(f)opiK6s 
see above, QG iv. 85, 88. 

* iv to) XoycafMcp. ' to prjrov. 

"• L. A. Post reconstructs the original as to be pijTov evXoycos 
ttTToSiScoai MdvavSpos (misread as /nev dvBpos) iv 'TTrepyijpa), 
" Menander rendered the literal meaning eloquently in his 
Superannuated.^^ 

403 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

his country and family .« Going on with the trimeters 
from that point, he says fittingly,'' " To me the lord is a 
city, a refuge and a law and a judge of every righteous and 
unrighteous man. It befits me to live with the servant 
mind." " 

121. (Gen. xxiv. 35) Why does he say, " The Lord has 
blessed my lord exceedingly, and he has been exalted. 
And He has given him sheep ** and cattle and gold and 
silver * and men-servants and maid-servants and camels 
and asses " ? 

It is fitting and proper to admire the literal meaning ^ 
inasmuch as among the benefits " mentioned the divine 
wonders fall to the lot of the sovereign ruler,'' while the 
human (benefits fall to the lot) of the minister and servant. 
For wonderful and divine is that benefit which is the bles- 

'^ Post suggests that Menander's verses were something 
like the following : 

aXXoi jjLcv aTTOKpivoLVT av ^Ittovtgs yevovs 
TLvos €ial Kal TTaTpihos, iyoi Se SeaTrorou, 
cos ovTos avTL TTarpihos "qfxiv /cat ydvovs. 

The Arm. translator prob. read aTTOKXivoivro instead of dno- 

KpivOlVTO. 

* The Greek original, Post suggests, was evrevOev npo^aivcov 
€is TO TTpoacx) Tcuv TpLfxerpcov e^Tjs ttoicI. 

<= The original passage (Frag. 581 Koch) reads 

efJLol voXis carl Kal Ka.Ta(fivyr^ /cat vofxos 
/cat Tov SiKalov tov t* olSlkov vavros Kpirrjs 
6 SeaTTOTTjs. rrpos rovrov iva Set ^ijv efie. 

F. G. Allinson in the Loeb Menander renders the passage, 
" For me my master is at once a city and a place of refuge and 
law and judge in everything of what is right and wrong. With 
eyes on him alone I needs must live." 

** The Arm. dowar usu.= raupo? but here apparently = 
TTpoparov. 

* Lxx and Heb. have " silver and gold," in reverse order. 
•^ TO p-qrov. 

" rcov dyadajv. 

^ i.e. the mind {to ■qyefiovi.Kov)^ symbolized by Abraham. 
404- 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

sing « of God, and this is good counsel,* while the mortal 
and material ones are human. And these it was proper 
for those to hear who receive bodily and external things. 
For there are two forms '' : one is he who is said to be 
wholly worthy of God "^ ; and the other is those hearers 
who are not yet purified. (God) distributed and gave to 
each his own good, at the same time teaching (us) which 
of them should precede the other. But as for the allegorical 
meaning,* to whomever God graciously gives ^ good 
counsel and prudence," to these He (also) gives authority 
and rule of power ^ over the senses and all the irrational 
parts * and whatever things are blindly invented in accor- 
dance with vain opinions by one who is involved ^ in a blind 
way of life. Wherefore he adds, " exceedingly " and " was 
exalted," for the good counsel was not superficial * nor 
yet of little worth. ^ And those who are strong in prudence 
easily prevail "* and exalt themselves over secondary and 
tertiary benefits. But all those who receive mighty power " 
through wisdom and prudence are elevated to heavenly 
greatness and height. Wherefore they rule in truth over 
earthly and subterranean things (as if) seizing (their own) 
possessions. 



122. (Gen. xxiv. 36) Why does he say, " Sarah, the wife 

" cuAoyia. * ev^ovXia (or €V(j>poavvrji). " eih-q. 

'^ Construction and meaning uncertain, but apparently 
reflecting o? iXeyero elvat oiKodev rod Kvpiov d^tos. Aucher 
renders, " quod dicebatur a domo domini subject© condigno." 
Two Arm. mss. lack i tane = olkoOcv : one lacks tearn=Tov 
KvpLov. * TO 8' €v dXXrjyopia. 

^ Xapi^crai. " (f>p6vrfaiv. 

^ Variant " rule of providing " {-npovoias). 

* Tcov alaOrjaeoiv koX vavTcvv rcbv dXoycov fxepcov. 

' Lit. " mixed." *= eViTroAaio?. 

' iVTcXrjs vel sim. : Aucher " huniile." 

'" Construction not clear. Aucher, construing difi^erently, 
renders, " ita ut facile exaltari queat per prudentiam." 

" SuvajLiiv laxvpdv vel sim. : Aucher " virtutem fortis- 
simam." 

405 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

of my lord, bore a son * to my lord after (his) becoming 
old * " but not, " Abraham begot " ? 

The literal meaning <= is that the father had another son 
before the legitimate one, (namely) the illegitimate one 
from his concubine. But this wife was the mother of his 
beloved and only son, and afterwards she was called " the 
ruler." ** But as for the deeper meaning,* (she is) the virtue 
which is perfected through teaching,^ and was therefore 
afterwards called " the ruler," which the Hebrews call 
" Sarah." " She gives birth to the model of character,'* 
who is by nature self-taught.* For the end and beginning 
and genesis of teaching is sometimes what is heard from 
another ^ and is sometimes he who becomes wise by nature.* 
And he is born to no one but to his lord, that is, to him 
who has in his mind ^ a firm grasp of all those things which 
pertain to us, and also knows them at the same time. And 
(Scripture) confirms "• the perfection in all things of him 
who is bom by saying, not that he was born in the old age, 
but after the old age, of his father ; that is, not in length 
of time but as if to say that nothing in mortal life is un- 
temporal " but only that which comes after mortality and 
is not corruptible. For it belongs peculiarly to the in- 
corruptible soul ° which has been removed from its corporeal 
nature and has been fitted to the incorporeal ruler (and) 

" Most Lxx Mss. have vlov eva. 

* LXX jLterd to yqpdaai avTov (v.l. avr-qv) : Heb. " after her 
old age." " TO prjTov. 

<* rj dpxovaa, see above, QG iii. 53. 

* TO vpos Sidvoiav. 

^ 17 e/f StSaCTKaAi'as TeAeioyjuen; dperv. 

" Arm. Sarra = lxx Hdppa (Heb. Sarah). 

'^ rvTTOv rjdcbv vel sim. 

* auToSiSa/cTov, i.e. Isaac ; cf. De Somniis ii. \0 et al. 

' Variants " by oneself from another " and " by oneself " 
(omitting " from another "). Aucher renders, " per se ab 
alio.'' , , , 

* o e/c <j)va€Ois yevopuevos cro(f>6s. ' eV to) Xoyujpiw. 
"* Lit. " seals " or " stamps." 

*» dxpovov. Cf. De Fuga 169. 
" Ihiov iart, Trj d(f)ddpTa) iffv^'^. 

406 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

sovereign of joys to sow gladness," for the race without 
sorrow * approaches and is near to God. 



123. (Gen. xxiv. 36) Why does he say, " And he gave 
him whatever was his " ? 

Most excellently does the literal meaning " contain a 
symbol ^ for hearers. For it would be fitting for those 
who receive external material things * to hear that the 
youth receives from his father whatever was his. But the 
self-taught ^ has a symbol of the things indicated. '^ For 
whatever over a long period of time teaching '' enables one 
to acquire, this does nature ' grant as a prepared gift. 
Now the prophet ^ does something similar to this in respect 
of the patriarchs,*^ for when he prays for the first (tribe) 
he says, " May Reuben live and not die, and may he be 
great in number," and immediately thereafter he mentions '■ 
the fourth (tribe), passing over the second and third,"* and 
speaks as follows, " And this (is the blessing) of Judah." " 
What is here said as a blessing of Reuben stands first, and 
(then) that of Judah. But it is for him alone, while the 
other is as a part, for he is placed above with the sole and 

** On Isaac as a symbol of joy and laughter see above, 
QG iii. 53. 

* TO dXvTTOv yevos. 

" TO pTjTOV. ^ avfjL^oXov. 

" Tas €kt6s uAas, cf. De Poster. Caini 116. 

^ o auToStSaxTToj, i.e. Isaac, see above, QG iv. 122. 

" The Arm. text seems corrupt. Possibly the original 
read " Symbolically this statement refers to the self-taught" 
or the like. 

'^ Tj biBaoKaXia. * rj <f>vaiS' 

^ i.e. Moses. 

*= Or " tribe-leaders," i.e. the sons of Jacob, in Deut. 
xxxiii. 6-7. 

^ Lit. " he responds " or " requites " : Aucher " inducit." 

"* Fhilo here, as in De Mut. Norn. 200, refers to Simeon and 
Levi. 

" Aucher seems to have taken this sentence as a comment 
of Fhilo instead of a quotation from Scripture. 

407 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

elder." But what the principle of these things is will be 
explained when we inquire into the blessings.'' 



124. (Gen. xxiv. 16, 18, 20, 28, 46) Why does Rebekah 
hasten in everything, for (Scripture) says, " And hastening 
to the spring, she drew water," and " hastening, she 
lowered the water-jar upon her arm," and " running, she 
announced " " ? 

Excellent and good people perform their good works 
without delay! Such too was the whole household together 
of the all-wise Abraham.'* For when he became the host 
of the divine natures * and was about to entertain them 
with f food of gladness, and in turn on the reverse was to 
receive the same from them, he did not delay at all, but 
himself hastened and ordered his wife to make ash-cakes " 
in haste, and his wife also hastened. The servant too 
resorted to running in carrying out the service that was 
proper to him. Whereas frivolous people are in doubt 
about those things which it is proper to delay,'' those who 
know how to do things accurately and clearly, when an 
opportunity is found, do not take a long time.* Excel- 

" This obscure statement may refer to Judah's being 
associated with Reuben, or to Judah's " entering into his 
people " (Deut. xxxiii. 7) or to Simeon's being included with 
Levi (Deut. xxxiii, 8). 

^ These Pentateuchal passages, Gen. ch. xlix and Deut. ch. 
xxxiii, are not discussed in the extant text of the Quaestiones. 

" Philo here includes five different verses, on some of 
which he has commented above, in QG iv. 100, 104, 107, 1 16. 

•* Tov 7rava6<f)ov 'A/Spact/Liou. The same adjective is applied 
to Abraham in De Migratione 45, and to Isaac, Jacob and 
Moses elsewhere. 

* Tcov deioiv (f)va€OiVf i.e. the three angels, see above, QG iv. 
Iff. ^ Lit. " to receive them into." 

» See above, QG iv. 8. 

" Aucher renders, " quoniam sicut histriones haesitant, 
ubi par erit, cunctari." 

* Aucher renders, more freely, " e contra qui conscius est 
constanter agendorum, hoc dato, non terit tempus." 

408 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

lently, however, has (Scripture) said this too, and is to 
speak in future of a double inactivity." 

125. (Gen. xxiv. 48) What is " the way of truth," for he 
says, " in the way of truth " * ? 

(This means) that truth is a wonderful and divine virtue " 
and a force '^ destructive of falsehood, which ^ is (so) called 
in reprobation,^ while truth (is so called) because of unfor- 
getfulness,^ since virtue is worthy of remembrance. Now 
the way which leads to it, so far as it rests with us, is know- 
ledge and wisdom,'' for through these is it found. But by 
an involuntary principle ' (it is found) through prophecy.^ 
And since that which is proportioned and equal ^ is a safe 
road,^ it leads to truth more evenly, briefly and smoothly 
than "* the former." 

* Possibly Philo refers to such passages as those commented 
on below, QG iv. 131. 

^ So the Lxx (agreeing with Heb.), according to which 
Abraham's servant blesses God, os evoBwaev /aoi eV o8a» dXr]- 
dclas. 

" Qavyiaaia kox deia apex?;. 

'* Swa/xis'. 

« i.e. falsehood. 

f Philo evidently plays on the similarity between ipcvbos 
and ipoyos, not, as Aucher suggests in his footnote, on a 
double meaning of TrapaKpovais. 

" As if dA^^eta were derived from d- and Xridt}. 

^ €TnaTTqixrj kol oo(f)ia. 

* The Arm. lit. —Kar aKovaiov Xoyov. 

^ 8td TTpo^'r]T€Las. On Philo's theory of divinely vouch- 
safed prophecy as opposed to human knowledge see H. A. 
Wolfson, Philo, ii. 22-^2. 

^ Arm. hamemat = avdXoyos and taos. The second adjec- 
tive khr also = taos. 

' Aucher, construing differently, renders, " porro haec 
proportionata aequaque via secura est." 

"* Aucher's " quae " is apparently a misprint for " quam " 
(comparative particle). 

" Philo evidently means that the way of prophecy leads 
to truth more directly than does the way of knowledge. 

409 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

126. (Gen. xxiv. 49) What is the meaning of the words, 
" If you act with mercy and justice toward my lord, tell 
me ; but if not, indicate (this), that 1 may turn to the right 
or to the left " « ? 

The literal meaning ^ is clear. But as for the deeper 
meaning," it seems to indicate that the right side (consists 
of) worthy and completed deeds, while the left side (con- 
sists of) things outside worthiness and of errors of trans- 
gression. 



127. (Gen. xxiv. 50) Why did Rebekah's brothers <* say 
to the servant, " From the Lord has this command come.* 
We shall not be able to speak against (it) good for evil " ^ ? 

Imagining (this) in their minds," and with obedience 
without any hindrance,'^ they knew that the command of 
God was true, infallible * and unimpeded ' in undertaking 
benefactions.*^ And there is a complete harmony between 
constancy * and the self-taught wise man."* 

** Lxx €1 ovv TTOieiTe vfiels eXcos kol SiKaLoavvrjv irpos tov 
Kvpiov fjLov, aTTayyeiXari fioi. et 8e fj-rj, aTjayyeiXaTe fxoi iva em- 
arpeipco ds Se^ictv ^ els dpioTepdv. The Arm. renders the two 
occurrences of dvayyeLXare by different words. 

^ TO prjTOV. " TO TTpOS SlttVOlttV. 

^ Scripture mentions by name Laban and Bethuel 
(Rebekah's father, as Philo notes in De Fuga 48). 

" LXX c^ijXOcv TO TTpoarayixa (v.l. Trpdyfia) tovto : Heb. 
" has this word (or " thing ") come forth." 

^ LXX ov Bvvrjao^eOa ovv aoi dvrenreiv KaKov KaXa> (v.l. KaKov 
ri KaXov) : Heb. " we shall not be able to speak to thee evil 
or good." 

" Aucher renders more freely, " revolventes in mente." 

* Construction uncertain. Aucher renders, " idque rite, 
sine ullo obstaculo," and in a footnote adds, " Vel ita : et 
videntes nullum esse obstaculi locum." 

* dSiaTTTtoTov vel sim. : Aucher " illaesus." 

' Lit. " not stumbling." * euepyeaioiv. 

^ vTTOfiovrjs, symbolized by Rebekah, see above, QO iv. 97. 
'" Trpos TOV avToSiSaKTov ao<f}6vf symbolized by Isaac, see 
above, QQ iv. 122. 

410 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

128. (Gen. xxiv. 50) What is the meaning of the words, 
which they say, " Against (it) we shall not be able to 
speak " ? 

Since whatever we may say against good proposals will 
be found evil," it is seemly and fine, as I have already said,* 
that he who has become virtuous without teaching " 
should be the consort of constancy ''and perseverance,* 
for the opposite, the divorce of knowledge ^ from them, is 
evil. 



129. (Gen. xxiv. 51) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Behold, Rebekah is before thee ^ ; take her and go. And 
she shall be a wife to the son of thy master, as the Lord 
promised " '^ ? 

What is expressly said ' is clear. The deeper meaning ^ 
is to be given as follows. Behold, it says, the eye of thy 
sou] * has been instructed ^ (and) sees the form of persever- 
ance *" face to face " without shamelessness." For, behold, 
it is before thee. Thou seest and understandest. Take 
it and receive it in thy soul, and having taken it hence with 

" This rendering follows Aucher's in transposing the 
words " good proposals," which stand after " evil " in the 
Arm. ^ In the preceding section. 

* aveu StSaa/foAtas. This refers to Isaac, " the self- 
taught." 

^ vTTOfiovrjSi see above, QG iv. 97 notes. 

^ Prob. h(,afjLOvrjs. f €Tnarriii'qs. 

" Lxx ivcvTTLOv aov. ^ i.xx iXdXTjoev : Heb. " spoke." 

' TO €lpr]fj,€vov. ' Tj Bidvoia. 

'^ 6 TTJs fpvxfjs aov o^^aA/Lid?, cf. De Confus. Ling. 93 et al. 

^ TreTT-aiSeuToi, cf. De Mvt. Nom. 203 (to iftvxfis o/x/xa) ^lovov 
Tov deov opdv TTCTTaiSemai. 

"' TO rrjs 8iaixovrjs ctSoj, symbolized by Rebekah, see above, 
QOiv. 117, 128. 

" evJiiTLov or Kara vpoacoTTov vel sim. : Aucher " intuitive." 

" Arm. lprSoutHun=dvaLaxvvTia. Aucher curiously 
renders, " sine lippitudine," possibly because he fancies that 
there is an etymological connexion between the Arm. and 
Latin words. 

411 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

an unimpaired and uncorrupted character, pass and go, 
lest perhaps thou mayest again be seized by the lures of 
the locality and the body." But while thine impulses " 
are moved as if starting a race,*' go quickly on a straight 
course.' And be a surety "^ of perseverance (and) endurance 
to the self-taught man,* of whom it is said in Proverbs/ 
" From God is woman suited to man " »— not to man so 
much as is virtue to reason.'^ 



*130. (Gen. xxiv. 52-58) Why does the servant, after 
prostrating himself before the Lord, give vessels of silver 
and gold, and garments to Rebekah and her mother ? ' 

This is praise for the house of the virtuous man who is 
taught,^ for it is proper to make thanksgiving and honour 
to God the beginning of every pure deed.* For this reason 
the servant first prostrates himself before the Lord, and 
then offers the gifts. But prostration ' is nothing else than 
a sign of genuine admiration and true love,"* which those 

" Tots iyxoipio.f'S (or TraTplais) koI acofxariKals dirdTais. 

* opfiaL 

" d)s iv d(f>€Tr]pLa) : Aucher " velut in linea hippodromi." 
'' eyyvos : Aucher " vadimonio." 

* TO) auToSiSaKTO), symbolized by Isaac, see above, QG iv. 
122. ^ Prov. xix. 14. 

' LXX napd Se deov dp/io^crat y^vrj dvhpl : Heb. " from the 
Lord (comes) an understanding woman." The Arrn. variant, 
rendered by Aucher, " mulier optima a Deo coaptatur " is 
clearly an error. 

^ dpeTTj Xoyiafxa). 

* Scripture says that he gave the vessels and garments to 
Rebekah, and gifts to her brother and mother. 

^ Tov oTTovhaLov Tov 8t8aaKOfi4vov, i.e. Abraham. Aucher 
renders, " domui sapientis doctae." 

* -nda-qs npa^ecos Kadapds, as in the Greek frag, (which 
ends with this sentence). Aucher renders, less literally, 
" omnis operae praeclarae." 

^ TTpooKvvqais. 

'" Aucher renders, more freely, " demonstratio admirationis 
{sive, venerationis) verae, amorisque puri." 

412 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

men know who sip from that source "■ which cannot be 
approached or touched '' but is incorporeal. For being 
given wings and out of heavenly desire being borne aloft, 
they move in flight about the Father and Creator of all 
things, and Him, who truly with His being " fills all things 
with His powers '^ for the salvation of all,* they call " holy, 
blessed Creator,^ all-mighty," God of truth." 



*131. (Gen. xxiv. 55-56) Why did they say, " Let the 
virgin '' remain with us (some) days," * and why does he 
press on, saying, " Do not slow me up,^ and the Lord has 
prospered '' my way " ? 

These men felt regret, who had said a little before,* 
" Behold, Rebekah is before thee ; take her and go." And 
this is said in reproof"* of those who are slippery, and 
against the ways of unstable " men, who imagine things 
now in one way, now in another, as well as many contra- 
dictory and conflicting things. But he who shows zeal 
with constancy and vigour cries out," " Do not hold me 
back, for God the saviour ^ has sent (me) on the broad « 
way of virtue,'" on which I came hither and will go hence." 

« Lit. " taste." 

^ Lit. " has no approach or touch." 

" ovTios TTJ ovala. ^ ras BwajxciS' 

^' eis aioTTipLav TrdvroiV. ^ Kriary\v. 

" navTOKpaTopa. 

'' So the Lxx, ij TTapdivos : Heb. " the young woman." 

' LXX and Heb. " some ten days." Both texts add " and 
afterwards she shall go." 

' So Heb. : LXX ^i) KordxeTe fie. 

* Both LXX and Heb. use the past tense here, though we 
expect a future. 

' In Gen. xxiv. 51, see above, QG iv. 129. 
*" els eXeyxos. 

" Variant " unfaithful." 

" The Arm. has the participle though the pres. indicative 
is needed. ^ deov tov ooirijpos. 

« Aucher omits this word in his rendering. 

*■ dpeTTJs. 

413 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

132. (Gen. xxiv. 57) Why does (Scripture) say, " Let us 
call the maid and question her mouth " " ? 

In the first place, it is to be said that this law is written 
by the holy father " concerning a virgin who is to be be- 
trothed «' when she has no guardian,** that they * may not 
be led by force like maid-servants or captives but may go 
willingly and accept marriage of their own accord and enter 
into an harmonious union. In the second place, since the 
mind ^ is always variable and subject to all kinds of change 
because of the thoughts " which frequently and continu- 
ously come at it from without and come into it like a 
torrent with ceaseless blows, they said deliberately, " Let 
us question " — not " her " but — " her mouth," saying 
this for the reason that they were voluntarily suffering '' 
the changes that come like a flood from those things that 
supervene from without, and they bring speech * into 
account.^ Wherefore in another passage of the legisla- 
tion * (Moses) says, " And whatsoever comes forth from 
thy lips thou shalt do," but does not (say), " Whatsoever 
thou takest into thy mind," for men hear the voice, while 
God (hears) thoughts. And so, it is fitting that they do 
not question the thoughts themselves but their servant, 
(namely) the speech that is uttered. 

" So the Lxx (retaining the Heb. idiom, which A.V. 
renders, " inquire at her mouth "), KaXeacofiev ttjv iralBa /cat 
eTrepoiTT^CTOj/xev ro aroixa avTTJs. 

* Apparently Moses is meant, or possibly God as the 
author of Scripture. 

" See above, QO iv. 91 on Gen. xxiv. 8. See also De Spec. 
]^e(f. iii. 71. 

** Prob. eVi/neAT^T^v, as in De Spec. Leg. iii. 81. 

« i.e. betrothed women. 

/ o vovs. 

^ Tovs XoyiafMOvs. 

'' Lit. " receiving." 

* Tov Adyor. 

^ Aucher renders a little more freely, " et verbum pro 
ratione in medium duci voluerunt." 

*^ vofjLodcTcbv. See Num. xxx. 2, where lxx reads Travra 
Off a edv e^eXdrj ck tov arofjiaTos avrov, Troi-jjaei. 
414 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

133. (Gen. xxiv. 58) Why, when they ask her, " Wilt 
thou go with this man ? ", does she at once make reply, 
saying, " I will go " ? 

It is indeed proper to praise her interrogators for esteem- 
ing and honouring the voluntary more than the necessary." 
For violence is the cause of immediately confessing one's 
reasons. ** And the soul that is a lover of good " avoids 
arrogance and impiety, and considers of no worth the 
intentions of the men of the crowd and of those who stick 
together,** since some of them are in no way distinguishable 
from beasts in human form.* And he who a little while 
before had been a boy is now a man,^ no longer in natural 
power " but in perfection,'' having given many proofs of 
wisdom and pnidence and a disposition worthy of regard 
and master-loving and, what is much more, virtue-loving and 
God-loving.* And knowing this. Constancy ' consents 
and says, " I will go with him," in order that she may re- 
main the more firm. For it does not profit one's thinking *^ 
at all to receive virtue if it is subsequently to flow away 
and dissolve instead of being strengthened more firmly and 
powerfully by a lasting bond. 

134. (Gen. xxiv. 59) What is the meaning of the words, 
" They sent Rebekah and whatever belonged to her " ^ ? 

** TO iKovaiov fidXXov -q to dvay/catov. 

* The somewhat obscure Arm. sentence is rendered more 
freely by Aucher, " nam violentia in causis est incunctanter 
fatendi aliquid per praetextum." 

" Aucher renders, " laude digna." 
^ The Arm. lit. —ttjs avin^vtas. 

* Ttuv dvdpcoTTOfi6p(f)a)v Orjpicov, cf. De AhTahamo 33. 
^ See above, QO iv. 108 on Gen. xxiv. 21. 

" 8yva/Li€i <f)vaiK'^. '^ rcAetOTT^Ti. 

* aotjyias kol ^pov-qaews koX yvcofirjs d^Lodedrov re kol <f)iXo- 
BeoTTOTOV /cat ttoXv fxdXXov ^lAapcroy re Kol ^iXodiov. 

^ vTTop,ovri or 8ia/ioiT7, Symbolized by Rebekah, see above, 
QG iv. 97, 128. ^ Lit. " thoughts " — \oyiap,ovs. 

' Philo abbreviates Scripture, lxx reads koX evXoyrjaav 
'Pe^iKKav T-qv d8€X<f)r)v avrojv kol to, VTrdpxovra avrijs koI tov 
iralBa tov 'Aj3paa/x koi tovs /li6t* avTov. Heb. reads similarly. 

415 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

The literal meaning " is clearly exj)ressed,'' but the 
symbol indicates that the substance of the virtuous soul " 
is the firm grasp of the good in accordance with the con- 
templation of virtue and wisdom,"* which are the only sub- 
stances in truth. For this reason those things which are 
bodily and external are ephemeral and transitory and un- 
certain possessions. Happy are they, therefore, to whom 
the constant family * passes over, while those whom it 
begins to leave are unhappy. 

135. (Gen. xxiv. 60) Why do they bless her in this way : 
' ' Our sister, mayest thou become ^ thousands of myriads, 
and may thy seed inherit the cities " of their enemies " ? 

While Constancy '' is still near the soul, it is its brother,* 
but so soon as it meditates separation and dissociation, 
it removes itself and diminishes the blessing, saying, 
"Become myriads." But what possessed^ those who 
prayed that they directed their prayers to those not yet 
born rather than to her } It was because enemy cities are 
symbolically the evils in us and various invading passions 
which have lawlessness as their law, and a harmful form of 
government.*^ 

** TO p-qTOV. 

^ The Arm. adj. ym/tanSan lit. =" clear as to sign " (or 
" symbol "). Aucher renders, " evidentis symboli est," and, 
in a footnote, " vel, evidens est valde." 

'^ Ttt virdpxovra (as in lxx, see p. 415, note /) tt)? airovhaias 

^ Tj jSejSai'a KaTaX-rjipis tov dyadov Kara, rd rrjs dpeTrjs t€ /cat 
ao(f>Las decop-qfiaTa. 

^ ydvoSi i.e. llebekah and her train, symbolizing constancy, 
vTTOfxovri or Sia^ovij, on which see above, QG iv. 97, 128, 133. 

^ LXX and Heb. " (^ur sister art thou ; mayest thou be- 
come." " So LXX, Tas TToXeis : Heb. " the gate." 

^ Sia/iov^, symbolized by Rebekah, see above, QG iv. 97, 
128, 133. 

* Which is the brother and which the sister is not clear ; 
apparently the fern, noun i/rux'^ ^^ here treated symbolically 
as masc. ^ Aucher " impedivit." 

* ^XdiTTOVcrav (or CTn^ovXevovaav) TToXiTCiav. 

416 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

136. (Gen. xxiv. 61) What is the meaning of " mounting 
the camels " " ? Who are the maids * with whom 
Rebekah " rose and mounted the camels " ? 

The mounting of the camels shows that character and 
religion " are sui)erior to the mnemonic form,"^ for Con- 
stancy * is related to memory, and the camel, as has been 
said many times,^ is a symbol of memory. But " to mount " 
is nothing else than to stand upon memory and not to 
imagine the sleep of forgetfulness." But the maids are 
the servants of Constancy, being tender and delicate and 
docile '' natures, prepared and adorned to serve their 
mistress. And the names of the servants of Constancy are 
Inflexible, Unbending, Un vacillating, Unrepentant, Un- 
changing, Indifferent, Firm, Stable, Unconquerable and 
Upright,*' and all their brothers who desire lasting perse- 
verance. 



137. (Gen. xxiv. 61) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Taking Rebekah, the boy ^ departed " ? 

Just as we say that disciples * and pupils receive from 
their instructors theories of knowledge ^ which are genuine, 

" Lxx iTT€^7)aav im tols Kafjii^Xovs. Aucher notes that this 
first question, missing in Cod. A of the Arm. text, is found in 
Codd. C and D at the beginning of the Answer, though it 
seems to belong at the beginning of the Question. 

^ LXX at a/3pai. 

'^ ■^dos Kal OprjOKeia (or " continence "— eycpareta). 

^ Tov fivrjixovLKov etbovs. 

' Or " perseverance " — Sia/xov^, symbolized by Rebekah, 
see the preceding sections. ^ e.g. in QG iv. 92, 106. 

" The Arm. lit. =u7rvov Xijd-qs ^avTaieadai, perhaps "to 
dream the sleep of forgetfulness." 

'' Here Philo plays on lxx a^pai " maids " and dj8pd? 
" delicate." 

* appeTTrjS k. aKXivris k. — (?) k. dfxeTavorjTOS k. drpeTTTOS k. 
dSia^opos' (?) K. /Se'jSatos k. ISpvixevos k. driTTrjTos k. opdos. 

^ LXX d TTois : Heb. " the servant." 

^ yvcopifiovs. Aucher less accurately renders, " proximos." 

' €TTLarrjiir)S deioprniara. 

suppL. I p 417 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

excellent, well chosen and refined by wise men, so also 
must it be supposed that the progressive mind " takes 
Constancy ^ as (an object of) contemplation." For the 
inquiry of the theologian '^ is about characters and types 
and virtues," and not about persons who were created and 
born/ 



138. (Gen. xxiv. 62) Why does (Scripture) say, " Isaac 
went through the wilderness by the well of Seeing " » ? 

Oh contemplation '' fitting to God and worthy intellec- 
tion * and vision,^ which was deserving of being com- 
memorated in song, and most excellent (vision), which the 
eyes of the body cannot see ! Therefore, O mind,*^ with 
thy psychic eyes ^ opened behold him who is within thee 
(as) an example"* (of) unsorrowing laughter," Isaac, who 
without interruption ^ rejoices continually over all those 

" O TTpOKOTTTOiV VOVS. 

^ Or " perseverance " — 8ta/Aov^, symbolized by Rebekab, 
see the preceding sections. 

" CO? de(i)pT]jxa. 

'^ rj rov deoXoyov (Moses) ^rirTqats. 

" 7T€pl rjdcov Koi rpoTTCov (vel sim.) Kol aperwv. 

^ In general Philo attributes both allegorical (usu. ethical 
or psychological) and historical meaning to the narratives 
of Scripture, see H. A. Wolfson, Philo, i. 125-127. In a 
private communication Professor Wolfson suggests that 
Philo's expression " the inquiry of the theologian " corre- 
sponds to the rabbinic expression, " the verse comes to teach 
you," 6a' hak-kdtub l^lammedkd. 

" So the LXX, 'IffaaK Se iTropevero 8ia ttjs ip-qixov Kara to 
(f)p€ap TTJs opaaeois. Heb. reads " And Isaac came from the 
direction (lit. " coming ") of the well Lahai Roi." This 
proper name was anciently explained as meaning " Verily, 
my seer lives." * deav or decoprjfia. 

' Arm. iniacowac =hoth vorjpLa (or evvoia) and vovs, prob. 
the former here. ^ opamv or deoipLav. * <L vov. 

^ TOiV t/jVXI'KOJV O^^oA/iCOV. "* TpOTTOV OX TVTTOV. 

" dXvTTov yeXcora. For other references to Isaac as a symbol 
of joy or laughter see Leisegang s.v. *Iaaa/c. 
" aSiaCTTaTco?. 

418 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

things which have been created by God. For thou wilt 
see him not guarded by confused and precipitate " beliefs 
of thought * but with firm .steps and with feet making use 
of wisdom/ which is devoid "* of great evils, of ignorance 
and lack of discipline.* And see him spending his time ^ 
in the genuine and most proper part of wisdom, at the well, 
(by which) I understand the wonderful and divine source, 
which (Scripture) calls " Seeing," giving an a])propriate 
and natural name to the contemplative life " in reference 
to Him Who exists * and to the incorporeal ideas * in Him, 
which were made as measures of all things of both worlds.^ 
For this * is the model and archetype ' of the intelligible 
and of the sense-perceptible (world) "* in which we are 
mixed with the incorporeal," since our better part soars " 
upward to that (region) which is beyond the ether ^ and 
above the heaven and above all sense-perceptible things. 
Similarly every true prophet « was called " seer " or " be- 
holder," *■ the name being given in reference to the eye of 
the soul. 

" Or " stormy " or " vague " : Aucher " procellosis." 

* So the Arm. lit. Aucher simplifies to " cogitationibus." 
" <jo(f>La. 

^ Philo plays on the double meaning of ep-qfios, " wilder- 
ness " and " devoid." 

* OLTTaihevaLas. ^ rroLovfjievov Siarpi^ds. 

" TO) deOjprjTLKU) jStOJ. ^ TOV "OvTOS. 

* rats aaoniaTOLS I8eais or rols . . . etSeat. 

^ i.e. the intelligible and the sense-perceptible world, as 
explained in what follows. 

* The demonstrative pron. seems to refer to the word 
" source," symbolizing the cosmic Logos. 

' TrapaSeiyjua *cai apx^rvrros. 

"• TOV voTjTov Koi TOV aladr]Tov (koct^ou). 

** Lit. " are by an incorporeal mixture." 

" Lit. " leaps," c/. D^ ;S;9^c. 7v^^. iv. 115 dvco TrqSdv . . . els 
aide pa. ^ ivcKetva tov aWdpos. 

" Aucher renders more freely, " omnis propheta mendacii 
nesciens." 

*■ opcov ^ jSAeVcov, cf. Quod Deus Immut. Sit 139 and De 
Migratione 38, both based on the lxx of 1 Sam. ix. 9. 

419 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

139. (Gen. xxiv. 62) Why is he said to dwell in the 
south .^ " 

This too is in harmony with the preceding.' For every 
one who is desirous of wisdom * and is really a lover of God " 
avoids what is visible/ (that is) vain opinions, and accounts 
separation and deficiency " as good things.^ 



140. (Gen. xxiv. 63) » What is the " meditation " '^ of 
Isaac, and why did he go out " to meditate in the field 
toward the turn of day," * and why is the one with whom 
(he conversed) not revealed ? 

(This statement) has a connexion and order in harmony ^ 
with the preceding. For he to whom separation from, and 
deficiency ^ of, opinions of visible things are precious, be- 
gins to seclude himself alone with only the invisible God.' 
Moreover, we are accustomed to call long speeches and 
conversations " meditations." But (Scripture) shows that 

" Lxx eV rfj yfj irpos Aij8a : Heb. " in the land of the Negeb" 
(the dry region south of Judaea). 

* ao^ias. " <f)LX69eos. 

^ Reading yerewelic for yarewelic " the east," because of 
the context. 

* hiaaTrjixa {vel sim.) koL eKXeufjiv. The latter noun seems 
to have been suggested to Philo by lxx rrpos Xi^a, as though 
At/3a were cognate with AeiVeiv and eKrAen/nv. Note, moreover, 
that in Quod Deterius 26-29, where Philo allegorizes the 
following verse. Gen. xxiv. 63, he explains the place name 
Acodaelfi as meaning e/cAeu/rt? i/cavry (so also in De Fuga 128). 

f Lit. " places separation and deficiency in a good part " ; 
Aucher renders, " in melioris partis ratione collocans." 

" This verse is briefly treated in Leg. All. iii. 43 and Quod 
Deterius 29. ^ dBoXeaxia. 

* LXX Kai i^rjXdev 'laaa/c dSoX€ax''](^CLi- €ts to TreSiov to irpos 
betXtjs. Here dSoXeaxfjaai renders Heb. su'^h "to converse " 
(A.V. " to meditate "). ^ elpfxov koI rd^iv evapfioviov. 

*= See notes to preceding section. 

' Cf. Leg. All. iii. 43 orav dboXeaxfj koI I8t.d^r) Qew^ Quod 
Deterius 29 novov Be IBidaai ^ovXojxevos koI IhioXoyqaaadaL rd 
. . . deat. 
420 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

the character of the wise man " is not quickly satisfied but 
is constant and hard to efface and hard to remove from the 
idea '' of that which is above the good and above the wise 
man and above the very best." And various conversations 
come together, one after the other, so that he never departs 
from the conversation of speech "^ because of his insatiable 
and incessant desire and longing, by which « the sovereign 
(mind) ^ is drawn and seized ; and it is led by the attractive 
force of sovereign existences.'' Hence they come forth, 
in word, from the city or the home, but in fact ^ particularly 
when the mind * begins to be filled with God and divinely 
inspired and possessed by God.^ And the going out on 
the way takes place in the field in order that it may 
exercise and enter contests ^ and practise the divine law 
for the fitting and proper production of sound fruits, which 
are the immortal foods of the soul.' And the time was the 
turn of day, when the natural force and strength "• of the 
sun's rays, by which I understand visible opinions, are 
lessened and have their many flames extinguished. And 
meditation takes place when there is no man present ^ but 
(one is) in undisturbed peacefulness. What does (Scripture) 
say ? That you should know that the sacred scriptures 
are not monuments of knowledge and vision " but are the 

" Tov ao<f)ov. 

^ Variant " contemplation." 

* avro TO apioTov vel sim. 

'' diTO TTJs djLtiAias' Tcov Adycov vel sim. 

* Text slightly uncertain. 

^ TO Tjye^OVLKOV. 

^ Construction and meaning not clear. Aucher renders, 
" quod intense tractum captumque est principali duce (mente) 
per trahentem vim entium principalium." 

^ Xoyw /xev . . . €pya> 8e. * d vovs- 

^ d€O(f>op€la0ai Kal ^eia^eiv (or evdovaid^eiv) koL deoXTjTTreladai. 

^ yvfivdtieadai Kal dycovi^eaOaL. 

' al dddvaroi tcSv iftvx(Jov Tpo^ai, cf. Leg. All. iii. 162 ovpdvioi 
at ipvxTJs rpo(f>aL. 

'» Lit. " force of strength." 

" I^it. " is in the midst." 

" /xvT;/xeta eTTicmjfirjs Kal detopias. 

421 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

divine commands and the divine words," which make 
known Him who is quiet, who is near as not there.* And 
He speaks without uttering words " and talks with some- 
one without audible voice, and He does not turn away from 
(other) speakers or from His disciples or pupils,** but gives 
them freedom of speech * in incorporeal matters and in 
conversation of speech about the intelligible things which 
are with Him, in order that by questioning they may 
understand what they do not (already) know, and may 
comprehend what they think they surely know. At the 
same time testimony is given by the Father of wisdom 
himself. " See, then, and judge for yourselves this spiritual 
conversation ^ and (also) those friendships with kings and 
potentates which are fought over," and their outcome, 
together with the uprightness of those who achieve them.'' 
For many (of the latter kind) fail and meet difficulties, 
while the other (kind) * provides joyous well-being and 
eternal happiness." 



141. (Gen. xxiv. 63) Why does (Scripture) say, " Looking 
up with his eyes, he saw the camels that were coming " ■' ? 

" This important statement is mistranslated by E. R. 
Goodenough in his By Light, Light, p. 160 (see my review in 
American Journal of Philology, vol. 57 [1986], 203-i205), but 
is correctly translated by H. A. Wolfson, Philo, ii. 10, 189, 
who remarks, " By ' knowledge and vision ' Philo means 
rational knowledge which ultimately rests upon sensation." 

^ i.e. " although not there." The Arm. glossator explains, 
" God is near to one who prays, and is quiet (or " ceases ") 
even though He is not seen." The Arm. verb rendered above 
as " is quiet " usu. ^Traveadai or avaTraveadai. 

" yuTjhkv (fydfyyofxevos- ^ fiadrjrcbv /cat yvcopimov. 

* Trapprjaiav. ^ ravTrjv rijv tfivxt-K^v OfxiXiav. 
" Aucher " suspectae dilectiones." 

* Aucher " una cum functorum rectitudine." Appar- 
ently Philo is being ironical. 

* i.e. friendship or converse with God. 

^ So Lxx, Koi ava^Xiiftas rots 6(f)daXfjLots (Heb. " and he 
lifted his eyes ") tSev KafirjXovs ipxofxevas. 
422 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

It is proper to have doubts " (about this statement), for 
with what else do we look at things than our eyes ? Nor 
do we hear with anything else than our ears. But may it 
not be that (Scripture) is not discussing the eyes of the 
body but those of the mind,^ which have been educated 
to look up at higher and ethereal (regions) and others 
above heaven, and at the nature which is outside the 
world ? " Wherefore, from other memories,** he perceives * 
the presence of the woman, whom (the camels) easily bear 
as a burden, (namely) the perseverance of the finest 
virtues,^ and also her maidservants, concerning whom 
I wrote what was fitting a little above.^ 



142. (Gen. xxiv. 64) Why did (Rebekah), when she saw 
Isaac, leap from the camel ? '^ 

In the literal sense,* it was because of modesty and 
veneration.^ But as for the deeper meaning,* it was 
because of the humility and submissiveness and perception 
of virtue ^ (found) in "* a genuine and sincere lover." For 
this " is not easily able to ascend to such a height but must 

** OLTTOpeLV. ^ TOV VOV. 

" rrjv <f)vcrLV ttjv e^oj rod Koafiov, 

^ Symbolized by the camels, see QG iv. 92, 106 et al. 

* (f>avTd^€TaL. 

^ TTjv rwv apLoTcxiv dperiov Siaixovqv. On Rebekah as the 
symbol of Perseverance or Constancy see QG iv. 97, 128 et al. 

» In QG iv. 136. 

^ So Lxx, KaTCTTTJSTjaev oltto rfjs KaixrjXov : Heb. " and she 
fell from the camel." 

* TO p-qrov. ^ Lit. " modesty of veneration." 

* TO rrpos hidvoiav. ' dperijs. 
^ The Arm. prep, ast usu. —Kard. 

" Aucher renders the clause, " propter humiliationem, 
indulgentiam, gustandamque virtutem secundum genuinum 
fidelemque amore captum," and remarks in a footnote, " Vel 
flic: indulgentiam ad sensibilem etiam virtutem. Ambiguitas 
oritur ex variante lectione ew zgaloy [ = gen. case of sub- 
stantival infinitive] aut ew zgalwoy [ = gen. case of adjective]." 

° The demonstr. pron. apparently refers to " virtue." 

423 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

by all means descend to become intimate." For it is 
destined '' to come into participation '^ of converse and 
speech, and to receive '^ profit (from this). But what was 
it not destined to receive,* since it did not keep within itself 
any seed or remnant of jealousy and envy and terrible ^ 
passion ° but had expelled from its borders conniving and 
malicious envy ? 

143. (Gen. xxiv. 65) Why did (Rebekah) take her scarf 
and throw it about her ? 

Not in the same manner as virgins now (are adorned) 
was that wonderful nature and admirable virgin adorned 
and beautified, for she had within herself an ornament * 
most adequate, and she was not in need of anything else 
whatever from outside. And the scarf is a visible symbol 
of clear-shining virtue,^' of which the inner part and that 
which is in its depths and in its inner recesses is uncovered 
and becomes apparent only to the lover of wisdom,*" and 
is clearly seen (by him), but is covered from, and becomes 
invisible to, the uninitiated and unskilled ' and those who 
are not possessed by God.*" 

*144. (Gen. xxiv. 66) Why, when (the servant) had been 
sent on a mission " by one person," did he give a response " 

« 8td TO olKCLovadai, apparently meaning intimacy with 
God. " /ie'AAei. 

" Text slightly emended. 

'^ Text slightly emended. Aucher renders, " utilitatem 
datura." * See preceding note. 

^ Or " bitter." ", Variant " prayer." 

'' Lxx TO OcpLOTpov " a light summer-garment " : Heb. 
sd'?/"veil." * Koafiov. 

^ avix^oXov (f)av€p6v avyoetbeaTOLTTjs {vel sim.) dpcTrjs. 

^ fiovcp to) TTJs ao(f)ias ipaarfj. 

* TOt? dpiv-qroLS Kal rols aTreipoLS. 

"• Aucher " non initiatis." 

»* eVi rrpea^elav, as in the Greek frag, from Procopius. 

° i.e. by Abraham. 

" The Greek frag, has aTroTrpeo-jSeuei. 

424 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

to another, for, says (Scripture), " He related to Isaac all 
the things " which he had done " ^ ? 

One may say that inasmuch as it was on behalf of the 
son that he had been sent on the mission by the father, 
when the mission had been completed, he brought the good 
news " to him on whose behalf he had been sent, especially 
because he met him first on the road, as he was coming. 
It is clear that '^ he afterwards related (these things) also 
to the father, who had sent him, for even though this has 
not been expressly * written, it is to be inferred ^ from the 
text. However, it is proper to speak of this allegorically," 
for when Abraham and Isaac are analysed,'' (they are) one 
and the same thing, that is, (one is a symbol) of taught 
virtue, (the other) of natural (virtue).* For the end of 
teaching is the beginning of nature.^ And so he does 
not relate the events *= of the journey to anyone else sooner 
than to him alone. Consider them, therefore, not as mortal 
men who question each other now,^ but as formless types 
of soul being examined,"* which wisdom " harmonizes and 

" Lit. " words," see the next note. 

'' LXX /cat SiTyyijaaro Travra to. prjuara (Heb. d^bdrim — 
" words " and " things ") a eTToirjaev. 

* euayyeAt^erat, as in the Greek frag. 

^ The Greek frag, has Trdvrojs " certainly." 

* Prob. prjTcbs: Aucher " in historia." The Greek frag., 
which ends here, has merely yiypainai. 

^ Lit. " it is persuaded " or " is plausible." 
" aXXriyopovvra. 

^ Prob, avaXvofxivov. Aucher, who renders, " resoluti," 
notes that the meaning of the verb is not clear. 

* See, e.g.^ De Vita Mosis i. 76 deos 'A^paafi /cat Oeos 'laaaK 
. . . wv o fxkv TTJs BibaKTTJs, 6 be Tijs (f>vaiK'^s • • . ao(j>ias Kavcov 
ioTiv. 

^ TO yap TTJs SiSaa/caAta? tcAo? ap^T^ eari ttjs <f>va€(x)S. 

^ Lit. " deeds." 

^ Aucher, preferring the variant reading in the Arm., 
renders, " non ergo homines putabunt, mortales quasdam 
esse quaestiones." 

"* Meaning not clear. The Arm. lit. = dretSeous rpoTrovs 
^vxf}S ii€ral,ofi€vovs. *• i) ao^La. 

425 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

fits together to bring about partnership <* and unity. For 
many have been likened to ^ one, and different ones to 
unity." 



*145. (Gen. xxiv. 67) Why is Isaac said to have entered 
the house, not of his father but of his mother, for the pur- 
pose of marriage,** and yet these were dwelling in the same 
house ? * 

Because those who wish to know and examine the 
literal meaning ^ will perhaps say that since his father had 
taken to himself many wives, he virtually ^ had many ^ 
houses also. For " house " is a name given not only to * 
a building but also to the gathering of husband, wife and 
children.^ But he * until (her) death remained together 
with the wife (first taken) as a virgin,^ wherefore he seems 
to have had (only) one house."* One does not, does one, 

« KoivcovLav : Aucher " aequalitatem." 

^ Or " imitate," as Aucher renders. 

" Tjj /xomSt vel sim. The meaning of the last sentence is 
not clear to me. 

** LXX €lai]Xdev Se 'laaa/c els rov oIkov ttjs fi'qrpos avrov, koI 
eXa^ev ttjv 'Pe^e/c/cav, koX eyivero avrov yvvrj, koI rjyaTrrjoev avTT]v. 
For a slightly different allegorizing of the verse see De Poster. 
Caini 77-78. 

* The Greek fragments ap, Harris and Wendland do not 
have the last clause. ^ to prjrov. 

" 8i>va/xet, as in the Greek fragments. 

'* One Greek text has nXeicFTovs. 

' Lit. " is said . . . of." 

^ One Greek text has to e| dvSpos Kal ywaiKos kol t€kvwv 
avar-qfia : the other has to ck yafjLiKijs av^vyias Koi tIkviov 
auormta. 

^ The Arm. demonstr. pron. may be either masc. or fern, 
(as Aucher takes it), but the context indicates that the ante- 
cedent is Isaac, not Sarah (or Rebekah or Abraham). One 
Greek text has 6 84, the other rj 8e. 

^ Lit. " with his wife from virginity." The Greek frag- 
ments have Tw KovpiSicp. 

'^ The Greek fragments end here, 

426 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

see (him) separated and betrothed to another." But some- 
one else more naturally ^ giving the sense of the text, 
(might) say, in allegorizing,* that since the mother of the 
self-taught person ^ was motherless wisdom,* whose right 
reason ^ is symbolically " called " house," it was changed 
into a bridal-chamber for him so as to be a unity of be- 
trothal and a partnership of the self-taught kind with ever- 
virginal Constancy," from the love * of whom may it never 
come about that I cease. 



146. (Gen. xxiv. 67) Why, when he had taken a wife and 
loved Rebekah, is (Isaac) said to have been consoled for 
Sarah, his mother .'' ^ 

Rightly and fittingly (is this said), for he did not drive 
out wisdom *= but found (it), not after a time in old age 
but when flourishing in nonage ^ and youth,"* and ever 
blossoming without sense-perceived colour in incor- 
poreal beauty." For consolation " belongs to the con- 
templation-loving soul * in its concern for « the earliest 

" Text slightly uncertain. Aucher renders, " Numquid 
visa est separata, et alium despondens ? " 

^ jivaiKibrepov, probably in the Stoic sense of ' ' symbolically. ' ' 

'^ aXX-qyopayv. 

^ On Isaac as a symbol of the avroSlBaKTos see QG iv. 122. 

* ayL-qroyp ao^La. Sarah appears as a symbol of ap^T-q . . . 
dix-qrwp apxfj in Quis Rer. Div. Heres 62. 

■^ opdos Xoyos- " crvpL^oXiKtbS' 

^ els evoiaiv Koi KOivoiviav tov avToSihaKTOV yevovs ovv rfj 
deLTTapdcvu) Sta/xov?;. On Rebekah as a symbol of constancy 
see QG iv. 128, 129 et at. * IpojToj. 

' LXX . . . KoX eXa^ev rrjv 'PejSe/c/cav Kal eyevero avrov yvvq, 
KoX -qyaTTTjaev avTTjV koX irapeKX-qdrj 'laaax TTCpl (Heb. " after ") 
T'^S p,7]rp6s avTOV, 

* T-qv ao<f>iav. ' ev dyqpaata. 

"* Aucher, disregarding the Arm. word-order, renders, 
" non per tempus in senectute vigens, sed insenectute ac 
juventute." " aveu aladrjrr\s XP^^^ dacopLdro) KdXXei. 

" TTapaKXriais. ^ ttjs (f>i,Xo9€dp.ovos 'pvx'fjs. 

'^ Lit. " concerning " or " about." 

427 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and first discipline," which it is accustomed to practise 
from youth, when it is mated with, and betrothed to, a 
wife who is constant ^ in virtue and perseverance." For 
when he bears in mind and remembers his former way of 
life,** which he lived without any discipline, he is consoled. 
And he was consoled (also) by the fact that he has not spent 
his time in vain and in an unworthy manner. 



147. (Gen. xxv. 1) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And Abraham added to take a wife,* whose name was 
Keturah " ^ ? 

That which is added is not the same as that to which 
it is added but is something else altogether. Now what 
is it, then, which is added to the good ? Is it, indeed, the 
bad or the contrary and unlike ? » But it is clear that this 
is a mixture, which is neither bad nor good. For riches 
and honours and bodily affections ^ and whatever things 
are connected with * the body and are outside the body 
are measured for the virtuous man,^ not, however, as good 
but as additions to his own goods,'^ and being indifferent,' 
they are mixed and foreign. The addition is therefore 
called " Keturah," which name is to be translated as 

" TratSeia?. 

^ The instrumental case of the Arm. noun " constancy " 
is here prob. used predicatively. 

* Kara Suafiov-qv. See the notes to the preceding section. 
'^ Lit. " ways and life," prob. =8Lay<joyrjv rod ^iov. 

* So Lxx, irpoadefxivos Se 'AjSpaa/u, lAajSev yvvalKa, following 
the Heb. idiom which means " Abraham took another wife." 

■'' Arm. Kentoura : lxx X.€rTovpa : Heb. QHurdh. 
" TO ivavTLOv /cat dvo/AOioi^. 
'' acofJiaTLKa Trddr]. 

* Lit. " are around," 

^ The Arm. lit. =Ta> aTTovhalco /teTpeiTai, and probably is 
an inexact rendering. Aucher renders, " penes honestum 
dimensa sunt." 

^ i.e. to those of the soul. 

* dSta^opa, in the technical ethical sense. See H. A. Wolf- 
son, Philo, ii. 297-303. 

428 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

" incense-burning." " And the odour is an addition to 
food but is not food, wherefore some have said, not ineptly, 
that smell is a foretaster/ And to those who are subject 
to danger of pain physicians present odours when they are 
unable to give them food. This must be said first. And 
still another thing must be set beside this, that among the • 
senses *= there are two which are virtuous and philosophical,'' 
(namely) those of sight and hearing ; and a third, that of 
smell, is a mean between the good and the bad ; and there 
are two bad ones belonging to the bad, (namely) taste and 
touch. And when the four (senses) are arranged in groups 
of two, smell is the middle one,* for it is clearer and purer 
than taste and touch, and is duller and more short-sighted ^ 
than sight and hearing. For this reason (Scripture) has 
attributed the three best forms of sense to Him who is 
the sovereign of all things. For (it refers) to sight when 
it says," " And God saw all the things which He had made, 
and, behold, they were very good " ; and to hearing when 
it says,'' " The Lord heareth the poor " ; and to smell when 
it says,* " And the Lord God smelled a sweet savour." 
Now since the consummation of a happy life is likeness 
to God,^ he who was a true man * judged it best to marry 
three wives, (who were) symbolically some three powers,' 
the most admirable of all (the senses, namely) hearing, 
sight and smell. For the maidservant in Chaldaean was 

<* dvfiiwaa^ as in De Sacr. Ahelis 43-44, which partially 
parallels this section. 

* Cf. Be Sacr. Abelis 44 6a(f>p'qaiv . . . Kada-nep jSaaiAiSoj 
TTpoyevarpiha. 

" Twv alaOrjaeoiv. 

^ aTTovhalai Koi (f)LX6ao(f>oL, cf. De Spec. Leg. i. 337-338. 

* i.e. smell, the fifth, is between the two groups of two 
senses each. 

^ Aucher " tardier." 
" Gen. i. 31. 
^ Ps. Ixix. 33. 

* Gen. viii. 21. 
TO t4Xos iarlv €v8aipLovos C^rjs "^ npos Oeov ofioiorrjs. 



* i.e. Abraham. 



avfi^oXiKcos rpels rtvas 8vvdfi€iSt 

429 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

called " Hagar " " and in Armenian ^ " sojourning." " 
And her offspring was " hearing God," who among the 
Hebrews was called " Ishmael." '^ And (the offspring) 
of his lady " (was called) " laughter,"^ (being) a psychic 
eye and light," for light and sight are joyful, just as dark- 
ness and blindness are sad. And the third (wife) mentioned 
was allusively ^ named " incense-burning," which the 
Chaldaeans call " Keturah." 

*148. (Gen. xxv. 5-6) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And Abraham gave all that was his to Isaac his son, and 
to the sons of his concubines he gave gifts ^ " ? 

(Scripture) refers to a difference between possessions and 
gifts,^ both in the literal sense and in the deeper meaning.*^ 
As for the literal meaning, those things that assure a quiet 
life, and whatever things remain stable and in our posses- 
sion are called " possessions," while gifts are those things 
given by hand,^ the use of which is for a short time."* But 
as for the deeper meaning, it is the virtues founded with 
firmness and the deeds (performed) with virtue ** that are 

" Arm. Agar^ as in lxx. 

* As usual, the Arm. translator substitutes " Armenian " 
for " Greek." '^ TrapoUrjais^ as in De Congressu 20. 

^ Ishmael's name is etymologized as aKor] deov in Be Mut. 
Nom. 202 et al. 

* i.e. Sarah, in contrast to the concubines, Hagar and 
Keturah. 

f " Isaac " is etymologized as yeXois and x°-P°- ^^ many 
passages of Philo. 

" Cf. e.g. De Con/us. Ling. 92 o tjjvx'fjs 6(f)daXfj,6s 6 8iav- 
yeoTaros Koi KadapcoraTOS Koi TrdvroiV o^vcoTrecrraTOS. 

^ alvLyjxari vel sim. 

^ LXX ehojKev he 'A^paafi iravra ra imdpxovTa avrov 'laaa/c 
TO) vlw avTov' Koi rots viols rwv TroAAa/ccDv avrov ebcoKev 'A^padfi 
Sd/xara. 

' 8La(f)opdv imapxovTOiv koX hofidrcov, as in the Greek frag, 
from Procopius. * koI rrpos to prjTov /cat irpos rrjv Sidvoiav. 

* XeipoSora, as in the Greek frag. 

"* The Greek frag., which ends here, has a>v -q XPV^'-^ 
i(f)-qiJ,€pos. " Kar^ dpeTrjv. 

430 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

called " substances " and " possessions." " Those things, 
however, which- are indifferent '' and unstable, being about 
the body and outside the body, it calls " gifts." And so, 
it presents (as) the heir of the virtues the legitimate son, 
laughter," who rejoices at aU things in nature,"* whereas 
the indifferent and undetermined * (sons born) to Abraham 
by his concubines (rej oice in) indifferent things.^ So much 
superior was Isaac to (the sons) of the concubines as are 
possessions " to gifts. Wherefore (Scripture) recently '' 
described Isaac as motherless, and it calls those born to 
the concubines fatherless.* Accordingly, those who were 
harmonious in the father's family are of the male progeny, 
while the (sons) of the women and those of inferior descent 
are certainly to be called female and unvirile,^ for which 
reason they are little admired as great ones.* 

" ovaiai Koi KTi^f^ara, " Substances " being rendered by 
two words in the Arm. " ^ d8id(f>opa. 

" Tov yvqaiov vlov, yeXcora, symbolized by Isaac. 

^ On Isaac as a symbol of the naturally virtuous or self- 
taught man see, e.g.^ QO iv. 122, 145. 

* dopiarovs, cf. De Praemiis 36 ndaa r) alaBrjTri (f>vais 
doptoTos. 

^ Aucher renders somewhat differently, " indifferentes 
autem Abrahae natos ex concubinis indifferentibus ac indis- 
tinctis gaudere bonis." 

' The Arm. has " possessions " in the gen. case, but the 
context seems to require us to take it as nom. Aucher too 
renders it as the subject of the final clause. 

'' See QG iv. 145 on Gen. xxiv. 67. 

* i.e. as not being legitimate sons of Abra^iam. 

^ avavSpot, an adjective elsewhere applied by Philo to the 
senses and sense-perceptible things. 

^ The above is a literal translation of the obscure Arm. 
text, which Aucher, confessing doubt of its meaning (his 
footnote reads : " Quamquam uncis aliqua adjeci, nee ita 
tamen me sensum verum expressisse confido "), renders, 
" illi ergo, qui Concordes erant in patria gente, etiam masculi 
nati (nomen sortiuntur) ; verum illi (ipsi) quia (alienam 
participant) femineam lineam pravis prolibus gaudentem, 
certo certius vocandi sunt feminae vecordes, eoquod ob 
minora ilia tamquam majores (sibi ipsi) admiratione sunt." 

431 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

149. (Gen. xxv. 6) Why, after giving gifts to his alien " 
offspring, did he send them away from his son Isaac, while 
he was still living, to the land of the east r * 

In its literal sense <= the significance is clear. But as for 
the deeper meaning,'* it is the intention of the sacred word * 
to preserve (him) for ever virtuous, perfect, passionless and 
unstained.^ And he is (so) preserved if those of opposed 
and earthy thoughts are removed and settled (elsewhere)." 
For, as they are born alien to virtue,'' so they wish to 
pollute the legitimate * (son). But it is impossible for such 
a removal to take place unless (the father) is livhig and 
sound in true life and healthy thought.^ For not ineptly 
is it said that while he was still liviag he sent away wrong- 
doing and passion.*^ And he sent them away, not to the 
region of the east, but most naturally " to the land of the 
east," (that is) not to the heavenly and divine light but 
to earthly and corruptible splendours and appearances * 
of arrogance and vain honours, of which they are emulous. 
For empty are the strivings of the mind, through which 
many consider riches and honours and the like to be good. 



150. (Gen. xxv. 7) Why, in speaking about the life of 

"■ aXXoTpiois, cf. Be Virtutihus 207, where Philo speaks of 
the sons of Abraham's concubines as dAAorpioo^eWe? rij? 
doiSifiov evyeveias. 

^ LXX KoX TOls viols TcDv TToXXaKCOV aVTOV c8iOK€V 'A^paoLfi 

So/xara, /cat e^aTreaTeiAcv avrovs ano 'laaaK tov vlov avrov en 
^covTOS avTOv TTpos dvaToXo. els y'r]v dvaToXcjv. 

" TO prjTov. ^ TO TTpos Bidvoiav. 

* yviofir} TOV Upov Xoyov. 

^ GTTOvSalov Kol TcAetov Koi drradrj Koi dKT]XlbcoTOV. Aucher 
renders slightly diiferently, " probum (filium), perfectum, 
vitioque et ulceribus carentem perpetuo servare." Here, as 
in QO ii. 15, the Arm. translator seems to have confused KtjXrj 
" ulcer " with KrjXis " stain." 

Aucher " transmittantur in coloniam." 

'' dpeTTJS' * TOV yvqaiov. ' vyiei Aoyia/xo). 

^ dSiKiav (vel sim.) koX rrddos. 

^ Aucher " lumina et phantasmata." 

432 



I 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

Abraham, does (Scripture) say, " These are the years of 
the days of the Hfe of Abraham " <* ? 

Most excellently does it say " days," for it does not wish 
to bring out the number of years, as do those who write 
(historical) narratives, but to show that the several ages 
of the wise man are praiseworthy when he lives his whole 
life excellently.'' For a year is a sum of days, but days are 
not (a sum) of years. For it is pro})er that for those who 
live in accordance with virtue '^ there should ])e an addition 
of the length of time rather than that the time of an old 
man (should be) a divine splendour."* 



lol. (Gen. XXV. 7) Why are the years of (his) life " one 
hundred and seventy-five " ? 

Because (this number) is seven times twenty-five, and 
twenty-five is a lunar period,* in accordance with which 
(Scripture) wishes the temple-servants to perform the ser- 
vice of the temple,^ beginning at twenty-five years, and 
to be in attendance and serve for the same number (of 
years), for it makes them retire from active service ^ 
after reaching fifty, taking care that the priest shall be an 
imitator and emulator of the heavenly (body). Accord- 

** So LXX, Tavra Se to. err] rjfMepcov t,(OTJs 'AjSpact/u.. Heb. has 
" These are the days of the years of the life of Abraham." 

^ The Arm. seems to render iKaaras ras rov ao^ov -qXiKias 
€TTaLV€Tas itvai, avrov Se Sta^epovro)? Staicovi^etv. Aucher 
renders, " singulas sapientis aetates distinctas tarn laudabiles 
fuisse, quam perenniter durasse." 

" /car' dpcT-qv. 

'^ L. A. Post suggests that the meaning of the original was 
something like the following, " Old age is marked rather by 
the measure of time of which light is lord {u> (f)cbs Kvpiov 
fjiCTpa)), in place of the addition of a long period " (i.e. the 
year). 

* In round numbers, of course. 

' See Num. viii. 24-25, prescribing that Levites shall serve 
from the age of 25 to 50, and Philo's comments in Quod 
Deterius 64. 

Lit. " being quiet cease." 

4>23 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

ingly, just as that most useful star " which is near the earth, 
(namely) the moon, serves the whole earth in twenty-five 
(days), so also (Scripture) has thought it right to ordain 
an equal length of time of attendance for temple-servants.'' 
Now the hebdomad is the most sacred of numbers, as has 
been especially shown.'' And these are all the perfect 
numbers which are contained at once in the life of the wise 
man,'' (namely) one hundred, and seventy,* and five, so 
that both their addition and their division are most beauti- 
ful. And these things have been noted concerning 
numbers. 



*152. (Gen, xxv. 8) What is the meaning of the words, 
** failing, he died," and why (did he die) " in a good old 
age, old and full of days " ^ } 

The literal meaning" does not raise " any question, but 
this (statement) is to be taken more naturally,* and the 
interpretation to be given is that the death of the body is 
the life of the soul, since the soul lives an incorporeal life 
of its own.^" In regard to this, Heracleitus, like a thief 
taking law and opinions from Moses,* says, " we live their 
death, and we die their life," ' intimating "* that the life 

" aarripi here as occasionally elsewhere in Philo, means 
" planet." 

'' i.e. 25 days correspond to 25 years. 

« For the many passages in Philo see Staehle, pp. 34-50. 

** rov ao<f)ov, i.e. Abraham. 

* Aucher inadvertently renders, " septenarius." 

■^ Lxx /cat eVAeiTTcov aTredavev 'A^paafx eV yi^pei koXu) TrpcajSirny? 
/cat TrXrjprjs -qpLepaJv. 

" TO pTjTov. ^ Lit. " have." 

* (f>vaiKa)T€poVf i.e. " more allegorically." 

' tSiov lavrfj rrjS ^vxrjs daiofxarov jStov Stayovarjs vel sim. 

^ On Philo's charges of plagiarism against Heracleitus and 
other Greek philosophers see Wolfson, Philo, i. 141-142. 

' ^cD/xev rov eVeivcov ddvarov, rcdvrjKayL^v he rov €Keiv(x)v ^iov, 
quoted by Philo in Leg. All. i. 108 et al. The wording of the 
quotation is slightly diiFerent in other ancient sources, cf. 
Bywater, frag. 67, Diels, frag. 62. "» olvirTOfievos. 

434 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

of the body is the death of the soul. And what is called 
" death " is the most glorious *• life of the first soul.'' More- 
over, " in a good old age " is a most useful description of 
Jaw and opinions '^ in so far as a virtuous man ^ is said to 
be " a fine old man." * For all these are good and desirable 
measures of age,^ and are more flourishing than con- 
temptible youth in which the sensual pleasures ^ of the 
body are still growing. For as a youth this young man 
did not highly esteem any passion in word or deed and 
did not choose such a life.'' And as a man he did not 
always stir up childish outbreaks and quarrels and fights, 
since he practises manliness.* And in middle age, with 
his virtues seated around him,^ he is highly esteemed. He 
does not, therefore, first begin to act prudently ^ and 
soundly when in the course of time the passions of old age 
pass away and cease, but because in the way one fits a head 
to a statue he has fitted a most beautiful and lovable 
aspect ' to his former way of life. This the eyes of the body 
do not see, but the pellucid and pure mind is taught to 
see."* 

Moreover, I am greatly puzzled " by the addition (in 
Scripture), for it says that he was " full of days," making' 
him appear densely full," for the Father does not allow the 
life of the virtuous man ^ to be empty or vacant in any 

<* Or " most blessed." 

'' Aucher renders less accurately, " vita felicissima ac 
prima animae." Probably we should emend Arm. arajin 
" first " to " arak'ini " virtuous." 

" i.e. of moral conduct. ^ airovhaZo?. 

* €vyripajs. ^ rjXiKiaL. " at rjhovai. 

'* Text and meaning are uncertain. Aucher renders, 
" quoniam in aetate tyronica nullum hie juvenis nee vitium 
nee verbum neque opus voluit sibi permittere, et praeeligere 
vitam." * dvSpeiav. 

' Twv dpcTcbv avveSpevovocov. ^ ooj(f)povi^€adai. 

' TrdyKaXov kol d^tepaarov TTpoacorrov. 

"* o 8tairyr)s kol KaOapos vovs IBelv TratSeucrai. Aucher 
renders more freely, " nitidae tamen ac limpidae animae 
edoctae sunt ad videndum." 

" SlttTTOpcD. " TTVKVOV. " TOV OTTOvhaioV. 

435 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

place for evil (to enter) his mind <* or any part of him.* 
For (Scripture) says that the virtuous man is full not of 
years but of days, always ordering and placing the dis- 
tinctions of length of time of the virtuous man *= under the 
divine light. And again in another way it has determined 
the several days (to be) worthy of study and care, as those 
guilty of transgressions (are in need of) orators (and) 
speakers of truth,** when the law of nature testifies against 
them * concerning what each of them has said or done 
day by day from morning to evening and from evening to 
morning. 



*153. (Gen. xxv. 8) Why is it said that " he was added 
to his people " ^ } 

You see that when (Scripture) spoke a little earlier of 
his " failing," " it did not allude to his corruption '^ but 
to his more stable endurance.* And so it naturally ^ is. 
For the casting off of that which is mortal and bad is the 

** rov vovv. 

* Aucher renders more freely, " tamquam confertam mon- 
strans veri boni vitam, nullum relinquente Patre situm 
vacuum in mente ejus, vel in aliqua parte, ad ingressum mali." 

" Aucher renders, " bene transact! temporis spatii dis- 
tinctiones." 

<* Aucher renders, " tamquam obligatio causarum apud 
rhetores et juridicos." 

* The Arm. text seems to render rov ttjs <f>va€0)s vofMov Kar 
avrcov StSovros Xoyov. Aucher renders, " ratione ei, {vel^ eis) 
concessa legis naturae." L. A. Post queries, " Is there a 
concealed reference to the sun as all-knowing ? " 

•^ LXX Koi TTpoaeTeOr) rrpos rov Xaov avrov: Heb. " and he 
was gathered to his kin." In De Sacr. Ahelis 5 Philo quotes 
the verse as Trpoarid^rai rw deov Xato, explaining that Abraham 
" enjoyed incorruptibility and became equal to the angels " ; 
see further on in this section. 

" See the preceding section in which Philo quotes lxx 
Kal €VAet7ra>v aTredavev KrX. ^ <f>dopdv. 

* ^e^aiorepav Sia/i.ovi^;'. 
' (j)vaiK<x)s vel sim, 

4.36 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

addition of that which is excellent and more immortal.'* 
And the addition to his people is spoken of although there 
was not yet a people in existence, since he himself was the 
origin and forefather of the race. ^ But that (people) which 
was to come into being through him " (is represented) as 
already in existence, and (Scripture) establishes this as 
being granted to him because of the godlilve virtues *' to 
which he is said to be added. ^ That is the literal meaning/ 
But let us speak allegorically.^ The people is truly of 
God,'^ that is to say and declare that it is a transition which 
is rational and heavenly.* For every soul is rational which ^ 
flees and is loosed and released from that to which it is 
bound,* and is delivered and freed from confinement. For 
the ancients used to call a tomb a " naked grave." ' And 
(Scripture) in another passage calls him " forefather " ^ 

" The comparative degree of the adj. adavaros seems not 
to occur in Philo's extant Greek .writings. 

** apxT] Koi TTpoTTaTiop rov yevovSi as in the Greek frag, from 
Procopius. 

" The Arm. uses the instrumental case of the pers. pron., 
while the Greek frag, has 8t* avrov " because of him." 

•* Sia ras OeoirpeTrels dperdfi. 

« The syntax is not certain. The Greek frag., which ends 
here, has t6v ovv fxeXXovra St' avrov yeveadai ws tJSt] yeyovora 
XapL^6p,€v'os avTov to) deoTTpeirel tcov dpercov iSpuerat, S Kal 
XiyeaQ ai {I. Aeyerai) TTpocrriOeadai. ^ ro prp-ov. 

" aXXT]yopovvT€s. '* See the first note on this section. 

* 8taj3aai? XoyiK-q koX ovpavia. The syntax and meaning 
of the sentence are uncertain however. Aucher renders, 
" etenim populus certe Dei est, ut ita dixerini, et transactus 
rationalis caelestisque," but in a footnote he proposes an 
alternative rendering, "... Dei est ut dictione locutioneque 
praeditus, et provectus, is qui est rationalis . . ." 

^ The Arm. has the ablative case of the rel. pron., perhaps 
because of a misreading of d^elaa as d^' ^s. 

^ a-TTO rov avvhirov {sc. awfiaros), cf. Leg. All. iii. 72. 

* Apparently Philo here al hides not to the conventional 
equation of aijixa ( — a-qfi^ov) and awfia but to the idea of a dead 
body being naked of soul. 

"• vpoTTaropa. There does not seem to be any instance of 
this epithet applied to Abraham in the lxx. 

V37 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

but not " first-born " " inheriting all from his divine 
Father and being without share in a mother or female line. ^ 

154. (Gen. xxv. 20) " Why was Isaac forty years old 
when he took Rebekah to wife ? "^ 

The fortieth year is the right time for the marriage * of 
the wise man/ for it is good (for him) to be trained and 
directed and abound in the right forms ^ of discipline ^ in 
youth and to have regard for nothing else whatever and 
not to wander in any other direction toward things which 
are not to be liked but thoroughly to enjoy the thoughts 
and company of those (studies) and be more happy in them. 
It is necessary to receive enjoyment of love and affection 
from a wife and to fulfil the law concerning the rearing of 
children.* For the generation of living beings ' (is accom- 
plished) in forty (days), during which, physicians say, the 
seed injected into the womb is formed *'' and, especially 
when it is a male, becomes a formed creature.^ For at 

<* TTpcoToyovov, here apparently reserved for Isaac. 

^ On the allegorical motherlessness of Isaac see above, 
QG\v. 145. 

" At this point, probably the beginning of Book VI in the 
original form of Philo's Quaestiones, begins the Old Latin 
version of the Quaestiones in Genesin, extending to the end 
of Book IV. The date of this Old Latin version (hereafter 
abbreviated as OL) will be discussed in Appendix B. In the 
notes I cite the OL text as reprinted by Aucher from the 
1538 edition. Here it may be noted that OL is often para- 
phrastic rather than literal, if we assume that the Armenian 
version is literal. 

<* Philo here abbreviates the biblical verse which gives 
Rebekah's genealogy. 

« The Arm. uses two words to render ydfxos. 

^ Tov ao(f)ov. 

' 6pdoi9 ei8e<7i or opdals iSeais. OL " spiculis " must be a 
corruption of " speciebus." 

'^ rijs Tvaibeias. ' ttjs TTaihoTpo<l>ias. 

^ Tj ^cpoyovia. ^ KTi^eadai or TrXaTTcadai,. 

^ KTLCTfjLa or TrAaa/Lta. On the forty-day duration of the male 
embryo see QO i. 25, ii. 14 and iv. 27. 

i38 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

this time it was not for the sake of irrational sensual 
pleasure " or with eagerness ^ that he had intercourse with 
his wife but for the sake of begetting legitimate children, 
(and so) it was wholly appropriate that he should undertake 
marriage when the number of his years was the same as 
the number of days of the embryo in the womb. 



loo. (Gen. xxv. 22) " Why does (Rebekah) say, " If so 
it is to be for me, why is this for me ? " ** ? 

Virtuous and a lover of virtue ^ is the mind ^ which 
announces this not so much by voice as by being sym- 
pathetic, and bears itself in mind.^ For it says, " What 
(use) was there for me to weigh contrary and opposed 
(forces) '* as if in balanced scales, at one time being drawn 
by opinion * and at another time being pulled in the 
opposite direction by truth. For the uncertainty of the 
mind ^ is always imperfect and lame and, if one must use 
the real and proper name, it is also blind. But it is some- 
times better to have eyes and to be sharp-sighted for the 
certain attainment of the knowledge of good and evil.*' 
For when someone has come across the nature of either of 
them and welcomes it ' or sees it by chance, he necessarily 
accepts one of them and dismisses the other. 

" St' dXoyov Tjbovriv. 

* Variant " foolishness." 

" The two verses, Gen. xxv. 21-22a, not commented on by 
Philo (but see Be Sacr. Abelis 4), tell of Rebekah's pregnancy 
with Jacob and Esau. 

** l.xx ei ovTcos fiot /Lte'AAei ylveadai, tva tl [xoc tovto : Heb. 
" If so, M'hy then I ? " 

* <f>iXdp€Tos. ^ o vovs or -q Siavoia. 

" The sense is obscure. For " by voice " OL has " fastidio." 
'* wSymbolized by the twins struggling in Rebekah's womb. 

* The Arm. translator takes 8d|a in the sense of " glory," 
so too Aucher renders the Arm. 

' Apparently Philo means the uncertain mind. 

* yvwaeco^ rod dyadov Kai rov kukov (or rov KaXov koL tov 
TTOvrjpov). 

' rfj cKarepov (f>va€i iTTtTvxo^v Kal darraadpievo^. 

439 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

156. (Gen. xxv. 22) What is the meaning of the words, 
" She went to inquire of the Lord " " ? 

This statement ^ is an argument against " arrogant and 
conceited persons who, though they know nothing, admit •* 
that they know everything. And they consider nothing 
(more) shameful and disgraceful (than) searching and 
being in doubt and inquiring. Wherefore, being afflicted 
to the end of life with that great disease ignorance and 
lack of education,^ they cannot endure to take a physician, 
by whom they might perhaps easily be cured. But those 
who have a desire for education ^ are fond of inquiry and 
fond of learning everything from every source even though 
they may be elderly. 



157- (Gen. xxv. 23) What is the meaning of the words 
which (the Lord) spoke when she inquired, (namely) " Two 
nations are in thy womb, and two peoples will be separated 
from thy womb, and people will surpass people in excel- 
lence, and the elder will serve the younger " " ? 

This statement ^ shows four things. One is most 
astonishing,* for He does not speak of two children in the 
womb but instead of children speaks of nations. And it is 
clear that He alludes ' not to their names but to the 
nations which Avere to come into being from both of them, 
for they were patriarchs ^ of great nations that were later 

*• LXX inopevdr] 8e rrvdeodai -napa Kvpiov : OL " perrexit 
interrogare a domino eloquium Dei." 

^ Xoyos. '^ eXeyxos. 

** ojLioAoyouCTi, here evidently used in irony. 

* jxeydXa) nddei (or voau)) rrjs dp,adia? kol diTaiSevcTias. 



Sei'c 



Traioeia? 



" LXX KOL eirrfv Kvpios avrfj, Avo eOvrj ev t^ yaarpi aov etaiv, 
/cat 8vo Xaol eV rijs KoiXias aov hLaaraX-qaovrai- koL Xaos Xaov 
virepe^ei, koI 6 /xei^car hovXevaei to* eXdaaovi. The verse is 
briefly allegorized by Philo in Leg. All. iii. 89 and T>e Con- 
grsssu 129-130. ^ Xoyos. 

* TTapaSo^oTarov : OL " gloriose dictum." 



' alvLTTerai. * TraTpLapxai. 



4^10 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

to appear." And second, what was most useful ^ and help 
ful, they were not to admit confusion but separation and 
distinction and division, one people from the other, so far 
as opinion goes, but in reality, prudence and imprudence. "^ 
For this reason (Scripture) first mentions " nations " and 
thereafter speaks of " peoples," (so) naming them with 
reason and prudence.** And this is a most helpful distinc- 
tion of opposed concepts,* since one of them desires 
wickedness, and the other virtue.^ And third, what is 
most just, that equals should not be mixed and put together 
with unequals," whence it is excellently said, " people will 
surpass people in excellence," for it is necessary for one 
of the two to surpass the other and to increase, and for 
the other to decrease and to diminish. And " to surpass 
in excellence " again means the following, that the good 
man shall surpass the bad, and the righteous the un- 
righteous, and the temperate man the intemperate.'' For 
one of them is heavenly and worthy of the divine light, 
and the other is earthy and corruptible and like darkness.* 
And fourth, what is most truthful, that " the elder will 
serve the younger," for evil is older in time, since from our 
earliest age it grows with us, while virtue is younger and 
is acquired by us with difficulty and at the last belatedly, 

" Aucher renders less accurately, " quia patriarchae mag- 
narum gentium deinde apparituri erant " : OL more briefly 
" qui postmodum principes magnarum gentium fierent." 

*• OL " propheticum," which indicates a confusion be- 
tween ;fpT^ai/Lios' and ;^pt;ct/xos'. 

" aco<f>poavvr)v Kal d(f)poavvT)v : OL " sapientiam et modes- 
tiam." In De Congressu the two children in Rebekah's 
womb symbolize apeTiq and /ca/cta, as in the next sentence of 
this section. 

"* Kara Aoyov koX (fypovrjaiv vel sim. : OL " quia multum 
interest verbo et rationabilitati." * Aoyicr/xcDv ivavriojv. 

f KaKias . . . dperrjs: OL " uno inertiain, altero justitiam 
appetente." " OL " ne justa injusto aptentur." 

* The Arm. uses two words for " temperate " and for 
" intemperate." 

' o /Ltev ovpdvio? Kal deiov (jxxiro? a^tos, o hk yecoSrjs Kal (f>dap- 

TOS Kal GKOrCO OfMOlOS. 

4M 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

when the immense excesses of passion " have extended 
their strength (to the utmost) and have (then) become lax. 
For it is then that the mind * begins to judge and dis- 
criminate and obtain sovereign rule.^ And these things 
are said to us/ for who does not know that heaven has no 
share or mixture or part of evil, nor do whatever sense- 
perceptible gods " are borne in a circle around it, for they 
are all good and altogether most perfect in virtue/ But 
in the world » temperance (and) prudence ''• are older than 
folly and imprudence, and justice * is older than injustice, 
and so are the several other (virtues) older than their 
opposite dispositions.^ In the human race, however, the 
opposite and contrary of this (is true), for the good, as I 
have said, is more recent and younger, while its opposite, 
folly ,'■= has been established in us almost from youth and 
continues. Nevertheless, the younger ' is the ruler and 
sovereign of the elder by the law of nature."* 



158. (Gen. xxv. 24) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Fulfilled were the days for her to give birth " « ? 

The birth of the wise man " is not defective as to the 
month or the day but is full and perfect and consists of 

* (XTreipoi dfi€Tpiat Tra^cDv. ^ 6 vovs. 
" 'qyefioviK'qv dpx'qv. 

^ i.e. for our benefit. OL has " haec tamen pro nobis dicta 
sunt." 

« oaoi aladifjrol deoi, i.e. the stars, similarly designated in 
Be Opif. Mundi 27 and elsewhere. 

^ TTOLvraJS (read vdaais ?) dperats reXetoraroi : OL " in 
omnibus necessariis perfectissimi." 

" €v to) KoafjLO}. ^ ao}<f>poavv7) (/cat) ^povqais. 

* SiKaioavvrj . ^ rajv evavrlcov hiaOeaecov. 

* Or " wickedness." ' i.e. virtue. 

"* Tco (f>va€cos vofjLO). This phrase probably modifies " the 
elder " rather than " is ruler and sovereign." OL has 
" pravitas . . . regitur a juveniore non temporis lege sed 
naturae." 

** LXX Koi iTTXrjpwdrjaav at rjp.4pai, rov reKeiv avrrjv. 

** Tov ao<f>ov. 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

perfect nLimbers." That is the literal meaning.^ But as 
for the deeper meaning,*' (this) must be said. When the 
sou] of the virtuous man becomes filled with the contempla- 
tion of wisdom,*^ which, like the day and the sun,* illumines 
the whole reason and the mind, ^ then it begins to give 
birth to opposites " in the separation of distinction and 
discrimination between holy and profane. 



159. (Gen. xxv. 24) What is the meaning of the words, 
" ITiere were twins in her womb " '^ ? 

The literal meaning * is easily discerned and clear. But 
one should not fail to recognize the symbolical meaning,^ 
that just as two shoots grow from a single root, (so) in the 
very same mind " (there exists) the form * of that which 
is good and of that which is evil, and by nature they are 
twin.*" For the soul " flees and withdraws and is unable 
to act but retreats from the proximity of one and goes over 
to the other." Moreover, the powers ^ which are in the 

<* eV TcAet'fOV dpLdjjLUiV. See QG iv. 154. '' to p-qrov. 

" TO Txpos Stdvoiav. 

** oTav 7] Tov aiTOvhaiov tpvxyj TTCTrX-qpcDTai tiov ttjs cro<f)ias 
deojpiwv (or I'SecDv) : Aucher " quum animus virtute pollens 
sit plenus sapientiae speciebus " : OL " cum studiosa anima 
saginata fuerit sapientiae institutis." 

« OL " vice meridiani luminis." ^ tov vovv. 

° ivavTLortjTas, symbolized by the twins in Rebekah's 
womb, see the preceding section. 

^ LXX Koi TTJbe -qv dihvfia iv rfj yaarpl {v.l. KOiXia : Heb. 
" belly ") avrrjs. * TO prjTov. 

' TO avjJifioXLKOv. ^ €V ru) avTa> vw. * to efSoj. 

'" (fjvaei 8i8u/Lia. A similar notion is expressed in De Sacr. 
Ahelis 4 and De Ebrietate 8. On the phraseology see notes 
below. 

" i.e. vacillates between the opposite courses. OL para- 
phrases, " cunctante anima pro utrorumque obsequio, per 
absentiam enim unius obsecundat altero." 

" at hwdpLCLs : Aucher " virtutes " : OL " valetudinis " 
(/. " valetudines "). 

443 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

body experience the same thing as this, for desires and 
sensual pleasures and pains * are from the same root, as 
the poet says,* (and) whatever things are divided and 
separated from the top '^ are both divided at the extremities.** 
But these give place to their opposites in respect to the 
place of chief authority,* for when sensual pleasure is 
powerful and superior, pain retreats and gives place,^ but 
when the latter seizes it, sensual pleasure becomes power- 

* ope^eis Kol rjBoval Kal dXyrjSovcs. OL has more briefly 
" libido enim et dolor." 

" In De Ehrietate 8 the same notion is attributed to a 
TraAaio? Xoyos, which Colson in his note ad loc. supposes to 
be Phaedo 60 b, where Socrates in discussing the opposed 
feelings to rjBv and to Xv-n-qpov says, in part, e'/c fiids Kopv<f>rjs 
rnjLjjLdvo) Bv 6vT€. A more probable source, called to my 
attention by my colleague. Prof. B. Einarson, is Sophocles 
(Tncert. Frag. 824 in Nauck^, 910 in Pearson), 

XiJopos yap avTOS iariv dvOpcoTTOv (f>p€vd>v 

OTTOV TO T€p7T0V Kal TO TTT^/XttlVOV (j)V€l. 

Prof. P'vinarson also informs me that the same idea is ex- 
pressed by Plutarch, Consolatio ad Uxorem 609 b. 

" €K TTjs Kopv(f)rjs, see the preceding note. 

<* TTcpl TO. a/cpa vel sim. : Aucher renders, " quae ex uno 
vertice distincta divisaque sunt, utriusque eorum summitates 
separatae comperiuntur " : OL omits. The repetition of the 
idea of division in respect of the top and the extremities (here 
apparently meaning the root) seems a confusion or textual 
corruption. The passage in De Ehrietate 8 reads more in- 
telligibly coanep yap rjSov^v Kal dXyr]86va (f)vaeL [xaxop-evas . . . 
els /xtav Kopv<f)'r]v avvdt/jas 6 deos eKaTepas atoOrjatv ovk ev TavTco 
. . . ovTcos aTTO fiids pll^rjs tov rjyepLOVLKov ra re dpcTrjs Kal 
KaKias StTTO. dveSpafJLev epvq fx-qTe ^XaaTavovra fiT^re KapTTO(j>opovvTa 
e'v TavTCv. 

« Construction and meaning doubtful. Aucher renders, 
" atque ita contrariis cedunt a principio partibus principatus." 
OL omits. 

^ Aucher ignores the syntax in rendering, " namque quum 
fortior ac superior sit voluptate dolor, ilia vitans abscedit." 
OL has more briefly " agitante enim libidine dolor, caelatur." 
444 



/ GENESIS, BOOK IV 

ful." In similar fashion every virtue ^ (is related) to every 
vice, and conversely. For wisdom " gives place to folly, 
and temperance ** to unbridled lasciviousness, and in- 
justice * to justice, and cowardice ^ to courage, and the 
other contraries similarly. 



160. (Gen. xxv. 25) Why was the first-born ruddy and 
like a hairy hide ? " 

What is said (here) is clear.'' The ruddy body and the 
hairy hide are a sign of a savage man * who rages furiously 
in the manner of a wild beast. For a reddish and sanguine 
aspect is the same as the colour of those who are angry, 
and character,^ truly like a hide *= and whatever else is very 
hairy, is found (to be) a covering and outer garment and a 
protection and guard over cunning and aggression.' And 
through this he is everywhere easily captured, for the 
wicked man, as much as he schemes and contrives to find 
(a way of making) himself hard to capture, is so much (the 
more) easily captured by those who follow wisdom *" and 
use it. But a distinction should be made between " first- 

" The context requires us to suppose that the original read 
" sensual pleasure loses power " or the like. OL reads more 
intelligibly " porro si is [i.e. dolor] tenuerit, ilia [i.e. libido] 
subducitur." ^ dper-q. " ao<j>ia. 

^ aco<f>poavvq. In disregard of the syntax of the first two 
clauses Aucher makes " insipientia " and " intemperantia " 
the subjects of the verb " give place," whereas in the Arm. 
text, it is the opposite qualities that form the subjects of the 
verb. * dSi/cta. ' SeiAi'a. 

' LXX e^rjXdev 8e o vlos 6 TrpcoroTOKOS TTvppaKrjs, oXos cvael 
hopa baavs (Heb. " like a mantle of hair "). 

'' Following Aucher's emendation of Arm. erek' " three " 
to erewelik* " clear." 

* aypiov. 

' ■qdos or rpoTTOS. 

^ OL " et moribus insuavis ut pellis." The Arm. word 
rendered " truly " appears to be a misreading. 

^ OL reads differently. 

"* ao(f>Lav. 

445 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

born " and " first-begotten." " For the one is (the oif- 
spring) of female and material matter,* for the female gives 
birth ; but the first-begotten is a male and (the offspring) 
of a more responsible power," for it is the property of the 
male to beget/ For the wise and cultivated man * comes 
into being as the portion of the Cause,^ whereas the wicked 
man, as the first-born in general," is related to passive 
matter,'' which gives birth like a mother/ Wherefore 
among beings ^ some incorporeal powers are rightly said 
to be first-begotten,*^ and some call them " forms " ^ and 
" measures " and " types." "* But sense-perceptible things 
are not so completed," for the forms without a mother are 
from the Cause alone, while sense-perceptible things are 

<* Philo seems to be making an artificial distinction be- 
tween TTpcDTOTOKos, uscd of Esau in the lxx, and Trpcoroyovos, 
used by him elsewhere in a laudatory sense. 

** The Arm. lit. = vXlkcov vXwv. Aucher renders more 
smoothly but less literally, " humidae materiae." OL omits 
these last two words. 

" aLTLwrepas Sum/xecos : Aucher " potioris causae virtutis " : 
OL " principalis virtutis." 

** Arm. cnanel = both rUreiv, as in the first part of this 
sentence, and yevvdv, as here. * 6 ao<f>6s Kal darelos. 

* i.e. the active and divine principle in contrast to the 
female and passive principle or matter. Aucher renders 
somewhat inaccurately, " siquidem sapiens et generosus sor- 
titus est causam propriam." OL condenses and paraphrases, 
" adeo primogenitus melior." 

" Arm. 9ndhanour \xs\x. = KadoXov or KadoXiKos. Aucher, 
perhaps rightly, here renders, " in genere." 

^ Prob. TTad-qTfj vXt] : Aucher " vitiosis materiae com- 
plicibus " : OL " fluxu materiali passibilis." 

* On Philo's concept of matter as mother see Wolfson, 
Philo^ i. 267. ' ovaiais. 

* aaoiixoToi rives Suva/iets' biKaicos Aeyo/xevat TTpcoToyovoi. 

* €1817, or " ideas " — i8ea?. 

^ Koi fierpa Kal tuttovs. See De Opif. Mundi 3 i, 1 30. 

" TO, alodrjra ovx ovrcos TeXeicodevra. Aucher follows the 
Arm. order in placing the negative after the word meaning 
" completed " and renders, " sensibilia vero perfectione 
praedita, non ita." 

446 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

completed by matter, which not ineptly might be i?aid to 
be the mother of created things." 



161. (Gen. xxv. 25) Why is the man called Esau ? ^ 
" Esau " is interpreted as "a thing made " <^ or as 
" oak," '^ both being clearly expressive and indicative of 
character.* For the man of evil character is full of fictions 
and sugared wisdom,^ as if trained in these and used to 
them, but he does not think of anything sound. And 
foolish ignorance," for so I call characters ^ which are 
unbending and stiff-necked and unyielding, is similar to 
an oak, which will be broken sooner than bend or yield. 



162. (Gen. xxv. 26) What is the meaning of the words, 
" After this went out his brother " ' ? 

Virtue and vice ^ are brothers inasmuch as they are the 
offspring of the same soul.*^ And they are enemies inas- 
much as they are opposed to each other and fight. Where- 
fore, though they come together and are united as by 
necessity ' and are connected by some bond, they desire 

" TCOV y€VOfJL€VC0V. 

^ Arm. haw ; lxx 'Haau : Heb. 'Esaw. 

" nXdafia or TTOLrjfia. 

'^ Spus. The same etymologies are given in De Congressu 
(51, cf. De Sacr. Abelis 17. The first etymology is based on 
Heb. 'dsa{h) " to make," the second on Heb. 'es " tree." 
OL, making the interpretations part of the question instead 
of the beginning of the answer, renders, " factura vel rubor " 
(/. " robur "). « rpo-nov. 

^ Aucher " blandis sapientiis " : OL, paraphrasing, 
" infidus." 

" Or " wickedness." 

^ Following Aucher in reading Arm. bars for bans {Xoyovs). 

* lxx kox fiera tovto {v.l. tovtov : Heb. " afterwards ") 
i^rjXOev 6 dSeAc^os avrov. 

' dp€TT] Kol KaKia. 
^ TTJs avTi]S *pvxi]S. 

* dvaYKj]. 

447 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

separation. And when they are loosed and drawn apart 
and freed, they become distinct." 



163. (Gen. xxv. 26) Why did the hand of the second 
(child) seize and hold the sole * of the foot of the elder ? 

Because '^ the noble understanding ^ is a fighter and con- 
testant * and is by nature good in battle/ always opposing 
passion " and not allowing it to raise itself and rise up. 
But to seize and hold the heel shows strength of character 
in the victor and in him who does not allow passion to be 
refractory and unbridled,'' and (it shows) the weakness *' 
of him who is seized. And if one receives these things not 
with his eyes but with his understanding and mind/ he 
will grasp the greatest causes among the virtues.* For 
when the mind gets the upper hand and maintains it, be- 
coming more glorious and proud, it seizes its adversary in 
its hand and holds him. And passion is lamed when it 
falls down and is held on the ground. What eke, then, 

" Lit. " they appear clearly." 

'' Lxx agrees with Heb. in reading, koX -fj x^lp avrov iir^LX-qiJi- 
fi€V7) rrjs TTTepvqs 'Haav : so too Arm. O.T. Farther on in this 
section as elsewhere, e.g. in J)e Mut. Nom. 81, Philo makes 
Jacob the symbol of the TTTepvLar-qs on the basis of the re- 
semblance (implied in the Heb. of Gen. xxv. 26) between 
the name Ya'aqob and the word 'dqeb " heel." OL here has 
" calcaneum," as does Philo below. We must therefore 
assume that the Arm. translator is inaccurate here. 

" Reading, with Aucher, Arm. k'anzi for kam zi. 

^ 6 aTTovhaZos Xoyicrfios (or vovs) : OL " studiosus animus." 

* dyiovioT'^s or, as Philo elsewhere calls Jacob, doKriTTJs. 

f OL " strenuus." Aucher renders freely, *' paratus ad 

mortem." 

" trddei : OL " vitium " : Aucher " cupiditatibus." 

^ Similarly OL, " luctatoris non admittendis {I. " admit- 

tentis ") malum exaceruari." Aucher renders less accurately, 

" victoris, qui vix sinit jugum detrectare." 

* daOivciav. 

' Xoyiayt,w koX va>. 

* OL " inveniet facidtates virtutis idoneas." 

448 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

must we consider this than the possession * of moral 
excellence ? ^ Whence he received the accurate name of 
Supplanter/ whom the Hebrews call " Jacob." 



164. (Gen. xxv. 26) Why is Isaac said to have begotten 
sons (at the age) of sixty years '^ ? 

The number sixty * is the measure which includes in 
itself those (bodies) which are the zodiac in the world when 
the twelve pentagons are numbered together.-' The same 
relation " which the number six bears to the units the 
number sixty (bears) to the tens. For through the hexad 
the entire heaven and world were made,'' and in his sixtieth 
(year) the perfect man * begat (sons), in accordance with 
his kinship with the world, ^ for as the number sixty is kin 
to the number six, so the virtuous man ^' (is kin) to the 
entire world. Wherefore just as there is in the world some- 
thing which is a pure substance,^ which the heaven obtains 

*• Possibly the Arm. translator read axems for daK-qais. 

* KaXoKayadias or emjdelas. 

<^ TTT€pvcoT-qs is here rendered by two Arm. words. Aucher 
has " Deceptorem et Supplantatorem." 

'' Philo here differs slightly from Scripture, which says 
that Isaac was sixty years old when Rebekah bore him sons. 

* This seems to be the only passage in which Philo specu- 
lates on the symbolism of 60. 

^ Aucher renders, " quinque angulorum duodecim divi- 
sionibus simul sumptis." OL has something quite different. 
What the pentagons are is far from clear to me. But see 
Plato, Timaeua 55 c, on the dodecahedron (of which the 
twelve sides are pentagons) which God is said to use for 
the decoration (Sta^ojypa^cav) of the cosmos. R. G. Bury in 
the I^oeb Plato remarks ad loc. " The reference may be to the 
signs of the zodiac." " \6yov : OL " elegantiam " (!). 

^ Cf. De Opif. Mundi 89 d avixnas Koa^ios ireXeLwdr] Kara 
TTjv e^dSos dpiOfiov reAet'oy (f>vaLv. For similar passages see 
Staehel, pp. 32-34. * d reXeios. 

' Kara Trjv irpos rdv Koafiov avyydveiav : OL " secundum 
seculi proximitatem." 

* 6 aTTOv8alos : OL " strenuus." ' Kadapd ovaia. 
SUPPL. I Q 449 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

as its lot, and there is something mixed and corruptible," 
(namely) whatever is sublunary,^ so also, says (Scripture), is 
it fitting that the offspring of the virtuous man be distin- 
guished and separated into a mortal and immortal (son)/ 
For of these sons one is heavenly and the other earthly. ** 



^165. (Gen. xxv. 27) * Why was Esau a hunter and man 
of the fields, and Jacob a simple man, living at home ^ } 

This passage admits of allegorizing," for the wicked man 
is (so) in a twofold way, being a hunter and a man of the 
fields. Wherefore ? Because just as a hunter spends his 
time with dogs and beasts, so does the cruel man ^ with 
passions and evils, of which some, which are like beasts, 
make the mind * wild and untamed and intractable and 
ferocious and bestial ; and some (are like) dogs because 
they indulge immoderate impulses ^ and in all things act 
madly and furiously. In addition to this, being a man of 
the fields, he is without a city and a fugitive from the laws,*= 
unknowing ^ of right behaviour ^ and unbridled and re- 
fractory and not having anything in common with righteous 
and good men, and an enemy of intercourse, humaneness 
and community,** and leading an unsocial life." But the 

" ^iiKTOV KoX (fydaprov. ^ oaa koltco aeX-qvrjs. 

" Symbolized by Esau and Jacob. 
'' o fjL€v ovpdvLOS, 6 be yqivos. 

* Philo comments on this verse in Leg. All. iii. 2-3 and, 
more briefly, in De Plantatione 44 and De Congress ti 62. 

^ Lxx Kol ■^v 'Haau dvOptorros elScos KvvTjyeiv, dypoiKos' 'la/ftu/S 
8e "^v dvOptoTTOS dirXaaros, oIkwv oiKiav. " dXXrjyopiav. 

^ Arm. dzneay usu. =8€tvd?. Aucher here renders, " ne- 
farius " : OL " pravus." 

* Tov vovv or rrjV Stavotav. 

^ afxerpois opfiais. OL curiously renders, " justo plus 
satiati." 

* Leg. All. iii. 3 reads a little differently dnoXi? . . . kol 
doiKos, <f>vyds dpeTTJs u)v. ' Lit. " untasting." 

"* Aucher renders, " rectae vitae gustus nescius." 
" oIkciottjtos xal ^iXavdpoJTTias koL KOLVcovias. 
** dfJLiKTOv ^iov. 

450 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

wise and cultivated man," on the other hand, possesses both 
of the following (qualities) : he is simple and he lives at 
home. A simple nature shows the truth of simplicity ^ and 
a lack of flattery and hypocrisy, while hypocrites, flatterers 
and charlatans " contrive to show the opposite. Moreover, 
the domestic care of the house is an antithesis to living in 
the fields,** for one of these (states) is household-manage- 
ment '' and is a special instance of statecraft on a small 
scale,^ since statecraft and household-management are 
related virtues," which, it would not be amiss to show, are, 
as it were, interchangeable, both because statecraft is 
household-management in the state, and because house- 
hold-management is statecraft in the home. 



^166. (Gen. xxv. 28) Why does (Scripture) say, " Isaac 
loved Esau, and Rebekah was loving Jacob " '' .'' 

Who would not admire the position of the names which 
stand contrasted and dexterously placed, being aptly and 

" d ao(f>65 Koi daT€Los. OL has simply " urbaniis." 

^ TO dnXaaTOV -^dos SrjXol Tr)v Trjs aTrXoT-qros dA'^^eiav. The 
Greek frag, from Procopius paraphrases, /xiyScv Ix^v em- 
TrXaarov ^ ivelaaKTov KaKov. OL renders, " infictum insinuat 
pro simplicitate." 

" yorjTcs or (f>apiJ,aK€Ls, cf. Quis Rer. Div. Heres 302 ol 
y6rjT€S, ol KoXaKCS, ol Tndavcov CTO^iff/xarcov evperai. 

** The Greek frag, (which ends here) reads tatos 8e ^ai 
dvTiSiacrreXXei rw Kwrfydrrj 'Haau Kal iv imaldpco Bidyovri. OL 
has " ita ruralitas dissipat statum domesticum." 

* oiKovofiia. 

^ rrjs cXoLTTOVos TToXireias TT€pLypa(f>'q vel sim. : Aucher " et 
urbanitatis exiguae comprehensio " : OL " ut civili albo 
conscriptus." With the notion expressed here compare De 
Josepho 38 olKia re yap ttoXis earlv icrraXpievT] koX ^pa)(€ta, koi 
oiKovojxia avvrjyfievrj ti? TroAireia. " avyyevels dperaL 

^ LXX riydTrrjcrev 8i Taad/c tov 'Haau, on -q O-qpa avTOV ^pdjais 
avTco- (this clause is discussed in the following section) 
'Pe^eKKa Se riydira tov 'la/fcojS. LXX follows Heb. in distinguish- 
ing the aorist and imperfect aspects in the two occurrences 
of dyairdv. 

451 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

fittingly adjusted to the correct writing ? " For " loved " 
as a narrative (tense) * indicates past time," while " was 
loving " (indicates) what is always present and is eternally 
the same without ever admitting an end or termination.'' 
And may it not be that this is rightly (said) ? * For the 
admission of evil and weakness/ if it does sometimes occur, 
is shortlived and ephemeral," but that of virtue '' is, in a 
certain sense, immortal,* since it does not admit of regret 
or change of mind.^ 



*167. (Gen. xxv. 28) Why does he (Isaac) love (Esau) for 
some (stated) reason, for (Scripture) says, " because his 
venison was food for him," * while his mother loved (Jacob) 
without a reason .'' * 

" Similarly OX, " quis non miretur nominum positionem, 
tam recte et aptissime rebus consonantem ? " The Greek 
frag, has more briefly and clearly tls 8' av ovk ayaaairo ro 
" lyyaTH^ae rov 'Haau* ly 8e 'PejSc/c/ca rjyaTTa tov 'laKco^ " ; 

^ One Arm. ms, omits " as a narrative (tense)." 

^ The Greek frag, has TrapeXrjXvde. 

^ Similarly OL, " quod vero diligitur adest utrique et 
sempiternatur sine fine defectionis." The Greek frag, has 
much more briefly irdpeanv del. 

* There is no parallel to this sentence in the Greek frag, 
or OL. 

^ The Greek frag, has more briefly diroSoxr} tov <f)avXov. 
OL has " prava conversatio." 

" oXiyoxpovios iari, /cat i(f)T^fi,€pos, as in the Greek frag. : 
OL " temporalis, utpote diurna, non diuturna est." 

^ TOV aiTovhaiov, as in the Greek frag. OL " respui " 
{marg. " reprobi ") must be an error for " recti " or the like. 

* TpoTTov TLva ddavaTit,eTaL. The Greek frag, has simply 
ddavaTit,€Tat.. OL, misunderstanding Tponov rtva, has " mores 
immortales." The sentences following d^avaTt^erai in the 
Greek frag. (Harris, p. 39) belong to the following section, QO 
iv. 167. ^ iJL€TdvoLav 7} iMCTdixeXos : OL " impoenitibiles." 

* Lxx oTi "q d-qpa avrov j^pcoms avTw : Heb. " because venison 
was in his mouth." 

* i.e. without a reason for Rebekah's love being stated in 
Scripture. 

452 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

Most wisely is (this said), for virtue " is not loved for any 
other reason." And concerning this some of the younger 
(philosophers) and those who are recent,*' having received 
their virtue-loving opinions directly from Moses as from 
a source," (have stated) that the good alone is desired and 
pleasing for its own sake. But that which is not of this 
nature (is loved) for its usefulness." And so, (Scripture) 
adds, " he loved (him) because his venison was food for 
him." And this is most natural,^ for it is not the venison 
that it speaks of as food but his hunting of character itself 
as of a wild animal. And this indeed is the way it is. The 
soul of the philosopher " is not nourished or fed by any- 
thing so nmch as by being able to hunt down the passions ^ 
and to keep all vice at bay. 



*168. (Gen. xxv. 29) What is the meaning of the words, 
" And Jacob prepared a preparation " * ? 

I know that things of this kind provide (occasion for) 
ridicule and mocking derision to uncultivated men and 

" The brief Greek frag, has to anovhalov : Aucher, follow- 
ing the OL " studiosus," has " virtute praeditus." In Arm. 
the adjective can be either neuter or masculine. 

" i.e. other than itself. The Greek frag, reads ov St' erepov 
Ti ayandraL : OL " ex utraque parte diligitur." 

" Aucher renders, " nonnulli juniorum novissimorumque" : 
OL has simply " nonnulli." There seem to be no other 
references in Philo to ol veajrepoi which clearly indicate to 
what school of thought he refers. 

** evdvS 8€x6fJi€VOl d)S OLTTO 7T7)Y'^S TIVOS TTapO. McOVCTe'cO? TCLS (f)iX- 

ap€Tovs yvu)fjias {vel sim.) : OL has merely " imitantes 
Mosen." 

* The Greek frag, (which resumes here) has to Se /lit) 

TOIOVTOV, €K TcSv ■)(p€lU)V. 

^ (f)vaLKa>TaTov. OL, misconstruing, reads " esca fuit ei 
naturalis suumque edictum est." 

* 17 Tov <f>LXocT6<f>ov 4'^XV- * "^^ TrdOr]. 

* Lxx -qipriaev Se 'laKwB etpepia (similarly Arm. Philo 
below) : Heb. " And Jacob cooked a cooking " (A.V. " And 
Jacob sod pottage "). 

453 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

those who lack consistency of character " and do not recog- 
nize any form or appearance of virtue * and attribute their 
own uneducatedness and stupidity and perversity '^ and 
thoughtlessness to the holy Scriptures, which are more 
truthful than any other thing. And the reason for this is 
that j ust as the blind merely touch and approach and come 
near to bodies by touch but are not able to perceive their 
colour, shape, form or any other particular property what- 
ever, so also uneducated, untrained and untaught men, 
blinded in soul ^ and thick-skinned,* dwell on the literal 
meaning only rather than on the (content of the) narrative ^ 
and touch and deal with only the words and the literal 
text." But they are unable to look into the inner (meaning) 
at the intelligible forms.'' And the literal meaning * con- 
tains a not insignificant ^ reproof of the intemperate man ^ 
for the admonition of those who can be cured.' For it was 
not for the sake of a trifling cooked pottage that (Esau) 
gave up his rights as first-born "* and yielded to the younger 
(brother) but because he made himself a slave to the 
pleasures of the belly." Let him be reproved and con- 

" TOts ayi.ovaoLS Koi rols dvapfioarois to -^dos. ^ dp€Trjg. 

" Text slightly emended by Aucher. 

^ Lit. " in eyes of the soul." 

" Meaning uncertain : Aucher " caecutientes." 

^ Meaning uncertain : Aucher renders, " supra litteras 
tantum insidunt." OL has " in sermone narrationis occu- 
pati." " Tots ovofiaai Kal toIs prjTols Xoyois. 

^ Trpos rd voTjTa eibrj. 

* The Greek frag, (which begins here) has to pjjrov rf^s 
SirjyrjaeoiS. 

^ Lit. " small." The Greek frag, omits the adjective. 

^ eXcyxov tov OLKoXdarov, as in the Greek frag. 

' TTpos vovdeaiav twv OepaTreveadaL Suva/xevoiv, as in the Greek 
frag. 

^ Tcov 7rpe(Tj8eta>v, as in the Greek frag., which, however, 
does not begin the sentence with ov ydp, as does the text 
followed by the Arm., but with 6 ydp, and therefore has no 
contrast between the two clauses. 

" So the Greek frag., SouAo? yaarpos "qhovals : OL " famulus 
ventris." 

454 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

demned as one who never was zealous for restraint and 
continence." (The passage) also contains what is in accor- 
dance with the appearance of opinion, (namely) a most 
natural explanation of the narrative. * For everything that 
is cooked is dissolved, and there is a decrease and loss of 
the virtue " which it formerly had. And to this is passion ** 
likened in form (by Scripture). For this is unsalted and 
unbelieving.* And the self-restraint of continence loosens 
and dissolves it through reason ^ by tearing apart and 
cutting up its sinews and strength. 



*169. (Gen. xxv. 29) Why does (Scripture) say, " Esau 
came from the field, giving up " " .'' 

In the case of the patriarchs,'' giving up is said to be 
adding,* for when they give up mortal life, they are added 
to the other life.^ But the wicked man has only a deficiency, 
since he suffers only from an incessant hunger for virtue * 
more than from that for food and drink. 

" The (ireek frag, reads a little differently els oveiBos 
TTpoKeiadco tu>v ff^TTore ^ijXov eyKparelas Xa^ovrwv. Originally, 
perhaps, the Greek was tov fXTJ-noTe . . . AajSeiv, as in the Arm. 
and OL " vituperator (/. " vituperatur ") nulhim continentiae 
zelum sectando." 

* The above is a literal translation of the obscure Arm., 
which Aucher more freely renders, " habet et opinionis locus 
naturalem quandam rationem historiae elucidandae." OL 
paraphrases, " ita altiora intellectu hujus dicti veritatis 
titulos commendat." 

" TTJs 8vvd[jL€a}s : OL " virtu te." ** irados. 

* The Arm. lit. = avaXov kox a-neidh^ and seems to be cor- 
rupt. OL reads " quod poterat non coctum {marg. " con- 
tactum ") nullo subjacere improperio." 

^ \6yco. For a parallel to the idea see De Sacr. Ahelis 81. 

" Lxx eVAciTTtov : Heb. " weary." 

^ The Greek frag, has tu)v anovhaLcjov. 

* So the Greek frag., 17 cKXenpis elvai Aeyerat Trpoadeais* 

^ Lit. " to that life." The Greek frag, has ddavdro) ^tofj : 
OL " immortalitas." 

* So the Greek frag., fiovov Xifiov dper'^s VTTOficvojv dLBidararov. 

455 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

170. (Gen. XXV. 30) Why does (Esau) say, " Give me a 
taste of that red pottage, for I have given up " " .'* 

The passion-loving and unmanly character ^ confesses 
his hunger for wisdom and prudence " and, at the same 
time, his deficiency in all virtue. '^ For this reason he 
straightway hastens to taste of passion, not considering 
this as anything less than his virtue but (as something) 
cooked * and mixed so as to be pleasing for its pleasurable 
colour.' And (Scripture) calls this (pottage) " red," adding 
(this word) as genuinely related to his passion,^ for an 
impulse '^ is more red when passion is reddened * or else 
because it is proper and fitting that those who are in passion 
should blush and be ashamed of lauding and honouring 
shameful things as though (they were) good and seemly. 



171. (Gen. XXV. 30) Why is his name called " Edom " ? 

" Edom " translated into the Armenian ' tongue is called 
" flame-coloured " * or " earthy," ' and this name is appro- 
priately given to him who is intemperate and unrestrained 
in character, and seeks not heavenly and divine things but 
all that is earthy and corruptible."* And not even in sleep 

" LXX yevaov fie utto rod iifie^aros rov wvppov tovtov oti 
e/cAei7ra> iyco. In the Heb. the red pottage ^ddom is connected 
with the name Edom, descendants of Esau. 

^ TO ff>iXoTTadks Kcu avavSpoi; ^dos. 

^ At/iov ao<f)Las Kol <f>poirqa€a)S. 

^ ofMov rrdcrris e/fAeii/rtv dpeTrjs. 

" Arm. amok'eal means both " cooked " and " tempered." 
Aucher here renders, " contemperatum." The OL, though 
confused, seems to favour the former rendering. 

' Variant " to be pleasing as more pleasurable." 

" Aucher misconstrues, I think, in rendering, '* simile 
vitio suo adjecto." ^ opfM-q. 

* Text slightly emended. Aucher renders literally, " quia 
majorem habet impetum rufa, atque rubicunda cupiditas." 

' Sic ! The original, of course, had " Greek." 

* (f>X6yi,vos vel sim. 

^ yrjivos, as in Quod Deus Tmrnut. Sit 14-8. 
"' ov TO. ovpdvta Koi Beta dXXd ndv yrjivov Kal (fydaprov. 

456 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

does he know the Form that is without quality and shape 
and form and body," but he is the slave of colours and 
qualities, by which all the senses '' are deceived." 



*172. (Gen. xxv. 31) Why does his brother say, " Sell 
me this day thy birthright " <* ? 

The Hteral meaning, it would seem,* shows the greed ^ 
of the younger in wishing to deprive his elder brother of his 
rights.^ But the virtuous man is not greedy,'' inasmuch as 
he is a companion of frugality and restraint,* and is especi- 
ally helpful in these.^ He therefore clearly understands 
that a continuous and unlimited abundance of possessions 
is the occasion and cause of sin to the wicked man ^ and 
is necessary to the righteous man alone. ^ And he considers 

" TO ttTTotov Kal aCT;\;77|MaTKTTov Kol dixop(f>ov Kal aawixarov ethos. 
OL has merely " in reprehensibilem vitam." 

* at aladijaets. 

'^ OL " quibus per omnem sensum opprimitur," perhaps 
reading a form of iraTeladaL instead of airaTdaOai. 

** LXX 'AtToSoU jLlOl OTJlxepOV Ttt TTpOiTOTOKfxd GOV ifXoL 

^ TO /Ltev prjTov, ota tco 8ok€lv, as in the Greek frag, from 
Cat. Lipsiensis. 

^ The Arm. uses two words to render TrXeove^iav, which is 
found in both Greek fragments, Cat. Lips, and Procopius. 

' So, almost exactly, Cat. Lips., a(f>€TepiC€adai dScA^ou 
StVata TTodovvTos. The phrase is missing from Procopius. 

'' o Se GTTovSaLos ov irXeovcKT-qs, as in Cat. Lips. Procopius 
has oTTcp aXXorpiov oTTOvSaiov. 

* So both Greek fragments, oAiyoSeias' koI eyKpareias 
irdlpos. 

^ The Arm. seems to be a partial misunderstanding of an 
original text like that in Procopius, Kai (h<j>eX-qTiK6s iv rots 
fidXiara. Cat. Lips, omits the phrase. 

* The Greek fragments read slightly diiferently : Cat. 
Lips, at d(f)dovoi nepiovaiai rajv ^avXiov ■)(^opriyol twv dfiaprrj- 
fMarcvv KOL dSi/CT/jLtctTcov avTOLS elaiv, Procopius al d^dovoi irepi- 
ovaiaL TravTL (f>avXio \opr)Yol tcDv dpLapn)fxdT(x}v koX dSt/oy/xaTtov 
etCTiV. 

^ Variant " to righteousness." The Greek fragments omit 
this last clause. 

457 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

it most necessary to remove from evil," as from a fire, that 
matter which is set on fire by heat,^ for the improvement 
of character." And this does not harm, but is a great 
benefit to him who is believed to be harmed.** That is 
the literal meaning.* But as for the deeper meaning,^ it 
should be understood that the discourse of the wise legis- 
lator » is not so much about brute animals or possessions 
or harvested fruits ^ as about the dispositions of souls.* 
For by nature the first-born and elder (brother) is activity 
in accordance with the several virtues,^ which * the wicked 
man changes because of the opinions of the multitude. For 
no one among the imprudent has ever been so mad as to 
confess that he is evil. Therefore does he say to him,^ " Do 
not mistreat "* all truth as if lying or as if laughing at a 
stage-performance, but confess at once that virtue " is a 
possession unfamiliar and not genuine or natural " to thee, 
and far removed from it wilt thou pass thy days. But it is 
familiar and suitable and proper and kin to the cultivated 
and wise character." ^ 

<* Aucher " improbo," but the Arm.= ^a/fia, as the Greek 
fragments read. 

* Aucher renders more freely, " materiam illam, quae 
ignis magis succendendi causa est." 

'^ The Greek fragments read more smoothly tt^v Trpoaava- 
(fyXeyovaav vXrjv, cos TTvpos, rrjs KaKias d(f>aLp€LV els jSeAriojaiv rjOoJv. 

** So the Greek fragments (which end with this sentence), 
onep ov ^Xd^-qv dXXd fxeyicnrrjv co(f>iX€iav irepiTroul tco tj^iiiovaOai 
80KOVVTI. * TO prjTOV. ^ TO npos Siavoiav. 

^ o Tov ao<f>ov vofioddTov Xoyos, i.e. of Moses. 

'' OL " pecuniis." 

* Aucher " de animae statu " : OL " pro constantia 
animae." ^ -q Kara tols e/caora? aperas evepyeia. 

* Aucher has *' quos," which should be " quas," since 
" virtu tes " is the antecedent of the rel. pron. OL has 
" aquarum," obviously a corruption of " quarum." 



Jacob to Esau. 



"* fir) KaKOTToiijarjs vel sim. Aucher " noli . . . deturbare." 

" apexT/. 

" Trapd <f>vmv vel sim. Aucher " aliena." 

^ Tw dcTTeia) Kal ao(f>w rjOei. 

458 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

^178. (Gen. xxv. 32) Why does he reply as follows, 
" Behold, I am going to die, and for what is this birthright 
(to me) ? " " ? 

The literal meaning * of what is said is a parable," for 
truly the life of the wicked man hastens to death every day, 
reflecting on and training for dying/ For would he not 
(otherwise) say,* " What is this to me which leads to virtue 
and happiness ? " ? ^ " For," he says, " I have something 
else to choose and to recommend to myself,^ (namely) to 
desire sensual pleasure and to seek lasciviousness and to 
be dissolute and to be greedy and avaricious and whatever 
else is akin ^ to these things." * 

^174. (Gen. xxv. 34) '" What is the meaning of the words, 
" Esau despised the birthright " *= ? 

This legislation ' is also given by God, agreeing with 
the earlier one.*" For just as the virtuous and wise man 

" LXX 180U iyu) rropevofxai reXcvrdv, kol Iva ri fioi ravra to. 
TTpoiToroKela ; ^ to prjrov. 

" Arm. arak— napa^oX-q, alviyiia, tvttos, etc. Aucher here 
renders, " aenigma." Procopius has Aoytov, OL " elo- 
quium." 

•* Procopius omits the words " every day . . . dying." 
OL has " per singulos dies nee enim meditando." 

* Variant " for he says." 

f OL reads " adeo non dixit : ad quae mihi primitia, quae 
dirigunt virtutem et beatitudinem." Procopius reads more 
smoothly ov <f)r)arl 8e " tva ri fi,oi TrpcoTOTOKta," fiera TrpoadTJKrjs 
Se Tov " Tai>ra," o ion to. Trpos dpeTTjv dyovra Koi evSai/xoviav. 
According to this reading, Philo stresses the use of the 
demonstrative pron. before " birthright." 

' Aucher " eligere et mihi parare." Procopius has 
c^atpera erepa, OL " praerogativam." * Lit. " brother." 

* So, almost literally, Procopius. OL reads more briefly 
" libidinis et luxuriae et quaecumque horum similia videntur." 

^ Philo omits comment on Gen. xxv. 33, which tells of 
Esau's oath and the sale of the birthright to Jacob. 

^ LXX /cat €(f)avXia€v 'Hcrau ra TrpcjTOTOKeXa. ^ vofiodeaia. 

^ OL reads more briefly " divinum responsum consonat 
priori." 

459 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

despises and rejects the things of the wicked man," so 
the wicked man (despises) the thoughts and deeds and 
words of the virtuous man.*" For it is impossible and un- 
viable that concord should ever come into being from 
harmony and disharmony/ 



175. (Gen. xxvi. 1) Why does a famine come upon the 
land beside the earlier famine which came in the time of 
Abraham ? <* 

It is fitting to inquire why (Scripture) adds, " upon the 
land," for where else does a famine ever come if not upon 
the land ? For it is not proper to say " in heaven." But 
may it not be that the passage contains an allegory ? * For 
the body is an earthy substance ^ about us, and when the 
virtuous and purified mind " dwells in it, it causes a famine 
not of food and drink but of wrongdoing.'' And these 
famines are distinct. The former was a lack of ignorance 
and uneducatedness * in the man who has progressed and 
become perfect through education and teaching.^ But 
superior to this is the destruction of things not in accord 

" Procopius reads more briefly /ca/ci^ei yap cooTrep 6 darelos 
TO. Tov <f>avXov. OL has " solertiam (I. " solet enim ") strenuus 
pravorum spernere facta." 

^ So Procopius, to. tov darciov Kal ^ovXevfjuara koI vpa^eis 
Koi Xoyovs. OL has " derogat enim et pravus studiosum." 

" Procopius reads more briefly davfKfxovov yap dpiiovia 
TTpos dvapfioariav. 

^ LXX 'EyeVero Sc Xi/xos em rijs yfjs X^P'-^ "^^^ Xifiov tov npo- 
Tepov (Heb. " the first ") oj iyevT^dr) iv tco xpovo) tov 'Aj3paa/x. 

" dXXrjyopiav. 

^ yqivq ovaia vel sim. : OL " terrenus sensus " : Aucher 
" terrenum." 

" o oTrovSalos Kal Kadapdels vovs : OL " pura et sobria 
mens." '' dSiKicov. • evBeta dfjiadias Kal aTratSeuaia?. 

' ev Tw TTpoKoifjovTi KoX TcXeKodevTi €K vaiSiias Kal SiSaoKaXias. 
Here, as often elsewhere in Philo, Abraham is a symbol of 
virtue acquired through learning in contrast to Isaac as a 
symbol of natural or self-taught virtue and to Jacob as 
a symbol of virtue acquired by practice. 
460 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

with nature " in him who possesses virtue by nature, with- 
out taking thought or practising but by the power of 
self- teaching and self-hearing.* Both are excellent and 
agreeable to all happiness and prosperity and sagacity, 
and are susceptible of joy.'' 

176. (Gen. xxvi. 1) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Isaac went to Abimelech, king of the Philistines, to 
Gerara " ? 

The literal meaning ^ clearly shows his journeying. But 
as for the deeper meaning,* it requires a more exact inquiry 
and examination, which we shall reveal and make clear 
through the interpretation of the names. For " Abime- 
lech " is to be interpreted as " father king," ^ and " Phili- 
stines " as " foreigners," " and " Gerara " as " hedge." ^ 

177. (Gen. xxvi. 2) Why does the (divine) word* say to 
him, " Do not go down to Egypt " ' ? 

<• Text and meaning uncertain. Aucher renders, " verum 
his superior est corruptio (vitiorum) praeter naturam." OL 
paraphrases, " novissima <.sc. " fames "> dissipavit ea quae 
minus apte videbantur." 

'' auToStSa/cTO) kox auTrjKou) Suva/xei, symbolized by Isaac, 
cf. De Plantations 168. OL renders inaccurately, ' ' naturaliter 
enim et sine doctrina virtutes acquiruntur obediente forti- 
tudine." 

" OL paraphrases, " ita utraque famis abundantiae et 
frugalitatis meliores ac laetiores " {vd. " lectiores "). 

^ TO pTjTOv. * TO rrpos bidvoiav. 

f OL " paternus rex." The name seems to be etymo- 
logized merely as " king " in De Plantations 169. 

" Philo's etymology is based on the fact that this name is 
usually rendered in the lxx as dAAo<^uAoi, though not in this 
particular verse. 

^ Apparently this fanciful etymology is based on Heb. 
gadsTy gsder= " wall," " hedge." 

* Or " oracle," as Aucher renders. OL has " eloquium 
divinum." 

^ LXX <j!)<j>d'q Se auTo) Kvpios Koi clirev, M17 KaTa^fjs els AlyvTirov. 
The verse is allegorized as here in Qnod Dstsrius 46, De 
Con/us. Ling. SI, De Migrations 29. 

461 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

The passage " is clear, containing in itself nothing dark 
or unclear. It is to be allegorized " as follows. " Egypt " 
is to be translated as " oppressing," "^ for nothing else so 
constrains and oppresses the mind ^ as do desire for sensual 
pleasures * and grief and fear. But to the perfected man,^ 
who by nature enjoys the happiness of virtue," the sacred 
and divine word ^ recommends all perfection * and not to 
go down into the passions ^ but to accept impassivity ^ with 
joy, bidding (the passions) a fond farewell.' And to those 
who are moderate *" (Scripture) reveals and recommends the 
middle way " because of their weakness, and (this) they 
accept,** not being venturesome or confident and not being 
able to ascend with him.** But those who attain and reach 
the summit « and attain to the very limit of the end do not 
give any thought' at all to that which clings to the ground.* 



178. (Gen. xxvi. 2-3) Why does He say, " Dwell in the 
land of which I shall tell thee.* And thou shalt dwell 
sojourning in the land " " ? 

" o Adyoff. ^ aAAi7yop€tTai. 

" OXl^cuv. Philo here plays on the resemblance between 
Heb. Misrayim " Egypt " and mesdrim " straits." Else- 
where (passim) he makes Egypt a symbol of to, Kara awfia 
irddrj. Interesting in this connexion is his discussion in De 
Migratione 157-160, where Egypt symbolizes bodily passion, 
and he remarks, Sid t6v oyKov fHQKeri, p^^upetv to aajfia dXi^ofievov 
ktX. ^ Tov vovv. * emOvfiiai -qSovwu. 

^ T(x) TeXeicodevTt, symbolized by Isaac. " dperrjs. 

^ 6 Upos Kal detos Xoyos. * iravreXeiav. ^ Karui els to. Trddrj. 

* OLTTddeLav, cf. De Plantatione 98 dnddcLav dvrl rraOajv. 

^ TToXXd xo.ip€iv (f>pdt,ovTa. "' tols fierplois. " fMeaorrjTa. 

" Aucher punctuates differently and renders, " quia ob 
infirmitatem id ultro acceptant." OL paraphrases freely. 

" i.e. Isaac. <» -npos aKpoTrjra. 

^ Lit. " do not make way." * tco ;)^a/Aat^7^Aoj. 

' LXX KaTOiKvaov Se iv rrj yrj ■^ dv aoi etTroj. 

" The Arm. lit. = Tra/aoiKia KaroiKci iv rrj yfj. LXX has Kal 
irapoiKei iv ttj yfj Tavrrj, as does Philo in De Confas. Ling. 81. 
It is probable that this was the original reading here also. 
462 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

He indicates a distinction between sojourners and 
dwellers, for in word " men dwell in these cities, but in fact 
the soul * does not show the same dispositions." And He 
commands the wise man ** to sojourn * in that land which 
admits of pointing to and touching,^ but to dwell in that 
(land) which the divine oracle will command. For the 
sense-perceptible and earthy " is our body. And the soul, 
which is the principal thing within it, if it is to desire a 
blessing,'' should and must (merely) sojourn* in it, being 
mindful of the mother-city,^' to which it seeks to remove 
and to dwell there. Wherefore He legislates ^ for the 
divinely born soul, admonishing and encouraging it to 
dwell there with constancy. And what other city is a 
fitting symbol ' of this character* according to the law of 
allegory "• if not virtue .'' " 



*179. (Gen. xxvi. 3) What is the meaning of the words, 
" I will be with thee and I will bless thee " " ? 

(This) shows the connexion -and harmonious order of the 
things fitted together methodically in the divine oracles. 

" Xoyo) fi€v, contrasted with Ipyo) Se in the following clause. 

" BiaOeaeai. Aucher renders, " re autem animae in suis 
dispositionibus vix sese uniformiter habentis." 
** rw ao(f)co. 

* Lit. " to dwell in sojourning," see note u on p. 462. 

^ Aucher renders more freely, " in ea, quam tantummodo 
videat et tangat, terra." OL has " permittitur ergo sapienti 
incolatus pro spectaculo tantum et actu " (1. " tactu "), and 
adds an explanatory clause. " to alaOrjTov koI yiQivov. 

^ Arm. geleQkabanout'iun='' beauty of speech" or the 
like, but here prob. is a too literal rendering of evXoyiav, 
mentioned in the next clause in Scripture and in Philo's next 
section. Aucher here renders, " pulchrum negotium," OL 
" benivolentiam " (sic). 

* Lit. " dwell in sojourning," see note u on p. 462. 
' rijs fx'qTpo'jToXeoiS' * vo^oderel. 

' atvt y/Aa. "* Kara tov Trjs aXX-qyopias vofiov. 

" dperi], ° LXX eaofiai fiera aov Koi euAoyiyaoi cre. 

463 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

For God necessarily " brings near to man concord and 
blessing * and pleasantness of speech/ just as, on the con- 
trary, distance (from God brings) irrationality/ For there 
is no greater evil for the soul than folly and stupidity, when 
it is deprived of the rational genus, the mind, which is 
characteristic of it/ 

^180. (Gen. xxvi; 3) What is the meaning of the words, 
" I will establish my oath which I swore to thy father " ^ ? 

First, this must be said, that the words of God do not 
differ from oaths. And by whom does God swear if not 
by Himself ? " And He is said to swear, because of our 
weakness, for we think that just as in the case of man an 
oath differs from words, so also is it in the case of God.'^ 
And since He is blessed and gracious and propitious. He 
does not judge created beings * in accordance with His 
greatness but in accordance with theirs.^ And in the 

" e^ dvdyKrjs. ** ofiovoLav kol evXoyiav. 

" Aucher " bonamque eloquentiam " : OL " complaca- 
tionem." The Arm. variant seems to be merely an ortho- 
graphic one. 

** The Arm. word usu.— dXoyla. Aucher renders, " priva- 
tionem verbi {vel, rationis) " : OL " maledictionem." The 
Arm. variant means " lack of (permanent) dwelling." 

* Slightly different is the text of the Greek frag., fxei^ov 
dvdpcoTTii) KaKov d(f>poavvrjs ouSev iari, to lSlov rov XoyiariKOV 
yevovs, rov vovv, ^rjfjLioiddvTL. 

^ LXX /cai arrjaoi rov opKOV /xou ov aifioaa 'Aj3paa/i tco Trarpi 

GOV. 

" So the Greek frag., d8t,a(f>opovaiv opKcov Ao'yoi Oeov. /cat 
Kara rives dv cj/xoaev 6 Oeos, on [xrj eavrov ; 

'' So the Greek frag., Xdyerat 8e ofivvvai Sta rrjv rifierepav 
dadivcLOV rwv VTToXafjL^avovrcov (Ls €7T* dvOpcorrov 8ia(f>€p€LV Xoycov 
opKovs, ovrcos €7TL dcov. OL, taking 8La(f)€p€Lv in the sense of 
" excel," renders the next to last clause, " juracula hominum 
fortiora esse verborum." 

* Lit. " those in generation." 

^ Aucher amplifies in rendering, " juxta eorum (pusillani- 
mitatem)," OL " adversus generis possibilitatem." There 
is no Greek preserved of this sentence. 

4.64 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

second place, He wishes to praise the son as one worthy 
of his father's nobility," for He would not firmly establish 
the prayers '' made to the father with an oath, for the sake 
of the son, if He did not witness the same virtue " in him/ 
Cease, therefore, now from praising nobility ^ separately 
by itself and learn from the divine Scriptures what true 
(nobility) is, and repent. For this (passage) clearly teaches 
us to define and judge and discern the well-born (as being) 
not those who have sprung from good fathers or grand- 
parents and are content with that alone, but those who are 
themselves emulators of their (fathers') piety/ And it is 
wrong " to praise those who are involuntarily good ^ or an 
involuntary origin,* for not by taking thought does each 
of us come into being,'' and that which is voluntary is not 
to be placed in any order,* and the voluntary is best and 
is the acceptance and imitation of the good.' 



181. (Gen. xxvi. 4a) What is the meaning of the words, 
" I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven " "» ? 

Two things are indicated, in which the nature of all 
things in general " consists, (namely) quantity and quality 
— quantity in " I will multiply," and quality in "as the 
stars." So may (thy descendants) be pure and far-shining " 

" €uyeveias. The Greek frag, has evepyias. 

* The Greek frag, has euAoyia?, which makes better sense. 
OL has " foederis." 

•^ dp€TT]v, as in the Greek frag. ^ i.e. the son. 

<" More lit. " freedom " (of birth) — eXevdeplav : OL " ge- 
neris nobilitatem." ' evae^eias. 

" droTTov, apparently rendered here by two Arm. words. 

^ Aucher, taking the adj. as neuter, renders, " involuntaria 
bona," OL " minus ultroneum bonum." * yeveaiv. 

' OL " nee enim per cujusdam consilium nascimur." 

*= Meaning not wholly clear. OL has " ita enim spontanea 
bonitas pro nihilo imputatur." 

* OL reads " quoniam spontaneum melius actus testi- 
monium est, et paterna imitatio." 

"* LXX Kai TTXrjdvvd) to anepfia aov cos tovs darepas tov ovpavov. 
" Koivats {vel sim.) rj rwv iravroiv <f>vaLS' " T-qXavyels. 

4>65 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

and always be ranged in order and obey their leader,'* and 
may they behave like the luciform (stars) which everywhere 
with the splendour of ethereal brightness also illumine all 
other things. 



182. (Gen. xxvi. 4b) What is the meaning of the words, 
" To thy seed I will give all this land " ^ ? 

The literal text '^ makes clear the special meaning of the 
Law," in which it is said that only the wise man is rich * 
and that all things belong to the wise man. But as for the 
deeper meaning,^ He says, " I will grant to thee all earthly 
and corporeal substances as if servants subject to a ruler." 
For I wish thee not to collect revenue '^ and not to exact 
tribute,* which immoderate and insatiable passions deter- 
mine, but in the manner of a king to be a ruler and leader, 
and to lead the way rather than be led." 



183. (Gen. xxvi. 4c) What is the meaning of the words, 
" In thy seed ^ will be blessed all the nations of the 
earth " * ? 

The literal meaning ^ is significant ^ and clear. But as 
for the deeper meaning,^ it is to be allegorized " as follows. 

*» Tco Ta^Lapxip. Probably God is meant as in De Spec. Leg. 
ii. 230 <,i/jvxal> TT€id6^€vaL Tip ra^tdpxip. 

^ LXX Koi Stoao) rip airepixaTi aov ndaav rrjv yijv ravr-qv (Heb. 
" all these lands "). In Quis Rer. Div. Heres 8 Philo comments 
on Gen. xxvi. 3-5 as a unit. " ro prjTov. 

^ rT]v Ibiav tov vofiov yvcofirjv vel sim. : OL " utpote Dei 
decreto pronuntiatum." 

* fjLOVov 6 ao<f>6s TrXovaios- 
^ TO TTpos Bidvoiav. 

» OL " ut principatum {I. " principatui " ?) quendam sub- 
jectum." '' elaoBovs. 

* (l)6pov : OL " foenora." ^ OL " in nomine tuo." 

* LXX KOL ivevXoyrjd-qaovrai iv rep OTrep/xari aov ndvra rd edvr) 
rrjs Yrjs. ' ro p-qrov. 

^ Aucher " symbolica." OL omits the first sentence. 
♦* TO vpos Stavotav. " aXX-qyopelrai,. 

466 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

All the nations of this earth's soil " are in us.* And the 
various senses," such as they may be, consist of the various 
passions.** And these become better when they adhere 
to a governor and overseer and superintendent, who has 
power as, according to the poet,* " both a goodly king 
and a warlike spearman." But they undergo a change 
for the bad when the sovereign mind ^ changes to obedience 
and submission, and, like a bad and weak charioteer, is 
unable to restrain the headlong course and wildness of 
yoked " horses, and is carried away by their great speed. 

^184. (Gen. xxvi. 5) Why does He say, " Forasmuch as 
thy father was obedient and kept My precepts and My 
commandments and My rights and My laws " ^ ? 

Everything which is Mine, He says, is this.* For good 
and virtuous men are familiar with the powers of God,^ 

" Lit. " of this earthy earth." 

* OL renders freely, " omnes gentes figuras esse terreni 
corporis nostri." " alaO-qaeis. 

^ The Arm. text seems to be inexact ; one would expect 
" give rise to the various passions." Aucher renders, " in 
singulas oupiditates coalescunt " : OL " per singulos sensus 
singula vitia nascuntur." 

« Homer, Iliad iii. 179 (on Agamemnon) aix(j>6repov 
^aaiXevs t' dyaOos Kparepos t' atxtifjTT^S. 

^ 6 rjyefxcov vovS' 

" Aucher and OL omit the participle. 

^ Philo here slightly abbreviates the lxx text (which he 
follows verbatim in Quis Rer. Div. Heres 8), dvd* c5v virrjKovaev 
*APpadfi. 6 TTarrjp aov ttjs efirjs <f>iov^s, koI €(f>vXa^€v to. 'rrpoardy- 
fiard ixov (Heb. "My observance ") Kal rds ivroXds fxov kol to. 
BiKaicofxaTd p-ov (Heb. " My statutes ") Kal rd vofju/xd p.ov. OL 
renders Si/catco/taTa as " justificationes," and omits v6p.ip,a. 
Philo comments on the verse also in De Migratione 130 and 
De Abrahamo 275. 

* So the Arm. literally. Aucher renders, " omnia Mea, 
haec sunt, ait." OL paraphrases. 

' oi dyadol koX a-novhaiot rats d€ov Svvdfxeaiv oIk€lol etVtv. OL 
renders loosely, " haec Mea praeclara bona divinae virtutis 
domestica." 

467 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

from which, as from a spring, a few men draw,* (namely) 
those who are well provided with a proper education,'' and 
genuinely desire wisdom/ Now, of the four (things' men- 
tioned), the first two are considered to be consecrated to 
God,*^ (namely) " the precepts and commandments," for 
He gives precepts as a ruler to those who do not readily 
obey without fear, and He gives commandments as to His 
friends * to those who pray and have faith/ But the other 
two, (namely) " the rights and laws " are virtues " toward 
men, concerning whom it is fitting and proper to have 
great care of laws and rights,'^ for rights can somehow 
exist and consist by nature, while laws (do so) by conven- 
tion. But those things (existing) by nature are older than 
those (existing) by convention, and so, rights (are older) 
than laws.* 



185. (Gen. xxvi. 6) Why does (Scripture) say that " Isaac 
dwelt as a sojourner ^ in Gerar " * ? 

« Lit. " take." 

'' opOfj TraiSeia K€xopr}yr)fj.€voi. Aucher renders, " qui recta 
disciplina pulchre incedunt." OL renders defectively (omit- 
ting participle or verb), " plura (I. " pura " ?) disciplina." 

" ao(f)Las yvrjalcos e^tevrai. 

^ i.e. they are the laws concerning man's duties toward 
God as opposed to those concerning his relations toward his 
fellow-men. See H. A. Wolfson, Philo, ii. 200. 

* OL " ut amicus " (I. " amicis " ?). 
^ Aucher " credulis." 

" dperaC. 

^ Construction not quite clear. Aucher renders, " quibus 
etiam convenire dixeris leges et iura (sancire) aut potius mag- 
nam habere curam." 

* Similarly the brief Greek frag, (from Dam. Sacra Par., 
identified by Lewy, p. 59), hia^ipci BiKaiaifiaTa voixCfxcov to, 
fxev yap ttws Bvvavrai avvlaOaadai {sic) (f>vaei, to, Se vofiLfxa deaei. 
vpea^irrepa Se rcov deaci to. (fyvaei, cSarc koX to StVatov vofiov. 

^ Lit. " in sojourn." lxx has simply Karwiajaev, Heb. and 
Arm. O.T. " dwelt." The Arm. Philo seems to reflect a 
reading TrapcpKrjaev as in one lxx ms. (E). 

* Arm. and lxx " Gerara." 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

" Gerar " is to be interpreted as " hedge," <* which we 
allegorically " declare to be that which concerns the body 
and whatever external things vain, empty and useless 
opinions blindly invent. For he who dwells within this 
hedge is wretched, serving many implacable, cruel and 
inexorable masters. And he endures their threats, being 
deceived," in the manner of beasts, by what is not good 
as though it were the best of all. But the sojourner ** 
imagines the hope of his entire freedom,* being contented 
with necessities. Wherefore he easily slips away from the 
hedge ^ and from the snares which are in it. 



186. (Gen. xxvi. 7) Who are the men who inquired con- 
cerning his wife ? " 

To the various parts of the soul there are thoughts re- 
lated as inhabitants '' as follows. To the rational (part) * 
(are related thoughts) pertaining to wisdom and folly ^ ; 
to the irascible *= (are related thoughts) pertaining to 
courage and cowardice' ; to the appetitive'" (are related 

" (f>payix6s, a word which the lxx usually employs to render 
Heb. gdder. In QG iv. 59 (on Gen. xx. 1) Philo explains 
Gerar as " the region of God-loving thoughts," evidently 
connecting it with Heb. ger " sojourner " or " resident alien." 

* aAATjyopouvres. 

'^ OL " infructuosa spe occupatus." ** o ndpoiKoS' 

* Aucher renders, " at peregrinus spe quadam depicta 
totalis suae libertatis " : OL " incola vero spem sibi recondit 
futurae libertatis." 

^ OL " cujus spem facillime effugiet." 

" OL reads differently " qui sunt illi viri quos Scriptura 
meminit ? " Philo here comments only on the first part of 
the verse, which goes on to say that Isaac reported Rebekah 
to be his sister, fearing that the men of Gerar might kill him 
because of her beauty. 

'^ iKaoTois TOts TTJs ^vXV^ fxepeaiv oiKetol eiai XoyiafJLol cScrTrep 

OlKTITOpeS. 

* to) XoyiKcp. OL renders, " partem eloquentiae." 

' ao(f>Lav Kal d(f>poavv7]v. * tw dvfiiKcp. 

' dvSpeiav Kal SeiXiav. *" tw €indvfir}riK<o. 

469 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

thoughts) pertaining to moderation " and licentiousness ; 
to the nutritive " (are related thoughts) pertaining to food 
and drink ; to the sense-perceptible " (are related the 
thoughts) which in accordance with the several senses seek 
to find enjoyment and new sensual pleasures/ But the 
place of the hedge ^ itself has its own men, (namely) the 
thoughts which depend upon and are attached to ^ the body 
and external things. Wherefore they attempt to corrupt 
and stain its unstained, holy and pure nature. 



187. (Gen. xxvi. 8a) What is the meaning of the words, 
" He was there a long time " ^ ? 

The retreat ^ of the contemplative and God-loving soul * 
is (considered to be) a dwelling in a place of sojourn ^ for 
a long time even if (only) for a day. Biit that which *^ is 
without place and without time is best.^ For places'" and 
times are brothers, which come into existence together and 
are moved " together. 



^188. (Gen. xxvi. 8b) " What is the game ^ which Abime- 
lech, looking through the window, saw Isaac playing with 
his wife ? ' 

" o(jo(f)poavvr}v. ^ tu) dpermKco. 

" Tcp aladrjTLKO). '^ 'qSovds. 

« i.e. Gerar, see the preceding section. 

^ Aucher renders the two ptcs. by one, " adhaerentes." 

^ rxx iyevero Se 7roAi;;^/oovtos' e'/cei. 

'' 17 dvax(of)T]ais : Arm. variant " distance " or " absence." 

* T'^S <f>lXod€djXOVOS KoX <f>lXod€OV ^VX^JS. 

^ iv TOTTCp vapoiKias. 

* The rel. pron. here is evidently neuter, as OL correctly 
renders. Aucher renders it as masc, " qui." 

^ Arm. uses two adjectives. "* i.e. space. 

" Aucher " incedentia " : OL " agitata." 

" Philo comments similarly on this passage in Be Plan- 
tat tone 169-177. p -q TTaiBid. 

^ Lxx TTapaKvipas 8c 'A^ifxeXex • • • 8td rrjs dvpiSos tSiv rov 
'Icadic TTait,ovra ficrd 'Pe^CKKas rrjs yvvaiKOS avrov. 

470 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

The literal meaning " represents lawful commerce ^ with 
one's wife." But as for the deeper meaning," this must be 
attributed (to it, namely that) not every game is blame- 
worthy but sometimes it is virtuous and praiseworthy, for 
it is a sign of the innocence and sincerity of the pure 
festiveness of the heart." For the age of playfulness is 
guileless and without cunning, whence " boy " ^ was first 
named. And from this, in accordance with (our) inter- 
pretation, the festive enjoyments of perfect men " which 
are worthy and virtuous are called a "game."'' And 
wicked and luxury-loving men have no share or part or 
taste of this at all but lead sorrowful and painful lives. 
The virtuous,' however, happily enjoy (this) ^ always, (as) 
men, when their souls are impressed upon *= the mortal 
body, or when they are released and separated and removed 
at death, or else when they have never in any way been 
bound (to bodies). So also (do) the divine beings ^ which 



" TO prjTOV. 

^ Arm. hawasarout' iun usu.= Koivcovta, but here the 
original prob. had avvovaiav. The brief paraphrase in Pro- 
copius (of this sentence only) reads 'EjSpatot Se ^aaiv evaxq- 
/idvcos elprjadai to " Trat^eiv " olvtI tov avvovaidt,€tv. OL has 
" coitus." 

" Aucher, construing differently, renders, " litera con- 
versationem mutuam indicat legitimi viri cum uxore." 

^ TO TTpos bidvoiav. 

" a-qfjiclov TTJs OLKaKtas Koi arrXoTrfros rrjg Kadapws evcoxovjjievrjs 
Kapbias. 

^ Trai?, as if from Trat^cov " playing." ^ reXeicov. 

'^ TTttiSia. Aucher renders somewhat differently, " ex quo 
secundum usum receptum et perf( ctorum jucunditas grata 
et honesta vocatur paedia (relaxatio animi, ludus, jocus)." 
OL has " superveniente autem perfectorum delectatione 
facile transiguntur. Est enim in ipsis jocositas." 

* ol (TTTouSatoi. ^ OL adds " in bonis operibus." 

*= Such seems to be the literal meaning of Arm. 9nd arak 
hareaW here. Aucher has " conjunct! " : OL reads quite 
differently " semoti malorum." Possibly the original Greek 
had €VTvp,^€v6fji€vai, which wasmiscopied as evrimovfievai. 

' 01 Baifioves. 

471 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the sacred word of Moses " is wont to call " angels," ^ and 
the stars." For these ^ are, as it were, intelligible, marvel- 
lous and divine natures,* having acquired eternal joy un- 
mixed with sorrow. Similar is the universal and whole 
heaven and world since it is both a rational animal and a 
virtuous animal and philosophical by nature.^ And for 
this reason it is without sorrow or fear, and full of joy. 
Moreover, it is said that even the Father and Creator of the 
universe " continually rejoices in His life an,d plays and is 
joyful, finding pleasure in play which is in keeping with 
the divine and in joyfulness.'' And He has no need of any- 
thing nor does He lack anything, but with joy He delights 
in Himself and in His powers ^ and in the worlds ^ made 
by Him. But in the system of invisible evidence these are 
measures of all incorporeal forms ^ in the likeness and in the 
image of the invisible.' Rightly, therefore, and properly 

** o iepos Xoyos Mwvaecos. Aucher renders freely, " sacro 
Moyses verbo " : OL " religiosus Moses." 

^ dyyeXovs, cf. De Somniis i. 141. " ol darepes. 

^ i.e. the stars or heavenly bodies generally. 

* oiOTTep voepal koI OavpudaiaL Koi Oetai (f>v(T€is rives elcnv. 

^ ovpavos Koi KoapLos' t,cpov ydp iart XoyiKOv koI ^tpov (nrovSaiov 
/cat (f>va€i. <f>LX6ao<f>ov. 

" Kol 6 naTTjp Kal TToivTrjs t(x)v oAtuv, a common locution in 
Philo. 

^ Aucher renders somewhat differently, " gaudens con- 
decenti divinum jocum jucunditate." OL abbreviates the 
whole passage after " Creator of the universe," reading 
" semper digno suo lusu delectari." * rais Suva/ieat. 

^ Note the plural. OL renders the sentence more briefly, 
" delectatur enim in splendore virtutum et creaturarum 
suarum universitate." * dacopLdriov Ibecov (or clBwv). 

" Aucher, remarking in a footnote that the sentence is 
" obscurissima," renders more freely, " invisibilis vero illius 
ideae, quae indicativa est hujus compaginis, incorporearum 
specierum mensurae haec sunt, omnes illas esse in simili- 
tudine formaque invisibilis (creatoris)." OL reads more 
intelligibly " invisibili ergo exemplari ex incorporalibus 
figuris constitute, merito mensurae universorum in ipsius 
(1. " ipsis " ?) visibiles sunt pro imitaculo verae atque syncerae 
supernae imaginis." 
472 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

does the wise man," believing (his) end * (to consist in) like- 
ness to God, strive, so far as possible, to unite the created 
with the uncreated and the mortal with the immortal, and 
not to be deficient or wanting in gladness and joyfulness 
in His likeness. •= For this reason he plays this game of 
unchangeable and constant virtue '^ with Rebekah, whose 
name is to be interpreted in the Armenian « language as 
" Constancy."^ This game and delight of the soul the 
wicked man does not know, since he has no marriage ^ with 
wonderful pleasure/ But the progressive man,* as if look- 
ing from a window, sees it but not the whole of it and not 
the mingling ' of both alone.* For this there is need of 
the especially sharp-sighted eyes of one accustomed (to 
seeing) from a distance and of those who are accustomed 
to see.^ 



° d ao<f>6s, here represented by Isaac. 

^ TO reXos. 

" A diiferent text underlies 0/>, " quapropter sapiens fineni 
perfectum aestimando assimilare deo time capit nascibiiem 
innato conjectum, festinat non deesse hujus similitudinis et 
jucunditatis." 

^ ^€^aias dperrjs. 

« As usual, the Arm. translator substitutes " Armenian " 
for " Greek." 

f BiafjLovq or vTToyLovri^ see QG iv. 97, 135 et al. 

^ ydfxov. 

^ Here Philo uses rjSovTJ in an (exceptional) good sense. 

* d TTpoKOTTTcov, symbolizcd by Abimelech. OL has 
" niunus," which possibly is based on a misreading of 

TTpOKOTTTOJV aS TTpaKTlKOV. 

' Lit. " those mingled." 

^ Aucher renders more freely, " sive utriusque (luduni) 
singulariter purum." In a footnote he gives a literal render- 
ing similar to mine. OL has " non tamen purum sentit 
utrorumque jocum " {v.l. " jugum "). 

' Aucher renders, " ad quod acutissimi oculi opus est diu 
assuefacti, etiam quae in consuetudine cernere." OL para- 
phrases, " cujus mens dubitat acutius {v.l. " citius ") cernere 
melioras olet (/. " meliora, solet ") enim suam consuetudinem 
pro plenitudine laudis accipere." 

473 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

■^^189. (Gen. xxvi. 12) " What is the meaning of the words, 
" He sowed in that year and found hundredfold barley " '' ? 

The year is a completed time " and consists of all the 
times ^ of the year, when it is called " within itself and 
outside of itself." * Now, one hundred is the most sacred 
of numbers, (being) a power ^ of the all-perfect decad." 
But the literal text is a sort of testimony ^ that for the 
virtuous man ^ there is prosperity both in agriculture and 
in other things pertaining to the life of the world, and that 
that which comes afterwards is many times greater than 
that which was in the beginning, and is fullness.^ But as 
for the deeper meaning,*^ barley is the food of both men 
and irrational creatures,* but in each of us the mind is a 
man, and sense-perception is a beast."* Accordingly, when 
barrenness and unproductivity of good things do not 
follow but the soul " presents itself as fertile land like a 
field which is able to receive the seed of virtue," it becomes 

*" Philo here passes over Gen. xxvi. 9-11, telling of Abime- 
lech's discovery that Rebekah was Isaac's wife and his 
decree that none of his subjects should molest them on pain 
of death. 

^ Philo abbreviates the lxx text, which reads eaireipcv 8e 
'laaa/c eV rfj yfj iKetvjj kol evpev iv tw evLavTco eVeiVo) CKaro- 
arevovaav KpidxjV evXoyqaev he avTOV Kvpios. The word Kpid-qv 
" barley " is based on Heb. s^'orim ; our extant Heb. text has 
S^'drim " gates." Philo comments on the hundredfold yield 
in De Mut. Norn. 268-269. 

" OL " anni (sic) tempus perfectum." ^ i.e. seasons. 

« V.l. " and outside within itself " : OL " apud se et infra 
se omnia habere." The meaning of the apparently corrupt 
Arm. text is clear from De Spec. Leg. iv. 285 rov iviavrov, 
OS, Kaddirep avro (jLTjvveL Tovvofia, avTOS ev iavrco iravra 7repie;^ct 
avfjLTTepaiovfjLcvos. ^ Swa/xij. 

" Cf. QG iii. 56 and Staehle, pp. 70-71. 

'* TO piqrov (jLapTvpiov ri iari. * roi aTTOvhaiw. 

' OL paraphrases, " semperque ejus germina ampliantur 
plus quam pridem." * to -rrpos Sidvoiav. 

' Kai dXoyojv t,(x)iov, i.e. beasts. 

"' dvdpcoTTOS 6 vovs Kai dXoyov rj atadrjais. 

" 7) fpvxTJ- " TO TTJs dperrjs OTrepfia. 

474 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

fruitful ; and when it is seen to bear in accordance with 
its several virtues, it finds more than it bore, for God 
furthers the growth." And from the invisible to the visible 
and another form He benefits * the rational and the irra- 
tional " with one and the same grace,** in accordance with 
the perfect number, the hundred, which is the most perfect 
and sacred principle * from the sacred principle of the 
decad/ 

190. (Gen. xxvi. 13) What is the meaning of the words, 
" Progressing, he became greater until he was very- 
great " ^ ? 

Since the literal meaning ^ is clear, it is the deeper mean- 
ing that must be ascertained.' To ^ the perfect number 
and that which contains the year within itself * (Scripture) 
clearly likens ' the progress and growth of the mind,*" and 
gives an account of the first stage." And when it reaches 

" Lit. " furthers and causes to grow." 

^ evepyerovvTOS. 

* The above is a literal translation of the obscure Arm. 
passage, which Aucher renders, " atque ex invisibili in visi- 
bilem, et aliam formam benefice transvehente rationalem 
partem et irrationalem." OL paraphrases, " deo palam pro- 
ferente certa ex invisibili sue thesauro, ut utraque res bene- 
ficia sentiat, persona videlicet atque rationabilis." 

^ TJj auT^ x^P^'''''- * ^PX'l' 

f OL abbreviates the text after " grace," reading, " quae 
est primitiva numeri sanctions." 

" i,xx KoX vijjcodr] (Heb. " became great ") o dvdpcoTTos Kal 
TTpo^alvcov fieil^ajv iyevero Icos ov fxeyas iyivero o(f>6hpa. 

^ TO prjTOv. * TO npos Stavotav aKpc^coTiov. 

^ The Arm. prep, i with the ablative case usu.= " from " 
but the context here requires the meaning " to " ; cf, OL 
" secundum similitudinem perfecti numeri." 

^ See the preceding section. 

' Emending the ending of the Arm. verb, -el (inf.) to 
-eal (ptc). 

*" Tr)v Tov vov TTpoKcmrjv Kal av^rjaiv. 

" OL " prudentiam crescere, primo interim gradu pro- 
vectam." 

475 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

the first magnitude, why should it examine and inquire 
into those things which are created sinless ? " 



*191. (Gen. xxvi. 15) Why did the Philistines stop up 
and fill (the wells) which the servants of his father had 
dug ? * 

The literal text " indicates a twofold reason. One of 
them, the first, is that it is the custom of inconsiderate 
men ** not to allow any pillars or monuments of the good, 
whatever they may be, to remain " which redound to their 
happiness/ And the second (reason) is that, bursting with 
envy and jealousy of the others' continuous " prosperity, 
they are contemptuous of their own profit,'' thinking it 
better to suffer harm than to find good in that which they 

" Variant " which are uncreated." The text is obviously 
corrupt. OL has " jam non pro nascibilibus sed pro incom- 

Earabilibus mente occupantur." Perhaps the Arm. trans- 
itor read dvaixapT-qTcov for dfidrpcov, the original meaning 
being that Scripture does not specify the exact measure of 
greatness which Isaac reached. 

^ Lxx Ktti Trdvra rd <f>p€aTa a ojpv^av ol TraiSe? rov Trarpos avrov 
€v Tw XP°^V "^^^ varpos avrov (some Lxx Mss. and Heb. add 
" Abraham ") iv4<f>pa^av avrd ol OuAicrTtct/x koX ^irX-qaav avrd 
yijs. ^ 

" TO prjTOV. 

^ Tols yap d^ovXois €005 eari, as in the Greek frag, from 
Cat. Lips. The second Greek frag., from Procopius, has 
01 ifiTTadeis. 

* Cat. Lips. fXT^re fxvrjfielov ti dTToXinetv rcbv KaXwv : Pro- 
copius Kal rd fjLvr)pL€ia t(x>v dyaddJv €$aX€L<f>ovai : OL " nullos 
titulos insignis memoriae relinquere." 

' Cat. Lips, omits the rel. clause : Procopius Kav Tvxuiaiv 
c'l auTcSv (o^eXovficvot, : OL " quod benevoli pro capessenda 
gloria student." 

» Or " exceeding." 

^ So, almost verbatim, Cat. Lips., tj oti p-qyvvp,€voi (fydovw 
Kal fiaaKovia rrjs rrepl iKcivovs {v.l. eKeCvtov) evirpayias oXiycopovai 
Kal TTJs avTwv (l. avTcbv) co^eXeias : Procopius omits : OL 
reads inaccurately " secunda, pro invidia et live re prosperi- 
tatis communem despicientibus utilitatem." 

476 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

do not desire.** " For what," one might say, " prevented 
(you), O most stupid and foolish of all men,^ from leaving 
alone the springs which another had found, for the use of 
those among you who were in need (of them) ? " " But one 
might say in reply, " Do not look for an apology of liber- 
ality ** from jealous and envious men, who think it a pun- 
ishment (to accept) kindnesses extended by the noblest 
men. ' ' * That is the literal meaning. But the deeper meaning f 
must be sought. The wells that were dug are symbols of 
education and knowledge," and each of them is deep, and 
their final end ^ is (to furnish) drink to the thirsty. But 
do you seek from among the polymaths the stoppers of 
ignorance ' in order that they may get rid of it ^ as a 
burden and purify the observances of those things formerly 

" The two Greek fragments differ slightly from the Arm. 
and from each other ; Cat. Lips, dfieivov -qyovfievoi ^XaTrreaOai 
jj-aXXov ^ v(f)* a)v ovk €v ri deXovaiv (v.l. ovKert OeXovmv : Wend- 
land conj. ovk ideXovaiv) evepyeTeladat : Procopius Trpori- 
fjLcovrcs ^Xd^rrv fxaXXov t] ttjv ef <Lv fjLrj deXovaiv evepyeaCav : OL 
" mallentes laedi potius quam sentire beneficia." Procopius 
adds, apparently on his own account, (o(f>€Xovv yap at v-qyal 
Kol Tcov OuAioTiet/Li Tovs ^ovXoiiivovs K^xp'^odai. The quotations 
from this section in Cat. Lips, and Procopius end here, but 
the next two sentences are preserved in a frag, from Cod. Len. 
124 (Lewy, p. 59). 

^ The Greek frag, has c5 TravTcov riXidLwraToi : OL " O 
stolidissimi hominum." 

« Slightly emending the Arm. from the Greek frag., which 
reads rds Tn^yds eaaai, as erepos evpev -npos ttjv tcov rrap' vfilv 
avrols 8€Ofj,€vo)v Xfyfjc^i-V' 

** i.e. " a frank apology " ; the Greek frag, has aTToXoylav 
evyvcLpiova : OL " defensionem rationabilitatis." 

* TcDv jSeAriCTTcov x^piras vel sim. ^ ro npos hidvoiav. 

" avix^oXa TTttiScia? Kal imcrrTJfi'qs : OL " fossuras puteorum 
auspicia esse disciplinarum." Cf. De Somniis i. 11 em- 
oTiQfirjs <f>p€ap. * TO reXos. 

* €K Tctiv TToXvfjLaddjv TOVS iix<f>pdTTOVTas TTJV afxadlav. 

^ Aucher " qui abjiciunt," but the context requires a sub- 
junctive, although the Arm. has the indicative (singular !). 
OL reads " harum {v.l. "escarum") ergo amatores injectam 
obstrusionem, quae pro ignorantia accipitur, expurgant." 

477 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

determined." For it is not the perfect man ^ who is intro- 
duced as digging now, for he has the wells in his soul, which 
clearly means the springs of education (and) knowledge,'' 
but the servants whom he considered worthy of the service 
of his education.'' These are they who have recently taken 
hold of education and, by gradually going farther and 
deeper, have finally attained their end. And so, by exert- 
ing themselves in good labours,* they become perfect,^ 
not failing of that desire." But foreign characters,'' whom 
the Hebrews call " Philistines," * being envious of our 
progress,' not only obstruct the free spaces ^ through which 
doctrines proceed on a firm footing,^ but also fill them with 
earth, that is, with earthy desires,"* which are the pleasures 
connected with the belly," and they hasten to fill it. By 
these the mind " is weighed down (as by) a burden," and 
becomes irrational and unphilosophical.^' 

" The Arm. lit. = ras rwv Trporepov ibpiafidvcov vapaTTjpriaeis : 
OL " per observantiam institutorum." Aucher renders 
freely, " obstacula ab aliis injecta." ^ 6 rdXeios. 

" OL " adeo perfectus hujusmodi fossuras non facit, est 
enim plenus scientiae." 

'^ OL " sed pueri quos dignos sui ministerii arbitratur." 

* iv KaXoLS TTOvoiS dycovi^6p.€voL. 

^ Variant " they become able." 

" Aucher " ne aberrent ab ipso desiderio perfectionis." 
OL renders the whole sentence difl^erently, " hi quidem 
bonum desiderium prosequentes, dignum inveniunt fructum." 

^ dXX6<f>vXoi (or dXXoyevets) rpo-noL : OL " alienigenarum 
mens." I do not understand why Aucher renders, " alieni- 
genae vocitati." 

» Heb. PHiHim " Philistines " is usu. rendered dXXo^vXoi 
in the lxx. 

^ irpoKOTTijs : OL " prosperitatis." 

* rds €vpvx<opias : OL " opportunitatis " : Aucher " am- 
plitudines (vel, liberos transitus) ". 

'■ OL " pro promptis gressibus." 

"* yqivcov ijndvfitcjv. 

" al Trepl rr/v KOtXiav TjSovaL " o vouj. 

" Arm. lit.= " being weighed down by these, the mind 
becomes a burden." « dXoyos koI d^i,X6ao(f>os. 

478 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

192. (Gen. xxvi. 16) Why does Abiinelech say to Isaac, 
" Go, depart from us because thou hast become much " 
more powerful than we " * ? 

Cruel and envious and at the same time reprehensible 
and, moreover, blind is the wicked man.*^ He did not think 
it enough to banish the trained ^ and wise reason,* in word 
from the city but in reality ^ from his soul," but also with 
cause shows his jealousy and envy.'' For he says, " Thou 
hast become more powerful than we," whereas he ought 
to have ended * his weakness and to have congratulated 
(the other) on the opportune good fortune which he enjoyed 
and on the power of his abundance of possessions.^ For 
some things were within the body, and some were outside 
the body, but to him who philosophizes * further there 
should be one food ' for all."* 



*193. (Gen. xxvi. 18) " Why does he again dig the ob- 
structed wells ^ " 

" OL omits " much." 

^ LXX "AneXde d<f>* ly/Licov otl Swarcorepos ly/icDv iydvov a<f)68pa, 

" OL " pessimum invidiae virus et vituperabile, ita pravus 
utpote caecus." 

** Arm. varz= €fjLTr€ipos and daicrjT'qs. The latter word is 
usu. applied to Jacob. 

* Kal Tov cro(f)6v Xoyov. OL translates the whole phrase 
(after " banish "), " virum prudentem." 

^ Xoyu) jjLiv . . . ovTcos 8e. " dno ttjs 'pvx'fjS' 

^ OL " cum clausula {l. " causa ") livoris ingestae." 
'■ Variant " shown " : OL " optando " (l. " ostendendo " ?). 
'" OL renders unintelligibly, " utpote infirmitatem optando 
his qui diriguntur, cum possit congratulari melioribus." 

* Tco <j>i\oao^ovvTu ^ Lit. " grain " — alros. 

'" OL " et in utrisque proficere, maxime philosophiae 
titulis, quorum omnes unanimes esse oportuerat." 

" A different interpretation of this verse (among others) 
is given in De Fuga 200. The preceding verse, Gen. xxvi. 17, 
omitted by Philo, tells us that Isaac settled in the valley of 
Gerar. 

<' Philo abbreviates the text of the lxx koX irdXiv *laadK 
u>pv^€v rd <j>p4ara rod vharos d wpv^av ol natSes *Aj8paa/x, tov 

479 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

In the literal sense ** because the wise man is by nature 
humane and benevolent and forgiving ^ and does not bear 
a grudge to anyone at all but in overcoming his enemies 
thinks " it right to do them good rather than harm.** That 
is the literal meaning/ But as for the deeper meaning/ 
it is the task of the contemplative man/ even though for 
a short while the mind ^ may be obstructed ' when it is 
bogged down by useless and irrelevant distractions ^ as 
if by the mud and slime of earth, to get rid of these and 
become light ^ in order to be able to look upward again ^ 
and be unhindered and unimpeded in seeing the first rays 
of the light of wisdom."* 

TTarpos avTOv koL iv€(f>pa^av aura ol OuAicmet/i fxera to drrodavelv 
*Aj3paa/x Tov Trarepa avTov. The rest of the verse is cited in the 
following section. 

" TO) fJ,€V prjTip. 

* So the Greek fragments from Cat. Burney and Cat. Lips., 
OTi <f)va€L (f>tXa.v6pa}7TOS 6 aGTetos koI ev/jLCvrjs Kal avyyvcopicov : 
the parallel fragment from Procopius reads tivcs 84 ^amv 
d)S . . . TraAiv wpv^ev 'Icraa/c cos vdaLV wv evfievqs- 

" Reading hamare (3 sing.) for hamarel (inf.). 

^ So Cat. Burney and Cat. Lips., dAAa vindv rovs €x9povs 
d^iwv iv Tw TTOietv ev fxdXXov ■^ ^XdnreLv : Procopius /cat irpos 
TO) iiri fivrjcnKaKCLV iv tu> evepyerrjaai ajrovSa^wv viKav ttjv 
€K€iv(ov KUKLav. Thc Grcck fragments end here. 

* TO prjTov. Aucher omits this sentence, perhaps because 
it is missing in OL. 

^ TO npos Bidvoiav. 

^ TOV <f)iXod€dnovos : OL " (mens) deo dedita," reading 

<f>lXod€OV. 

^ 6 vovs- 

* Adopting Aucher 's emendation oi xousescin " may with- 
draw. " to xeescin "may be obstructed." OL has " de- 
cipiatur," possibly reading dnaTdTai for eVt^/jctTTeTat vd sim. 

' Aucher renders more freely, " occupationibus ingentibus 
immensisque " : OL " supradictis quibusdam molestiarum 
ponderibus . . . inquietantibus et occupantibus." 

* OL " revelare " (/. " relevari "). 

' OL (omitting the words " to look upward ") " interim " 
(/. " iterum "). 

*" ao<f>ias. 
480 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

*194. (Gen. xxvi. 18) Why does he give the wells the 
same names as those which his father " gave ? ^ 

The literal meaning " shows (Isaac's) piety toward his 
father and honourably commends his industry in working.** 
For this reason he himself was zealous in again purifying 
and cleaning out and digging the wells in order that he 
might not always incur the envy of the inhabitants of the 
region.' Accordingly, it was consistent ^ that he who 
submitted " to the work should similarly abstain also from 
names.'' That is one (interpretation). But a second must 
be given, (namely) that the wise man is an enemy of self- 
love,* since he loves justice and truth,^ which are worthy 
of love. These two he clearly showed in youth * ; (he 
showed) justice since he removed nothing else. Although 
it had been deliberately perverted,' he himself with re- 
peated labour found (it)."* (He showed) truthfulness by 

" OL " praeter " {I. " pater "). 

^ LXX Kal €TTOJv6fiaa€v avrots ovofiara Kara ra ovo^ara a wvo- 
jxaaev 'A/Spaa/u, o TrarTjp avrov. 

'^ TO prfTOV. 

<* Text somewhat uncertain. Aucher renders, " et honorem 
adhibet opere suo labori ejus " : OL " honorem sibi referens 
per {marg. " simul pro ") operis industria." 

* The brief frag, from Procopius (which contains only this 
clause) reads defectively /xt) avyxojpojv {I. eyxcopiiov?) elaaTrav 
Tw <f)96vq) viKdv : OL " ne omnino praevaleat invidia in terram 
eorum." 

' oLKoXovdov vel sim. 

" OL reads more appropriately " procedentem." 
^ OL " etiam nomina confirmare." Aucher, rendering 
literally as I have done, suggests an alternative rendering in 
a footnote, " similiter abstineret se a novis nominibus." 

* o ao(f>6s (or dcrreios) rjj (f>iXavria ixdpos iart. 
^ SiKaioavvrjv Koi dXrjdeiav. 

*^ OL " quas vitrasque sectatur amator integritatis." 
' Apparently justice is referred to : OL " licet diu obolita": 
Aucher amplifies, " etsi consult© erat depravatum (opus patris 
ab aliis)." 

"* Cf. OL " potuit in venire." Aucher, taking " his father's 
work " as the implied object, renders, " refecit." 

SUPPL. I R 481 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

making acknowledgment " to him who first began the 
work, and (by indicating) the constructor by the giving 
of names.'' This reveals a very precise mind/ For those 
who give names are undeniably wise men ^ since they give 
(names) significative of things,* in which as in a mirror 
their properties ' and also their figures appear very clearly." 
And so, repeating former (statements) I say that since his 
learned ^ father had named (the wells), he himself was con- 
tent with the names given originally, for he knew that if 
he should change the names, he would change the things 
at the same time. Similar is the case of geometrical figures,* 
for each of them has its own appellation,^ and if anyone 
changes this, he changes the nature of the object.* 

195. (Gen. xxvi. 19) Why was the well in the valley of 
Gerar } ^ 

** ofioXoyaiv. 

*• i.e. by giving the wells the same names as those first 
given by his father. Aucher renders slightly differently, 
" prout per nominum impositionem denotans fabricationem 
ipsam." OL renders freely, " veritatem vero in omnibus 
imitando et paternam operum constitutionem nominumque 
firmitatem." 

* The Arm. seems to reflect SrjXot vovv aKpL^eararov (or 
Siavoiav dKpL^eaTdTTjv). Aucher, construing differently, 
renders, " id probat et mens egregia " : OL " quibus etiam 
mens cautior nuntiatur." 

** Cf. Leg. All. ii. 15 ol nap' 'EAAtjcti <f>iXo(TO(f>ovvT€s elTrov ctvai 
ao(f)OVS Tovs irpioTovs rocs Trpdyfiaai rd ovofxaTa devras. 

* Sr/AajTiKa Trpayfjidrajv. 
^ iSiOTrjTeS' 

" OL " tamquam de speculo declarantes suarum formarum 
conditiones." 

^ Or " eloquent " : Aucher " eruditissimus." 

* rd Kara yeiofxerpiav ax'J^fJi'O.ra. 
^ rrjv IBiav kXtjoiv. 

'^ rrjv rod vTroKeifievov <f>vaiv : OL " mutatur sensus na- 
tura." 

' Cf. LXX a>pv^av 8e ol TraiSe? 'laaaKr ev rfj <f>dpayyi Tspdpwv. 
Heb. omits " of Gerar," 

482 



GENESIS. BOOK IV 

" Gerar " is to be interpreted as " sojourn." " But this 
is symbolical ^ and has a twofold content/ For he who 
dwells in sojourn either yields ^ to those among whom 
he dwells in sojourn or else is alienated.* Now yielding ^ is 
(signified by) the obstructing of the wells, which foreigners 
accomplish (by changing) the names of virtuous souls." 
But the digging and cleansing and purifying are an aliena- 
tion, for the soul is thereby drawn away from that to which 
it is accustomed toward the depth of the discipline of know- 
ledge '' and toward difficult labours, by which they • are 
again found. Therefore the valley is like a sojourn,^ for 
he who yields in accordance with the lures of custom is 
out of place ^ and continually goes about in a low-lying 
(place) and in a valley-site. But he who is raised above 
them ascends and is removed to the greatness of virtue.^ 
And then, when he represents to himself"* the number 
four," of which he is in search and is desirous, he leaves 

" napoLKia : OL " incolatus." In QG iv. 59 Philo explains 
Gerar as " the region of God-loving thoughts " ; in QG iv. 185 
lie etymologizes it as <f)payii6s, see below. 

^ avfjL^oXiKov. " Xoyov. 

■* Prob. avyxcopel : Aucher " acceptat res " : OL " con- 
sentit." * (XTraAAoTptouTai : OL " alienatur." 

^ Prob. atr/xcoprjaLS- 

" The Arm. clause is syntactically incomplete. Aucher 
amplifies similarly in rendering, " quam fecerunt alienigenae, 
deturbantes proborum animorum nomina." Quite unin- 
telligible is OL " pares boni pectoris." 

'^ els TO pddos TO TTJs emcrrrjpi.'qs -naiheias : OL " in altitudinem 
disciplinarum ministrare." 

' i.e. discipline and knowledge. 

^ OL " maceries incolato comparatur," apparently reading 
4>payp.6s in place of <f>dpayi^ but see QG iv. 185. 

* Or " is a fugitive " : Aucher " aufugit." 

^ dperrjs. OL renders the clause, " demigrare autem 
cupiens, erigitur ad titulos virtutis." 

"* (^avTaaiovrai. 

" This reference to the number four seems to anticipate 
the commentary on Gen. xxvi. 19b-35, which has been pre- 
served only in the OL version ; see the first note on QG iv. 1 96. 

483 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

behind the valley with the three wells," and departs to 
proceed farther. One (he leaves) because it is an ambush 
and a snare and ambiguity.'' And the others (he leaves) 
because they contain advances *= and vilenesses ** and 
troubles, and not a nature that is untroubled and free of 
danger and free of misery.* 

196. (Gen. xxvii. 1) ^ What is the meaning of the words, 
" After Isaac became old, his eyes became weak " in 
seeing " '' ? 

Those who give a literal explanation * say that because 
of a dispensation ^ the prophet failed in sight, and after- 
wards was again established and became keen of sight. 

" These the lxx, translating the Heb. names 'Eseq, Sitndh 
and R^hoboth, calls 'ASt/«'a, 'Ex^pta and 'Evpyxiopia. 

^ OL renders more briefly, " separatus ab insidia et 
ambiguitate." 

* Arm. yarajatout'iun usu. = irpoKOTr-q. Possibly the 
original here was kottovs. Aucher renders, " augmentum 
(rixae)." 

^ cvreXetas. 

« OL renders the last clause somewhat differently, " revera 
enim offendebat erumnis detentus miserrimis, titulo infati- 
gatae et minus laboriosae libertatis." 

f Our Arm. text of QG, Book IV, does not contain Philo's 
comments on the rest of chap, xxvi of Gen. (vss. 19b-35), 
but OL has eleven quaestiones et solutiones following § 195. 
These contain genuine Philonic interpretations mixed with 
later ones. Moreover, Procopius and the Greek Catenae have 
preserved a few bits of the missing sections. For the OL 
version of these eleven sections (hereafter designated as QG 
iv. 195a, 195b, etc.) see Appendix B. 

" Arm. vatanam usu.= okv^Zv or dpyelv. 

^ LXX iyevcro Be fiera to yrjpdaai 'laadx: Kol rip.fiXvvdT]aav ol 
6(f)9aXfj,oi avTOV tov opdv. 

* Or " account " ; Arm. patmoutHun has both meanings. 
Aucher renders, " qui literalem historiam prosequuntur " : 
OL " ad videndum oratoriam partem examinantes." 

' hia xopr^ytav or olKovofiiav : Aucher " propter dispen- 
sationem aliquam " : OL " pro quadam utilitate." 

484, 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

But the dispensation was a blessing," that not a wicked 
man but one deserving of blessings might obtain it.** To 
me they seem to give a plausible explanation." Not in 
this, however, does the beauty of Scripture lie but in the 
natural meaning,'* which those who allegorize * are accus- 
tomed to determine/ Now it is written appropriately,^ 
not (merely) that his eyes became dim but that (they be- 
came dim) " after he became old." And (this is) very 
natural. For in old age the eyes fail since the whole body 
(fails) altogether. After he becomes old, that is, when he 
changes and is transformed,'' then at last the soul,' being 
invested with the senses,^ begins to see God obscurely '^ 
and to become keener of sight toward intelligible things,' 
if, indeed, one may properly"* say this." For he who is 
seized (by this vision) and is prepared for prophesying, 

" evXoyia, 

** OL " et contigit utiliter ne benedictionis indignus 
accipiat." 

" OL " siquidem verisimili ratione disserunt." 

^ ev TTj <f>vaLKfj vTTovoia, i.e. in the Stoic sense of philo- 
sophical allegory. 

* OL dXXr]yopovvT€S. 

^ Aucher, construing differently, renders, " non tamen in 
hoc stat pulchritude textus sed sententiam naturale inquirere 
mos est apud eos qui allegoria utuntur " : OL " non tamen 
hac usque scripturae decus definitur sed altioribus titulis 
allegoriam cautius extendi." 

^ TTpeTTovTcos : OL " congrue." 

^ The exact difference in meaning between the two Arm. 
verbs used here is not clear. Aucher renders, " niutabit et 
commutabitur " : OL " cum decidendo mutaverit." 

' The Arm. lit. = ivSvofxev-q ras alad-qaeis, but see the next 
note. 

^ dfivSpcos. Aucher, construing differently, renders the 
clause, " tunc demum incipiet anima Deum induens per 
sensus subobscure videre " : OL " tunc enim Dei feratur 
anima sensibili obscure cernendo." 

' Trpos TO. voTjrd. "* Kvpiws. 

" Aucher renders freely, " hoc sane dixeris verum visum." 

485 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

no longer uses his own judgment " but that of God, echoing * 
the things spoken by Him/ And the prophet becomes an 
instrument/ while God (is) the artist/ The sound, more- 
over, comes when the plectrum, His Logos,^ melodiously 
and skilfully strikes a harmony, through which legislation 
is made known/ 

197. (Gen. xxvii. 1-3) Why does (Isaac) say to his elder 
son, " Take thy gear, thy quiver and thy bow " '^ ? 

Since the literal meaning * is known, (the passage) is 
to be allegorized ^ as follows. It indicates * that the 
wicked man does not think of anything peaceful but de- 
lights in battle and is prepared and equipped with war- 
gear.' And he is by nature rash and bold, and at the same 
time is by nature timid and cowardly."* For fear and rash- 
ness " are bound together in the same place as brothers 
and kin." For this reason he does not use the arms of 

" ra> iavTov Xoyiafiw. * rjxcov. 

" OL " divino spiritu subsona praesagit." 

^ Though Arm. anot' usu. = oKeCos, the original here was 
undoubtedly opyavov, cf. OL " pro organo " and Quis Rer. 
Div. Heres 259 <d ao(f)6s> fiovos opyavov deov icrnv rjxelov, 
KpovfJL€VOV /cat TrXrjTTOfjLevov aopdrws vrr' avrov, 

* o rex^'ir-qs : OL " Deus autem propheta." 
■^ TO irXrJKTpov, 6 Xoyos avrov. 

^ TO. vonoderrjOevra SrjXovTat. 

^ Philo shortens the lxx text of Gen. xxvii. lb-3a koI 
eKaXeaev 'Haau tov vlov avTov tov Trpca^vrepov Kal el-nev avrw, TiV 
liov. KoX eiTTCV avTco, 'ISou €y(x). Kal etTrev, 'ISou yeyqpaKa, Kal 
ov yivwaKO) rrjv "qyiepav rffs TeXexnrjs fiov. vvv ovv AajSe to 
GKevos, rrjv re ^aperpav koX ro ro^ov. 

* TO pTjrov. 

^ dXXrjyoprjreov. 

^ alvirrerat. 

^ OL " gaudere praelio et paratura belli." 

"* OL reads more briefly " natura quidem audacem et plus 
timidum." 

" (f)6pos Kal TTpovereLa (vel sim.). 

" OL " uno enim loco versatur contumatia et timiditas ut 
sorores." 

486 






GENESIS, BOOK IV 

those " who in the thick (of battle) contend with their arms 
locked together and become one mass, in which their re- 
nown and prowess become evident, but (he lights) always 
by shooting from far away and from a great distance. For 
archery is a contest proper to the cowardly and unmanly, 
who cannot endure to remain and stand their ground but 
flee and fight ^ from a distance/ 



*198. (Gen. xxvii. 3-4) What is the meaning of the 
words, " Hunt for me game and prepare for me food ■* as 
1 like it, and bring it to me that I may eat, in order that 
my soul may bless thee before I die " ^ ? 

The literal text,^ it seems to me, indicates the following 
thought.* Though there are two sons, one good and the 
other blameworthy,'' he says that he will bless the one 
who is blameworthy,* not because he honours^ him more 
than the virtuous one ^ but because he knows that the 
latter is able by himself to set right and complete his 
aflfairs, while the former is held fast and restrained by his 

"■ Emending Arm. aynosik (loc. pi. of dem. pron.) to 
aynocik (gen. pi.). Aucher, retaining the latter, renders, 
" in eos." * ajxvvovTai,. 

" OL renders the last two sentences more briefly and 
freely, " cujus causa non utitur armis aptis constantiae virtuti 
sed sagittis pro inertia timiditatis : uno enim certamine 
devitantes longiter ulciscere machinantur." 

'^ OL " epulas," see following note. 

* Lxx (/cat e^eXde els to ttcBiov) Kal d-qpevaov fioi drjpav. /cat 
TToLrjaov jjLOL e'SeCT/iara (Heb. " delicacies " : A.V. " savoury 
meat ") ojs <f>iXco eyco, /cat eveyKOv fjLOi tva (f>dyio' ottcos evXoyqar] 
ae Tj ifjvx"^ jJiov npo tov aTTodavelv fxov. 

^ TO p-qrov. " alviTT€Tai, ToiavTrjv 8idvoiav. 

^ OL " noxio," see following note. 

'■ So the Greek fragments from the Catenae, Svolv ovrcov 
vl6)v, Toi) fxev dyadov, tov Se imaiTLOv, tov fiev vttcutiov evXoyqaeiv 
(f>r]aiv. 

^ The Arm. uses two verbs with the same meaning. 

* So the Greek fragments, ovk ineiBri tov airovhaiov TrpoKpivei 
TovTov : OL more briefly " non anteponendo aiterius." 

487 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

own character,*' and has hope of salvation only in the 
prayers " of his father." And if he did not obtain this, he 
would be the most wretched of men/ But as for the deeper 
meaning,* this may properly be said. He admonishes 
him ^ in the first place not to hunt a brute animal " but 
those which are wild beasts by habit,'' in accordance with 
which he desires irrational and savage passions,' so that 
he may avenge himself upon an untamed beast that is not 
domesticated, and kill it.^ In the second place, when he 
becomes capable of this or shall repel (these vices ?), it is 
not that he himself likes it but his father.* And all foods 
are altogether good for the virtuous man through in- 
telligible things and virtuous words and deeds.' And so, 
he says, if it will be that thou wilt hunt the disposition "• 

« The Catenae read only slightly diiferently dAA' on 
€K€tvov olBe 8(.' avTov KOTopOovv Swafxevov, tovtov Se rots' ISiois 
rpoTTois dXiaKOfievov : Procopius, omitting the last clause, has 
aAA' elBws COS eKclvos /ticv €K ruiv oiKeicov Tponcov e^et ttjv evfieveiav, 
cf. OL " sed qui novit ilium etiam per semet benedictionis 
dignum : pravum vero suis moribus prohibendum." 

^ OL " oracula." 

" So the Catenae, fnjSefJLiav 8e exovra acoTTjplas iXTrlSa, el firj 
ras evxas rod narpos : the Procopius frag, (which ends here) 
has o^TOS 8e fxiav Ixet acoTripias eXTrlba rag eu^a? rod irarpos. 

^ So the Catenae fragments (which end here), c5v d ^rj 
rvxot, iravTOiv av etr] KaKoSaifiovearaTos. 

" TO trpos hiavoiav. ^ i.e. Isaac admonishes Esau. 

" t^wov dXoyov : OL " animalia." ^ d e^et, elol drjpia. 

* Kad^ a dXoyojv kol dypicjv vaOaiv opeyerai : OL has more 
briefly " pessima et ferocissima vitia." 

^ OL " uti more immanissimi animalis ulciscatur illas {I. 
" ilia " ?) et perimat." 

*^ The Arm. is obscure, though obviously meant to explain 
Isaac's words " prepare for me food as I like it." Aucher 
renders, " secundo, quod quando ejus compos fit aut erit, 
non ut sibi placitum faciat sed sicut patri " : OL " secundo, 
ut praevalA-e possit, non ut ei mos est sed ut patrem libet." 

^ 8ia vorjTCLiv koX Adycov kol epycov airovBaicov : OL " per 
intellectus et sermones et strenuas operas." 

"* Siddeaiv. 

4.88 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

of eager," unrestrained and savage passions,'' and wilt 
sweeten this for me as food that is sweet, pleasant and 
likable, and wilt bring it and offer it with thy progress," 
there will pray for thee not the wise man with me ^ but 
the sovereign soul in me/ 

199. (Gen. xxvii. 6) ^ Why does Rebekah, on hearing 
this, say to Jacob, her son, " Behold, I heard thy father 
saying to Esau thy brother " ^ ? 

Well and carefully does (Scripture) call Jacob " her son " 
and Esau " the brother of Jacob " but does not call him 
" the son " of anyone.'* For (Jacob) was adorned with 
orderliness and a system of decency * in the manner of 
Constancy,' whose offspring he is described (as being).* 

" Lit. " open-mouthed." 

^ OL reads differently " si ergo coeperit pessimorum 
vitiorum voraginem." 

'^ TTpoKOTTals : OL " demonstrando istam tuam operam." 

"• The Arm. lit. = 6 ao<f>6s avOpoiiros Kar' ifie : Aucher 
" sapiens homo mihi similis " : OL " compositus ego homo." 

* Tj €v ifjioi -qyefioviKT] i/fvxv * OL " quod est in me augustis- 
sima sobrietas animae." Philo frequently speaks of the 
sovereign part of the soul, i.e. the mind (vovs), rarely of " the 
sovereign soul," as, e.g,^ in De Spec. Leg. i. 258. 

^ Philo does not comment on G6n. xxvii. 5 which tells us 
that Rebekah heard Isaac speaking to Esau, and that Esau 
went out to hunt game for his father. 

^ LXX 'PcjSe/fKa 8e etTrev irpos 'la/ccL/S tov viov avTTJs rov 
iXdaaoj {v.l. tov veompov : Heb., like Philo, has only " her 
son "), "ISe {v.l. 'I8oy) iyoi TJKovaa tov iraTpos oov XoXovvtos Trpos 
'Haau TOV dSeA^ov aov Xeyovros — (vs. 7 repeats vs. 4). 

'* OL reads defectively " bene et observantissime hunc 
quidem Jacob, filium autem suum minime." 

* Tct^ct Koi avoT-qfiaTL {vel sim.) evKoafiias. Aucher renders 
more freely, " moderatione probitateque morum." 

' 8iafxov^ or v-rrofiovq, symbolized by Rebekah, see QG iv. 
97, 188 et at. 

* OL is corrupt, " constantissimi enim et ornatissimi mores 
perseverantiae ne post merito vacatur " (/. " nepos merito 
vocatur "). 

489 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

But the other (being an example) of profligacy and in- 
decency,'' is no longer (called " her son "), for orderliness 
belongs to peace. ** And they are brothers (only) as the 
odd and the even (are brothers), and similarly the ordered 
and the disordered." And even though ^ they are brothers, 
it is possible for them to be opposites and contraries.* 

, *200. (Gen. xxvii. 8-10) What is the meaning of the 
words, " And now, my son, listen to me and go to the flock, 
(and) fetch me from there two kids of the flock, tender and 
good,^ and I will make " this food for thy father, as he 
likes, and after eating, he will bless thee before he dies "''.'' 
The greatness of his body and the healthiness of the 
stomach in it are clear from the preparation of the food.* 
For the ofi'ering of the fat kids shows a huge and immense 
body with mighty power, which surpasses all medical 
power.' For if as an old man he succeeded in eating two 

" dacoTias koI aKoofiias : Aucher " immodestiae et impro- 
bitatis " : OL " procax vero et iners." 

* OL adds " hujus vero non ita." 

" Aucher " modestus et immodestus." 
'^ Aucher " quia." 

* OL shortens the last two sentences, " quamvis enim con- 
stantissimi et temerarii fratres sint, attamen possunt sibi esse 
contrarii." 

^ OL " molles Aegyptios " {marg. " et optimos "), see note h. 

^ OL " fac cito," see note h. 

^ LXX Nuv ovv, vU, o-Kovaov fiov Kada iycj ivreXXofxai aor Koi 
TTopevdels els ra Trpo^ara ActjSe /xoi eKeWev 8vo ipi^ovs aTraXovs koX 
KaXovs (Heb. " two good kids of the goats "), Krai noiriacx) 
avTovs eSea/Liara (Heb. " delicacies " : A.V. " savoury meat ") 
Toi TTarpL aov cos ^lAei* /cat elaoicreis to) TTorpi aov koi ^ayerai 
6iT(x)S €vXoyT]ar] a€ 6 Trarrjp aov Trpo tov aTTodaveZv avrov. 

* Slightly diff'erent is the wording of a Greek frag, (in 
Cat. Lips., from Procopius) evrevOev ian fxaOelv to tov aa>- 
fxaros fieyedos Kal tt}v €k KaTaaKevijs (f>vaiK'f)v eve^iav : OL 
" vastitas corporis et insita robustis certa est ex praeparatione 
epularum." 

* OL "quae omnem palestricosibilitatem (!) superat." 
This sentence is missing from the Greek frag. 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

kids, how much more when he was young ! * (This he did) 
not through insatiableness, for he was continent as no one 
else has ever been found (to be), but because of his wonder- 
ful structure.^ For it was fitting that he who was so great 
in virtue "^ and the founder ^ of so great a nation should 
have * a formidable and wonderful greatness of body. But 
this they say in passing,^ and it is said by the way.' More 
clearly,'' however, must the following be said. The wishes 
and characters of the parents * do not fight and contend 
with one another, as some are accustomed,^ but without 
division and separation the couple (are) in harmony ,*= for 
they are eager to reach one end ^ although they are moti- 
vated by different thoughts."* For the one (parent) " wishes 
him who is good " to attain that of which he is deserving," 

* So OL : the Greek frag, reads slightly differently o yap 
€v yrjpa hvo ttiooiv €pi<f>ois K€XpT]fJL€vos TTpoeiprjfiaat, tIs av VTrrjpx^v 
iv Tjj veoTTjTi ; 

•* So OL : the Greek frag, (which ends here) reads more 
briefly koX raura <x)v iyKparris Kal ovk dnXriaTos. 
" dperats. '^ yevdpxqv. 

'■ OL " habitare " {I. " habere " ?). 
^ eV 7Tap€K^da€i. 
" Trapepycos. 
^ OL " praecipue." 

* i.e. Rebekah and Isaac. 

' The Arm. translator seems to have taken vofxiaavras 
(here =" believing ") to mean "accustomed." The second 
Greek frag, from Procopius (which begins here) reads ov 8ia- 
fiaxovrai 8e Kara tovs ovtcd voaiaavras rcov yovewv at yvcD/xat. 
OL reads somewhat differently " sententiae solertissimorum 
non dimicantur inter se, ut quidam putaverunt." 

* This clause is missing in the Greek frag. 

' The Greek frag, reads similarly npos Iv 8e reXos iirdyovrai'. 
OL " ad unum enim terminum festinat " (/. " festinant "). 

"* ha<f)6pois XoyiGfiols : OL " uno consilio freti." The 
clause is missing in the Greek frag. 

" i.e. Rebekah. " i.e. Jacob. 

^ So the Greek frag., ttjs fi€v ^ovXoixevris t6v dyadov rvxelv 
wv a^io? •jjv : OL " ideo desiderat mater sibi similem digna 
nanciscere." 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

but the other (says)," " I do not hold thee in dishonour 
who art born of her,* but on (thy) justified helplessness 
I have mercy," that I may set thee right and correct thee ** 
so far as is possible." * That is the literal meaning/ But 
as for the deeper meaning," the soul that practises virtue '' 
has a certain disposition of constancy,* which is called 
Rebekah ' ; and it has a certain asceticism,* which has 
the name of Jacob. ^ Accordingly, Constancy says to the 
ascetic, as if in an assembly of psychic traits,"* " Go to the 
flock," that is, to the familiar, pure and well-formed 
(virtues) " which adorn progress,* " and fetch me from 

•* i.e. Isaac to Esau. 

'' Or "of me," the pronoun being ambiguous in Arm. : 
Aucher " ex ilia {vel, ex me) " : OL " ex eomet." The clause 
is missing in the Greek frag. 

" dnoplas SiKaias iXccH vel sim. but the construction is un- 
certain. Aucher renders, " haesitationis justae misereor " ; 
so the Greek frag, and OL, see note e. 

<* The Arm. synonyms prob. both render eTravopdcoaaadai, 
as in the Greek frag., see next note. 

« The Greek frag, (which ends here) reads tov St tov 
OKaiov, TTjv OLTTopLav iTTOvopdoiaaadai tu> eXetp tu> els avrov : OL 
" pater vero non vult dehonestari ex eomet natum, egestatem 
pessimi moris per misericordiam emendando." 

^ TO prjTOv. " TO Trpos Sidvoiav 

^ Tj dperojaa tpvx'q : OL " anima cultrix pietatis." 

* Biddeaiv rivd v-nopiovrjs : OL " quendam perseverantiae 
affectum." 

'■ On Rebekah as a symbol of constancy see QG iv. 97, 
199 et al. 

^ daKTjTLKov Ti, in the sense of athletic training : OL " habet 
palestricum suum quomodo natura." 

^ There are many references in Philo to Jacob as the 
doKyfT-qS' 

"* u)aei iv €KK\rjaia tfivxt-Kcov rponajv vel sim. : OL " ut pote 
ergo in concilio animae morum suadet perseverantiam (/. 
" perseverantia ") palestrico." 

" OL " ad lenes et puras auras " (possibly reading rd 
evfiop(f>a as TTvevfiara ?). 

" rds irpoKoirds : OL reads curiously " quibus censura 
laudabilis sua capit augmenta." 



GENESIS, BOOK IV 

there two utterances," " which are called kids,^ one of them 
being the desire for piety,*' the other for humanity** in 
form,* " in order that I may show them as pleasant and 
desirable to thy lovable and thoughtful father,^ and that, 
being nourished by them, he may make thee similar to (his) 
good counsel." " 



201. (Gen. xxvii. 11-12) " Why does Jacob reply, " Be- 
hold, Esau my brother is a hairy man, and I am smooth. 
Perhaps my father will feel me, and I shall be before him 
as a deceiver » " ^' ? 

The conj ectured meaning * is right and plausible. '■ But as 
for the deeper meaning,*" it has a very natural explanation." 

" Aucher " oracula " : OL " electos." What the original 
Greek word was is not easy to conjecture. 
^ OL " hordos " (/. " haedos "). 

** (fnXavdpcaTTLas. 

* The syntax and meaning of the Arm. word (usu. = iioptfi-q) 
are not clear. OL connects it with the following sentence, 
rendering it, " secundum figuram." 

f OL " hos ego etiam patri tuo, qui est clementissimi 
pectoris, titulos libentissimos pronunciabo." 

" OL " quibus refectus, te sibi similem faciat destinatione 
benedictionis " (apparently reading ev^ovXia as euAoyia). 

^ Vs. 11 is briefly commented on in Leg. All. ii. 59. 

* OL " contemptor " (see lxx, next note). 

' LXX eiTTCv Se Ta/ca>j3 Trpos 'Pe^eKKav rrjv inqripa avrov, 
'EoTcv 'Haau o d8eX(f>6s /aou dvrjp Saavs, iyo) Se dvrjp Xeios. 
lirjTTOTe iljT)Xa<^rjar} [xe 6 Trar'qp fiov, Koi eaofiai evavrLov avrov cos 
Karacftpovcov (Heb. " as a mocker " : A.V. " as a deceiver "). 

^ Lit. " the conjecture (aroxaafxos) of meaning " (or " sus- 
picion ") : Aucher " conjectura suspicionis (litteralis) " : 
OL " conjectura lectionis." In any case, the literal meaning, 
TO prfTov, seems to be meant. 

' OL " rationabilis simul ac verisimilis." 

^ TO TTpos bidvoiav. 

" diToSoai.s <f>vaLK<oTdTr} ris iari, in the Stoic sense of 
" natural "= philosophical-allegorical. 

493 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

For if continence and restraint," as in a theatre,* wear 
a covering and garment '' (of) unrestraint and lecherous- 
ness, and wish to trick and deceive and to disregard and 
despise the truth,** the protector and helper « is accustomed, 
like a good physician, to feel and examine their most proper 
and genuine parts,^ through which one becomes well or ill, 
and thus (the situation) is grasped and comes to be known," 
But everything is directly, accurately and truly made 
known by its correct name.'' For the hairy one is the un- 
restrained, lecherous, impure and unholy man, (who feeds) 
on uncultivated herbs and things of the field, which is the 
orbit and resort of untamed and undomesticated beasts.' 
But the smooth one is the restrained and continent friend 
of frugality.^ Now the father who feels (with his hands) 
is he who does not leave any part of the soul ^ unexamined 
and unfelt but to those who are worthy makes it all alto- 
gether known in an accurate and careful way.' And, he 

" Aucher's rendering, " religiosa abstinentia," may be 
defended on the ground that the first of the two Arm. nouns 
used here= both Qp-qoK^ia and lyKpdreta : OL has only " con- 
tinentia." * to? eV OeaTpco. " aKerraafia Kai TT€pL^Xr)ixa